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Chapter 1

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जीवमजीवं दव्वं जिणवरसहेण जेण णिद्दिट्ठं।

देविंदविंदवंदं वंदे तं सव्वदा सिरसा।।1।।

Jivamajivam Davvam jinavaravasahena jena niddittham.
Devinda-vinda vandam vande tam savvada sirasa- (1)

Padapatha जेण Jena, by whom जिणवरवसहेण Jinavaravasahena, the greatest of the great Jinas. जीवाम-जीवम् Jivamajivam, Jiva and Ajiva दव्व् Davvam the Dravya, णिद्दिट्ठं Niddittham, has been described, देविंद-विंदवंदं- Devindavandam, worshipped by the host of Indras. तं Tam, him. सव्वदा Savvada always. सिरसा Sirasa, with the head. वंदे Vande, Salute.

1. I always salute with my head that eminent one among the great Jinas, who is worshipped by the host of Indras and who has described the Dravyas (substances) Jiva and Ajiva.


The title of this work ‘Dravya-Sangraha’ being interpreted literally means “A compendium of Dravyas”. According to the Jaina philosophy the component factor of the universe is Dravya (substance), which is subdivided into Jiva (living) and Ajiva (non-living) substances. Everything in this universe is either Jiva or Ajiva or a resultant of these. The author of Dravya-Sangraha has fully described Dravya with its classes and sub-classes in verses 1-38 of this work. Jiva, the first variety of Dravya, is defined in worse and a detailed explanation of this definition is given in verses 3-14 Ajiva the second variety of Dravya, is next described with its subdivisions in verses 15-27.

The first verse of this work is nothing but the usual Mangala-charan, in which the author salutes Mahavira, the twenty-fourth Tirthankara of the Jainas; He is called here the Eminent One among the great Jinas. The word Jina literally means “the Victor”. One who has freed himself from the bondage of Karma by conquering Raag (attachment) and Dvesa (Aversion) is called a Jina by the Jainas. In Buddhist scripture the word Jina is often used as a synonym to Buddha. In the lexicon called Amarakosa and in popular Sanskrit literature, the use of the word Jina is to signify Buddha is too common. The Buddhists take the word Jina is to mean one who has conquered Mara. But the word Jina is used in a special sense by the Jainas. The Ganadharas or disciples of the Tirthankaras and the Tirthankars themselves are known as Jinas. Jinendras, Jinesvaras, etc.

Lord Mahavira has been saluted at the beginning of almost all he later works of the Jainas. Here it is said that he is worshipped by the Indras. Indras are Gods who possess special excellent powers परमैश्वर्यांदिन्द व्यपदेश: Tattvartha-raja-vartika by Akalanka Deva. IV (4.1). According to Jaina eschatology there are four kinds of Gods dwelling in four different spheres, known respectively as Bhavana, Vyantara, Jyotisa and Vaimanika. The Vaimanika region is again subdivided into Kalpa and Kalpatita spheres. Indras are a higher order of Gods who dwell in Bhavana, Vyantara and Jyotisa regions and the Kalpa sphere only of the Vaimanika region. There are no Indras in the Kalpatta sphere. Besides these Indras among Gods there are also others among men and among the lower animals.

There is a difference of opinion between the two ‘principal sects of the Jainas as to the number of Indras. “The Svetembaras assert that there are twelve heavens and sixty-four Indras;” but “The Digambaras maintain that there are sixteen heavens and one hundred Olympian monarchs (Indras).” From a verse found in most of the commentaries on Digambara Jaina works, we learn that “there are forty Indras among the Gods who dwell in Bhavana (sphere) thirty-two among the Gods (who live in) Vyantara (sphere) two among the Joytisa or planetary Gods; the sun and the moon, one among men and one among the Tiryakas (i.e., all creatures excluding Gods, men and inmates of hèll).”

Mahavira is said to have been the profounder of all the Jaina Canonical works. The wrong theory that Mahavira is the founder of Jainism and that Jainism is an off shoot of Buddhism , has long ago been exploded, and when we say that there is a tradition that Mahavira spoke to his disciples what has been embodied in the Canonical works of the Jainas, it must be understood that, though the fundamental truths of Jainism were preached long before Mahavira, it was after the Nirvana of this last Tirthankara that the teachings of Jainism were reduced to writing which formed the basis of the Jaina Canonical works now extant.

The word “Jiva” is usually translated as “Soul” “Living being”, “Consciousness”, etc. and Ajiva as “things without life”, non-living substance”, etc., but we shall use the original words throughout the translation. The accurate meanings of these terms will be understood from the verse which follow, and which deal with the distinguishing characteristics, if each of these substances.

GATHA NO. 2 - Nine distinguishing characterstics of "Jeev Dravya"

जीवो उवओगमओ अमुत्ति कत्ता सदेहपरिमाणो ।

भोत्ता संसारत्थो सिद्धो सो विस्ससोड्ढगई ।। २ ।।

Jivo uvaogamao amutti katta sadehaparimano.
Bhotta sansarattho siddho so vissasoddagai – (2)

Padapatha- जीवो Jivo, Jiva. उवओगमओ Uvaogamao, characterized by upayoga. अमुत्ति Amutti, formless. कत्ता Katta, agent सदेहपरिमाणो Sadehaparimano, equal in extent to its own body, भोत्ता Bhotta, enjoyer. संसारत्थो Sansarattho, being in the Samsara. सिद्धो Siddho, Siddha. सो So, he. विस्ससोड्ढगई Vissasoddagai, having a natural upward motion. 2. Jiva is characterized by upyoga, is formless and an agent, has the same extent as its own body is the enjoyer (of the fruits of Karma), exists in samsara is Siddha and has a characteristic upward motion.


In this verse the author lays down the distinguished characteristics of Jiva. The nine characteristics of Jiva mentioned in this verse will be taken up one by one in verse 4—14, and a full explanation of them will be given in the notes to the said verses. Brahmadeva in his Commentary on Dravya-Sangraha has mentioned in connection with this verse that each of these characteristics of Jiva is mentioned in order to differentiate the Jaina conception of ‘Jiva’ from that of sankhya, Nyaya, Mimansa, Charvaka Sadasiva and Buddha Systems of philosophy. His words are as follows:

“जीवसिद्धिः चार्व्वाक प्रति, ज्ञानदर्शनोपयोगलक्षणं नैयायिकं प्रति, अमूर्त्त-जीवस्थापनं भट्टचार्वाकद्व्यं प्रति, कर्म्मकर्तृत्वस्थापनं सांख्यं प्रति, स्वदेह-प्रमिति-स्थापनं नैयायिक-मीमांसक-सांख्य-त्रयं प्रति -व्याख्यानं बौद्धं प्रति-संसारस्थ- व्याख्यानं सदाशिवं प्रति सिद्धत्व- व्याख्यानं भट्ट-चार्व्वाकद्व्यं प्रति ऊर्द़् ध्वगति-स्वभावकथनं माण्डलिक-ग्रंथकारं प्रति इति मतार्थो ज्ञातव्यः

i.e., Jiva is established to (refute) Charvaka, its characteristic of having upayoga consisting of Jnana and Darshan is said to (refute) the followers of Nyaya, that of Jiva being formless to (refute) Bhatta (i.e., those who follow Kumarila Bhatta, the propounder of one branch of Mimamsa philosophy) and Charvaka, that of the agency of Karma to (refute the) Sankhya (view), that of having the same extent of its body is expressed to refute the three, viz., the Nyaya, Mimamsa and Sankhya views, that of the enjoyment of (the fruits of) Karma is said to refute the Buddhistic view, that of being in the Samsara to refute Sadasiva, that of being Siddha to refute Bhatta and Charvaka, that of having an upward motion to refute views of all other writers.”

It should be remembered that, as the Hindu and the Buddhist, philosophers omitted opportunity to refute the views of the Jaina philosophy, so also the Jain philosophers on their part tried to refute the views of their opponents. It is a special feature of nearly every system of Indian philosophy to proceed to maintain its own views after refuting those of other systems. Examples of such refutation by Hindu philosophers may be found in Vedanta Sutra, Chapter I Padas I and II, and Sankhaya Sutra, Chapter V. The refutation of the views of the Hindu systems of philosophy may, on the other hand, be found in numerous Jaina works such as Ratnakaravatarika; Syadavadamanjari, Prameyakamalamartanda, etc., etc. In this verse also Jiva is recognized as against the Charvaka view, which recognizes to proof but pratyaksa which is only derived through the senses. The Nyaya system recognizes the difference between a quality and the processor of a quality (गुणगुणीभेद:), but in this verse, by saying that Jiva consists of the quality upayoga which is made up of Jnana and Darshana, that theory of Nyaya is upset. Similarly by saying that Jiva is the agent of all actions, the Sankhya theory that Purusaha is indifferent (उदासीन), is denied. The other characteristics also deny in this manner the views of Mimansa, Buddhistic and other systems of philosophy. These will be further explained in notes to verses 4-14. But it should be remembered that the author does not directly proceed to refute the views of the other systems of philosophy, for that would be entire impossibly in a compendium like this. What the commentator, therefore, suggest, is that by lying down this definition of Jiva, the author has incidentally denied the opposite views of other systems of philosophy.

For a brief account of the tenets of different systems of philosophy, we refer the reader to Sarvadarsansangraha of Madhavacharya (Ed. by Cowell) in which the account of Jaina philosophy, under the “Arhat Darshan”, is worthy of notice as being written by a non-Jaina author who, though not very enthusiastic about Jainism, tried his best to be impartial. The following verse from Panchastikayasamayasara by Kund-kundacharya, is exactly similar to this verse of Dravya Samgraha:-

जीवोत्ति हवदि चेदा उपओगविसेसिदो पहू कत्ता ।

भोत्ता य देह्मत्तो णहि मुत्तो कम्मसंजुत्तो ।।

i.e., “Jiva is conscious, formless, characterized by upayoga, attached to Karma, the lord the agent, the enjoyer (of the fruits of karma), the pervader of bodies (large or small)”. The only characteristic of Jiva mentioned in Dravya-Samgraha but not found in the above verse, is that of having an upward motion; but this is mentioned in the next verse of Panchastikayasamayasara:- कम्ममल विप्पमुक्को उढ्ढं लोगस्स अंतमधिगंता । i.e., “That which goes upward to the end of Loka, being freed from the impurity of karma”.

GATHA NO. 3 - Identification of "Jeevatva"

तिक्काले चदुपाणा इंदिय बलमाउ आणपाणो य ।

ववहारा सो जीवो णिच्चयणयदो दु चेदणा जस्स ।।३।।

Tikkale chandupana indiya balamau anapanao ya,
Vavahara so jivo nichchayanayado du chedana jassa—(3)

Padapatha. ववहारा Vavahara, according to Vyavahara Naya. तिक्काले Tikkale, is three kinds of time. इंदिय Indiya, Indriya (The senses). बलं Balam, force. आउ Au, Life. आणपाणो Anapanao, respiration. य Ya, also. चदुपाणा Chadupana, the four Pranas. दु Du, but. णिच्चयणयदो Nichchayanayado, according to Nischaya Naya. जस्सा Jassa, whose. चेदणा Chedana, consciousness. सो So, he. जीवो Jivo, Jiva. 3. According to Vyavahara Naya, that is called Jiva, which is possessed of four Pranas. viz., Indriya (the senses), Bal (force), Ayu (life) and Ana-prana (respiration) in the three periods of time (viz., the present, the past and the future), and according to Nischaya Naya that which has consciousness is called Jiva.


Vyavahara and Nischaya Naya is thus distinguished in Dravya-nuyogatarkana of Bhoja:

“तेनेदं भाष्यसंदिष्टं गृहीतव्यं विनिश्चयम्

तत्त्वार्थं निश्चयो वक्ति व्यवहारो जनोदितम् ।।”

i.e., “Therefore, this is to be understood as described in the Bhasya (Visesavasyaka-bhasya, a celebrated Jaina work) that Nischaya narrates the real thing and Vyavahara narrates things in the popular way. “Vyavahara Naya, therefore, is the ordinary or common sense point of view in which we speak every day about the things of this world. But Nischaya Naya is the realistic point of view, which attempts an accurate description of the realities which are over-looked in our everyday parlance. For example, we ordinarily say “a jar of honey;” but to be accurate we must say “a jar of clay or some other substance containing honey.” The characteristics of Jiva will be examined from both these points of view in the following verses.

Here it is said that ordinarily we say that Jiva (Living Substance) possesses the five senses, Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste and Smell, the three forces of thought, word and action, life and respiration. Indriya (the five senses), Bala (the three forces of thought, word and action), Ayu (life) and Anaprana (respiration)—these four are called the four Pranas of Jivas in the past, present and the future. The following verse from Panchastikayasamayasara is parallel to this vrese of Dravya-Samgraha :-

“पाणोहिं चदुहिं जीवदि जीवस्सदि जो हु जीविदो पुव्वं ।

सो जीवो पाणा पुण बलमिंदियमाउ उस्सासो ।।”

i.e., “That is Jiva which lives, will live or has lived formerly by four Pranas. The Pranas are Bala (force), Indriya the (senses), Ayu (life) and Uchchhasa (respiration)”. Thus, from the ordinary point of view (Vyavahara Naya), we regard Jiva to possess a period of life, during which its characteristics are reapiration and the employment of the five senses and the three forces of thought, word and action. But from the realistic point of view, Jiva is distinguished by its own great quality, viz., consciousness,

GATHA NO. 4 - Description of "Upyog"

उवओगो दुवियप्पो दंसण णाणां च दंसणं चदुधा ।

चक्खु अचक्खू ओही दंसणमध केवलं णेयं ।।४।।

Uvaogo duviyappo damsana nanamcha damsanam chadudha,
Chakkhu achakku ohi damsanamadha kevalam neyam –(4)

Padapatha-. उवओगो Uvaogo, Upayoga. दुवियप्पो Duviyappo, of two varieties. दंसणा Damsanam, Darsana. च Cha, and. णाणां Nanam, jnana. दंसणं Damsanam, Darshana. चदुधा Chadudha, of four kinds. णेयं Neyam, is to be known. चक्खु अचक्खू- ओहीदंसणं Chakkhu-achakku ohi-Damsanam, the Darshana like Chaksu, Achaksu and Avadhi. अध Adha, then. केवलं Kevalam, Kevala. दंसणं Damsanam, Darsana. 1.Upayoga is of two kinds, Darshana and Jnana. Darshana is of four kinds. Darshana is known to be (divided into) Chaksu, Achaksu, Avadhi and Kevala.


Verses parallel to these are found in Panchastikayasamayasara, as follows:-

“उवओगो खलु दुविहो णाणेण य दंसणेण संजुत्तो ।

जीवस्स सव्वकालं अणणण भूदं वियाणीहि ।।
दंसणमवि चक्खुजुदं अचक्खुजुदमवि य ओहिणा सहिय ।
अणिधणमणंतविसयं केवलियं चावि i..kraAA**

i.e., “Upayoga is of two kinds, being connected with Jnana and Darshana: known that this Upayoga is at all times inseparable from Jiva. Darshana also is said to be with Chaksu, Achaksu, Avadhi and the endless and eternal Kevala. Upayoga is the resultant of consciousness which, according to Nischaya Naya or realistic point of view is the sole characteristic of Jiva. Roughly, Upayoga may be said to be a sort of inclination which arises from consciousness. This inclination is either towards Darshana or towards Jnana. The difference between Darshana and Jnana consists in this, that in the former the details are not perceived, while in the later the details are also known. “Before we know things in a detailed way, there is the stage where we simply see, hear, or otherwise become conscious of it in a general way; without going into its ins and outs. We simply know it as belonging to a class; we may know it as a horse, for instance, without going into any further details as to its individual characteristics. This is the first stage of knowledge; it may be called detail-less knowledge or indefinite cognition (Darshana). If this stage is not experienced there can be no knowledge of the things.” Cognition of the details consists in Jnana (knowledge).

Darshana is thus understood to be “cognition in an undifferentiated way…. You see a picture, for instance, but you do not go into the details of it; you just know in a general way that it is a picture.” Jiva, according to Jaina philosophy, consists of infinite Jnana and Darshana, but certain classes of Karma tend to obscure these. Darshana is of four kinds, Chaksu, Achaksu, Avadhi and Kevala; so there are also four kinds of Karma which obscure each of these varieties. When there is a cessation or mitigation (क्षेयोपशम) of one or more of these Varieties of Karma the corresponding class or classes of Darshana is or are evolved. Thus, by the removal of these Karmas, which obscure the Darshana which is received through the eye, a Jiva can see through the eyes. This is Chaksu Darshana (Darshana through the eye). Again, by the removal of that Karma which obscures the Darshana through any sense other than the eye, or mind. a Jiva can cognize through the four organs of sense-ear, nose, tongue or skin, and through the mind. This is called Achaksu Darshana (Darshana not through the eye). Similarly, when Karmas obscuring Avadhi Darshana are removed, a Jiva can have Avadhi Darshana (psychic knowledge, limited by space and time and obtained directly by the soul, e.g., clairvoyance). Lastly, by the removal of the Karmsa which obscure Kevala Darshana, a Jiva can have Kevala (or perfect) Darshana (in which everything in the three worlds existent in the present, past and the future is at once cognized).

(Besides the four Varieties of Karmas obscuring Darshana already mentioned, there are also five others mentioned by Umasvami, e.g., Nidra (sleep), Nidranidra (Deep sleep), Prachala (Trance) Prachala prachala (Drowsiness) and styanagriddhi (Somnambulistic state). These, together with the Karmas obscuring Chaksu, Achaksu, Avadhi and Kevala Darshana already mentioned, make up nine Darshanavaraniya Karmas).

GATHA NO. 5 - "Varieties of "Jnana Upyog"

णाणं अट्ठवियप्पं मदिसुदओही अणाणाणाणाणि ।

मणपज्जय केवलमवि पच्च-क्खपरो-क्खभेयं च ।।५।।

Nanam Attaviyappam madisudaohi ananananani
Manapajjaya Kevalamavi pachchakkha-parokkha-vheyamcha –(5)

Padapatha. मदिसुदओही अणाणाणाणाणि Matisuda-ohi ananananani, the Jnana and Ajnana of Mati, Sruta and Avadhi. अवि Avi also. मणपज्जय Manapajjaya, Manah paryaya. केवलं Kevalam, Kevala. णांण Nanam, Jnana. अट्ठवियप्पं Attaviyappam, of eight varieties. च Cha, also. पच्च-क्खपरो-क्खभेयं Pachchakkha-parokkha-vheyam, has the varieties Pratyaksha and Paroksha. 5. Jnana is of eight kinds, viz., Jnana and Ajnana of Mati, Sruta and Avadhi, Manah-paryaya and Kevala. It is also divided into Pratyaksha and Paroksha (from another point of view).


In the previous Verse, the first stage of cognition, viz., Darshana (undifferentiated knowledge) has been described. In this verse the next stage, Jnana detailed knowledge), with its varieties, is described. The eight kinds of Jnana are (1) Mati Jnana, (2) Sruta Jnana, (3) Avadhi Jnana, (4) Manah-paryaya Jnana, (5) Kevala Jnana, (6) Kumati or Ajnana of Mati, (7) Kusruta or Ajnana os Sruta and (8) Vibhangavadhi or Ajnana of Avadhi. Kundakundacharya has summed up all of them in the following verse:-

आभिणिवोधिसुदोधिमणकेवलाणि णाणाणि पंचभेयाणि ।

कुमदिसुद विभंगाणि य तिण्णि वि णाणेहिं संजुत्ते ।।

i.e., “Abhinbodhika or Mati, Sruta, Avadhi, Manah-paryaya and Kevala- these are the five varieties of Jnana. Kamati Kusruta and Vibhanga- these three also are connected with Jnana.” The three last- mentioned are nothing but false knowledge of the first three. It will, therefore, be sufficient to explain the first five varieties only of Jnana. Umasvami has also mentioned them in Sutra 9, Chapter 1 of Tattvarthadhigma Sutra. (e.g., गतिश्रुतावधिमन: पयर्यंकेवलानि ज्ञानम्ः It should be remembered that these varieties of Jnana constitute the two sorts of Pramanas recognized in Jaina Philosophy “(तत् प्रमाणे)” (तत्यार्थं सूत्र १।१०). Mati Jnana is knowledge derived through the senses, including the knowledge which arises from the activity of the mind. Sruta Jnana is knowledge derived through symbols or signs (e.g., words which are symbols of ideas, gestures, (etc.). Avadhi Jnana is the psychic knowledge which is directly acquired by the soul without the medium of the activity of the mind or the senses. Knowledge in the hypnotic state may be cited as an example of Avadhi Jnana. Manah-paryaya Jnana is the knowledge of the ideas and thoughts of others. Mind reading is an instance of this kind of knowledge. Kevala Jnana is omniscience or knowledge unlimited as to space, time or object.

In our everyday life we have Mati Jnana and Sruta Jnana, but there are instance, through rare, of persons who, under a hypnotic trance, have knowledge of certain things (Avadhi Jnana) and of persons who can read the thoughts others (Mahah-paryaya Jnana). Though the exact nature of the last two kinds of knowledge has not yet been understood, there is no doubt of the possibility of their existence. The mention, therefore, of these kinds of knowledge by ancient Jaina writers proves at that time there were evidences which led them to believe in these two forms of knowledge. The occult powers attainable by Yogis which are mentioned in Yoga Philosophy of the Hindus also support the view that in ancient India occult sciences were by no means unknown. The last-mentioned knowledge, Kevala-Jnana or omniscience, which corresponds to the Puranas of the Hindus, is, according to the Jaina tradition, only possessed by those who have reached the highest point of elevation. The Tirthankaras and Ganadharas are said to possess such a kind of knowledge.

Though it is not possible to understand the real nature of knowledge called Avadhi Jnana, Manah-paryaya Jnana and Kevala, Jnana, we can describe full the remaining two kinds of knowledge viz., Sruta Jnana Mati Jnana. Sruta Jnana is knowledge derived from words spoken by a person, from reading books, from seeing gestures of facial expressions and from all other kinds of symbols of signs Mati Jnana requires much detailed consideration, for it gives us an ideas of that part of the Jaina psychology which treats of Perception and Memory.

In Jaina psychology four stages in Mati Jnana are usually recognized. These are called (1) Avagraha, (2) Iha, (3) Avaya and (4) Dharana. In works on Jaina Nyaya philosophy we find that Pramana is of two kinds- Pratyaksha (independent) and Paroksha (dependent). Pratyaksha is clear knowledge or cognition that this objects is of such and such a character, without depending upon any other kind of knowledge. That cognition, which is not clear by itself, i.e., that which depends upon some other kind of knowledge is Paroksha. Pratyaksha or independent knowledge is of two kinds, Sanvyavaharika and Paramarthika. Sanvyavaharika again is of two kinds, viz., indriya-nivandhana (caused through the senses) and Anindriya-nivandhana (nor caused through the senses). The senses recognized in Jaina philosophy are the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and the skin. Mind (Mana) is called No-indriya or Anindriya (Not Indriya).

This Sanvyavaharika variety of Pratyaksha is what we have in our everyday life. The processes of Perception and Memory are dependent upon this variety of Pratyaksha only. We shall, therefore, deal with Sanvyavaharika Pratyaksha leaving aside Parmyavthika Pratyaksha which includes the little understood occult knowledge- Avadhi, includes Manah-paryaya and Kevala mentioned previously. Sanvyabahara is the act of satisfying a desire to cognize. (समीचीन प्रवृत्ति निवृत्तिरुपो व्यवहार सव्वहारः Pramana Mimansa Vritti). This is the essence Sanvavharika Pratyaksha which, according to Jaina philosophers, is of four kinds, viz., Avagraha, Iha, Avaya and Dharana. These four are identical with the four stages or Mati Jnana already mentioned by us, and we shall now proceed to explain each of these four varieties. The first stage, Avagraha, consists in the general knowledge of an object when it is brought into contact with a sense organ. First of all, there is an excitation in the sense organ by the stimulus (viz., the object present in the outside world). Then there is an excitation in the consciousness. Thus, in the first stage a person is barely conscious of the existence of an object.

The second stage, Iha, consists in the desire to know the particular of the object e.g., a desire to know whether it is this or that. Thus, similarities and differences of this object with other objects become the subject of consciousness in this stage. In the first stage (Avagraha), we have for example simply the knowledge of a man, but in the second stage (Iha) we desire to know the particulars of this man, e.g., whether he is a resident of Karnatak or Lata country, etc. In the third stage, Avaya, there is a definite finding of the particulars which we desire to know in the second stage. The second stage is merely an attempt to know the particulars, while the third stage consists of the ascertainment of these particulars. The fourth stage, Dharana, consists of the lasting impression which results after the object; with its particulars, is definitely ascertained. It is this impression (संस्कार) which enables us to remember the object afterwards. Memory therefore, is the result of these four successive stages of Mati Jnana.

Now we shall turn to that part of verse 5 of Dravya Samgraha which, after laying down the eight varieties of Jnana, says that it may also be divided into two classes from another point of view. These two classes are respectively known as Pratyaksha Proksha. We have already given a detailed account of Pratyaksha, and it now remains to narrate briefly Paroksha knowledge. Paroksha knowledge is said to be of five kinds: (1) Smarana, (2) Pratyabhijnana, (3) Tarka, (4) Anumana and (5) Agama, Smarana is simple the remembrance of an object. Pratyabhijnana is the recognition of an object by noticing similarities and differences. The difference between Smarana and Pratyabhijnana may be understood from the examples. We see a certain man. We then remember that we had seen previously. This is Smarana. We go to a forest and see a strange creature.

Then we remember that we have heard or read about such a creature, and we identify it. This is Pratyabhijnana. This corresponds to Upamana Pramana recognized in the Hindu philosophies. Tarka or Uha consists of the knowledge of a universal concomitance of any two things (e.g.; wherever there is smoke; there is fire). This is the same as Vyapti Jnana mentioned in the Nyaya philosophy of the Hindus. Anumana inference and is either Svartha (for one’s own self) or Parartha (for others). There is detailed treatment of Anumana in Jaina Nyaya philosophy, similar to that found in the Nyaya philosophy of the Hindus. Agama is knowledge derived through the words of one who is trustworthy. This also is recognized in different systems of Hindu philosophy, such as Vedanta, Nyaya, Sankhya, Mimamsa, etc. We finish this brief survey of different kinds of knowledge by saying that, as we have mentioned in verse 4 of Dravya-Samgraha that there are certain Karmas called Darshana, so there are also Karmas which obscure the different varieties of Jnana. These are known as Jnanavarabiya Karmas. Umasvami in his Tatvarthadhigama Sutra has mentioned that Jnanavaraniya Karmas are of five sorts who obscure Mati, Sruta, Avadhi, Manahparyaya and Kevala knowledge respectively. मतिश्रुताअवधिमनःपर्यय केवलानाम् ।

Now, a doubt is stated by the commentator of Dravya-Samgraha. He says that in Tark-Sastra (Nyaya philosophy) of the Jainas we find that Mati Jnana, with its four varieties, Avagraha, Iha, Avaya and Dharana, is included under Sanvyavaharika Pratyaksha. But Umasvami in his Tatvartha Sutra says plainly- that Mati and Sruta Jnanas are not Pratyakshas, but Parokshas. We have the following aphorisms in Tatvartha Sutra:-

मतिश्रुतावधिमनपर्ययकेवलानि ज्ञानम् ।

आद्ये परोक्षम् प्रत्यक्षमन्यत् ।।

i.e., “Knowledge is of five kinds: Mati, Sruta, Avadhi, Manahparyaya and Kevala. The first two are called Paroksha and the rest are known as Pratyaksha.” Now, this is apparently in contradiction with the words on Jaina Nyaya philosophy some of which we have already quoted in our notes. How can this apparent contradiction be explained away? The commentator says that Umasvami’s aphorism is to be regarded as a general ordinance (उत्सग:) while the sayings of the writers on Jaina Nyaya philosophy should be taken as a special rule or exception (अपचाद:) In special or exceptional cases the general rule should not be followed. In the present instance also, though the general rule as laid down in Tatvartha Sutra says that Mati and Sruta Jnanas are Paroksha knowledge, there are particular exceptional cases, these should be called Pratyaksha. The commentator further says that we all know that the knowledge of our own happiness and misery is Pratyaksha, but if we say that, according to Tatvartha Sutra Mati and Sruta are always Paroksha, the knowledge of our happiness or misery should also become Paroksha, which is absurd. The following table of Jnana can, therefore, be re-arranged from different points of view—

GATHA NO. 6 - Characteristics of "Upyog" in general sense

अट्ठचदुणाणदंसण सामणणं जीवलक्खणं भणियं ।

ववहारा सुद्धणाया सुद्धं पुण दंसणं णाणं ।।६।।

Attachadunanadamasana samannam jivalakkhanam bhaniyam.
Vavahara suddhanaya suddham puna damsanam nanam (6).

Padapatha- सामणणं Samannam, in a general sense. जीवलक्खणं Jivalakkhanam, the characteristic of Jiva. ववहारा Vavahara, according to Vyavahara Naya. अट्ठचदुणाणदंसण Attachadunanadamasana, the eight Jnanas and four Darshanas. भणियं Bhaniyam, is narrated. पुण Puna, again. सुद्धणाया Suddhanaya, according to Suddha Naya. सुद्धं Suddham, Suddha (Pure). दंसणं Damsanam, Darshan (perception). णाणं Nanam. 6. According to Vyavahara Naya, the general characteristics of Jiva are said to be eight kinds of Jnana and four kinds of Darshana. But according to Suddha Naya, (the characteristics of Jiva) are pure Jnana and Darshana.


The commentator Brahmadeva says that Jiva is said in a general sense to have the characteristics of eight kinds of Jnana and four kinds of Darshana. By the word "Samanya" or in a general sense in the original verse we should understand "when we do not desire to distinguish between Samsari (leading a mundane existence) or Mukta (librated) Jivas or when we do not distinguish between pure and impure Jnana and Darshana." In this verse the author says that really Jnana possesses the characteristics of pure Jnana and Darshana, but from the ordinary or common sense point of view, we recognize that Jiva has eight kinds of Jnana and four kinds of Darshana. Among the eight kinds of Jnana, varieties of impure or false knowledge are also included, but these can only be said in a general sense to be the characteristics of Jiva, for in Mukta or liberated Jiva, these are not possible. So Jiva in its pure state has only the characteristics of pure Jnana and Darshana.

The commentator says that verses 4-6 of Dravya Samgraha by explaining Upayoga refute the doctrine of Nyaya Philosophy, viz., that a thing and its qualities are permanently distinct. It should be remembered that in Nyaya Philosophy the identity of a quality and the prossessor of that quality is never recognized. Here it is said that Jnana and Darshana are not only the qualities of Jiva, but are identical with it. Now the question may arise how can this be possible? Can we not conceive of qualities as seperated from the prossessor of the same? The answer is that Jainism examines everything from different standpoints and through from the realistic point of view Jiva are its qualities are identical, we say from the ordinary or common-sense point of view that these are distinct. Tha is to say, in Jainism there is no dogmatic assertion as in Nyaya Philosophy that there can be no identity between a quality and the possessor of that qualities. On the contrary, the identity of Jiva and its qualities is recognized. Ofcourse from the ordinary point of view we may recognize qualities as distinct from the possessor of them. That is to say, we can conceive the qualities as distinguishable, but not distinct from their possessor, that is, this separate existence is not real. In Panchastikaya-samayasara also we find the following verse which expresses a similar view:-

“दंसणणाणाणि तहा जीबणिवद्धाणि .

ववदेसदो पुधत्तं कुव्वंति हि णो सभावादो ।।”

[Verse No. 52] “Darshana and Jnana, in a similar manner, are identical with Jiva and not separable from it. Only in common parlance we separate (Darshana and Jnana from Jiva), but in reality there is no such separation.”

GATHA NO.7 - "Jeev" is formless

o..k रस पंचग धा दो फासा अट्ठ णिच्चया जीवे ।

णो संति अमुत्ति तदो ववहारा मुत्ति बंधादो ।।७।।

Vanna rasa pancha gandha do phasa attha nichchaya jive.
No santi amutti tado Vavahara mutti bandhado – (7).

Padapatha- णिच्चया Nichchaya, according to Nischaya Naya. जीवे Jive, in Jiva. वणण Vanna, colour. रस Rasa, taste. पंच Pancha, five. दो Do, two. गंधा Gandha, smells. अट्ठ Attha, eight. फासा Phasa, touch. णो No, not. संति Santi, are. तदो Tado, therefore. अमुत्ति Amutti, without form. ववहारा Vavahara, according to Vyavahara Naya. बंधादो Bandhado, from Bandha (bondage). मुत्ति Mutti, possessed of form. 7. According to Nischaya Naya, Jiva is without form; because the five kinds of colour and taste, two kinds of smell, and eight kinds of touch are not present in it. But according to Vyavahara Naya [jiva] has form through the bondage [of Karma].


Jiva is naturally invisible, but "when the soul is attacked by the passions... it takes on the Pudgala (material) particles fit for the bondage of the karmas, just as a heated iron-ball takes up water-particles in which it is immersed. This is the bondage of the Karmas". Thus, "the naturally invisible soul is compounded in a very subtle way with visible, tangible matter, and is in a sense thereby rendered visible, as lemon-juice is rendered sweet by the addition of sugar and water. In its pure state the soul [Jiva] is invisible, just as in itself the lemon-juice is sour." We should therefore remember that; according to the Jaina belief, Jiva in its natural or real state, is invisible. But it combines with Pudgala or matter. This combination is the bondage (Bandha) which produces Karmas. When Jiva thus combines itself with Pudgala (matter), it leaves its invisible state and becomes visible to us. It is Pudgala (matter) which has form and when Pudgala combines itself with Jiva, the taste, colour, smell and touch of the former which are the requisties of its form, are attributed to the really formless Jiva, and we say that Jiva has form. Every form of mundane life which we see is a Jiva in its impure and visible state in combination with Pudgala. Therefore, according to Vyavahara Naya, that is to say, from the ordinary or common sense point of view, we may say that Jiva have form, but we must remember that according to Nischaya Naya or the realistic point of view, Jivas are without form. Brahmadeva in his commentary quotes a verse to support this view:

“बंधं पडि एयत्तं लक्खणदो हवदि तस्स भिष्णत्तं ।

तम्हा अमुत्तिभावो णेगंतो होदि जीवस्स ।।”

i.e. "In bondage (Jiva) is one (with Pudgala), but really according to definition, it is separate (from Pudgala). Hence formlessness does not always belong to Jiva". Pudgala is said to possess touch, smell and colour. Though these qualities are really inseparable from Pudgala, from the ordinary point of view we speak of them as separate from Pudgala. Colours are of five kinds viz., Blue (Nila), Yellow (Pita), White (Shukla), Black (Krishna), and Red (Lohita). The varities of taste are Bitter (Titka), Sour (Katu), Acid (Amla), Sweet (Madhura) and Astringent (Kasaya). Smells are of two kinds- fragrance (Surabhi) and its opposit (Asurabhi). The eight kinds ot touch are Soft (Mridu), Hard (Kathina), Heavy (Guru), Light (Laghu), Cold (Shita), Hot (Usna), Smooth (Snigdha) and Rough (Ruksa). The commentators says that the author in this verse establishes the formlessness of Jiva which is contrary to the views held by (Kumarila) Bhatta and (his followers) Charvaka. (“इति भट्ट-चार्वाकमत प्रत्यमर्त्तंजीवस्थापनं मुख्यत्वेन सूत्र गतम्”) Charvaka recognizes nothing but what is capable of being perceived by the senses hence a formless Jiva is contrary to his doctrine.

GATHA NO. 8 - "Jeev" is doer

पुग्गलकम्मादीणं कत्ता ववहारदो दु णिच्चयदो ।

चेदणकम्माणादा सुद्धणया सुद्धभावाणं ।।८।।

Puddalakammadinam katta vavaharado du nichchayado.
Chedanakammanada suddhanaya suddhabhavanam. – (8)

Padapatha- ववहारदो Vavaharado, according to Vyavahara Naya. आदा Ada, Jiva. पुग्गलकम्मादीणं Puddalakammadinam, of the Pudgala Karmas. कत्ता Katta, doer. दु Du, but. णिच्चयदो Nichchayado, according to Nischaya Naya. चेदणकम्माणादा Chedanakammanada, of the thought Karmas. सुद्धणया Suddhanaya, according to Suddha Naya. सुद्धभावाणं Suddhabhavanam, of the Suddha Bhavas. 8. According to Vyavahara Naya is the doer of the Pudgala Karmas. According to Nischaya Naya (Jíva is the doer of) thought Karmas. According to Suddha Naya (Jíva is the doer of) Suddha Bhávas.


In this verse the Jaina doctrine of causation as to the origin of the world is briefly treated. Causes are generlly accepted to be of two kinds. Upádána (Substantial Cause) and Nimitta (Determing Cause). Take the case of an earthen pot. The Upádana or the Substantial Cause of the earthen pot is the earth, and its Nimitta on Determining Cause is the potter and his implements. First of all the potter forms an idea of the shape, size, etc., of the pot which he is going to make. This existence of the pot in the idea may be called the resultant in consciousness of the potter. Then follows the existence of the pot which we can perceive by our senses. According to Jaina Metaphysics, Jívas are only possessed of infinite knowledge, etc., and are not agents. But causation is attributed to Jívas from different points of view. First, Jivas are said to be the agents of their own resultants viz., infinite knowledge, bliss, etc. This is according to Suddha (Pure) Naya. Again, according to Nischaya Naya Jívas are said to be causes of the thought Karmas which precede the Pudgala-karmas perceptible by us. According to Vyavahára Naya Jívas are also recognized as agents of even these Pudgala-karmas.

Karmas are generally understood to be of two sorts- Dravya-karmas and Bháva-karmas. To return to our example of the making of a pot, the existence of a pot in the mind of a potter may be said to be a Bhava-karma, while the material existence of the pot perceptible by our senses is known to be a Dravya-karma. Now, the potter is directly the cause of the Bháva-karma, and that Bháva-karma again is the cause of the Dravya-karma. It should, therefore, be remembered that, according to Nischaya Naya, the potter is the agent of the Bhava-karma (the pot existing in idea), and according to Vyavahara Naya, that of the Dravya-karma (the pot perceptible by us). Similarly, in the case of Jivas, they are really possessed of the characteristics, viz., infinite knowledge, bliss, etc. Jívas, therefore, may be said to be the agents of these characteristics according to Suddha Naya. Next, we may say that the Jívas are the agents of those mental attitudes and conditions which favour the influx of particles of matter. Attachment, aversion, etc., may be mentioned as examples of such states of Jívas. These are the thought karmas. According to Nischaya Naya, Jívas are said to be the agents of these classes of karmas. When the Jívas cause such thought karmas to be produced, these thought karmas, on the other hand, lead to the generation of the material karmas or Dravya-karmas. The Jívas are not, therefore, the direct causes of Dravya-karmas. It is according to Vyavahára Naya only that we can speak of Jívas as agents of Dravya-Karmas. The very essence of Dravya-karmas consists of particles of matter, and these are in no way akin to consciousness- the characteristic of Jívas. The Upádána or substantial cause of a Dravya-karma is therefore Pudgala or matter, and their Nimitta or determining cause is the Bhava-karma, viz., that condition of the Atma which render it capable of assimilating the particular Dravya-karma. Thus a Jíva is neither the Upádána nor the Nimeta cause of Dravya-karmas according to Nischaya Naya. It is only from the Vyavahára point of view that we say that the Jívas are causes of Dravya-karmas. But, in reality, (according to Nischaya Naya) Jíva is the only agent of its own attitudes (Bhávas). In Panchástikaya-samayasara, we have: "Atmá is the agent of its own Bhávas, as it causes its own resultants. But it is not the agent of Pudgala-karmas. This should be understood to be the precept of the Jina."

The universe is, therefore, made up of Jívas and Ajívas. Pudgala or matter is the substantial cause of every material thing, while different Bháva or thought karmas are the determining cause of these. Jívas cause these thought karmas to be produced. Thus two sorts of substance, material and spiritual, may be regarded to be the cause of all kinds of manifestations. There are many units of this spiritual substance possessed of qualities which are known as Jívas, and there are also many units of material substance (Pudgala) which again have their own characteristic qualities. These two kinds of substances act and re-act upon each other, and a constant state of activity is going on in this universe. The Jaina doctrine of the causation of the world should therfore be remembered as quite distinct from the same of Hindu philosophies, like Vedanta, which assetrs that the world of the universe is one homogenous spiritual Brahma, or like Charváka, which avers that the universe is made up of matter only. The commentator, Brahmadeva says that this verse refutes the doctrine of the Sánkhya philosophy that Purusa (corresponding to Jiva of the Jainas) is always Udásína. (lit. indifferent, i.e., without activity), for here it is recognized that Jíva is an agent.

GATHA NO. 9 - "Jeev" is enjoyer of fruits of its own "Karmas"

ववहारा सुहदुक्खं पुग्गलकम्मफलं पभुंजेदि ।

आदा णिच्चयणयदो चेदणभावं खु आदस्स ।।९।।

Vyabhaar suhadukkham Puggalakammaphalam pabhunjedi.
Ada nichchayanayado chedanabhavam khu adassa. – (9)

Padapatha- आदा Ada, Jiva. ववहारा Vavahara, according to Vyavahara Naya. सुहदुक्खं Suhadukkham, happiness and misery. पुग्गलकम्मफलं Puggalakammaphalam, the fruit of Pudgala karma. पभुंजेदि Pabhunjedi, enjoys. णिच्चयणयदो Nichchayanayado, according to Nischaya Naya. आदस्स Adassa, of Jiva. चेदणभावं Chedanabhavam, conscious Bhava. खु Khu, only. 9. According to Vyavahara Naya, Jiva enjoys happiness and misery the fruits of Pudgala karmas. According to Nischaya Naya, Jiva has conscious Bhavas only.


It has already been laid down that Atma (or soul) is entirely distinct in its characteristics from Pudgala (or matter). The essence of Jivas and Atma is consciousness which is altogether absent from Pudgala or matter. Hence, as in the previous verse it has been laid down that a spiritual substance (Jiva) cannot be the cause of Pudgala-karmas I.e. material karmas, so in this verse it is shown that Jivas from their very nature are unaffected by the fruits of Pudgala-karmas. Really speaking Jivas only enjoy eternal bliss which is their essential characteristic. Therefore, according to Nischaya Naya, a Jiva should only be regarded as an enjoyer of bliss resulting from its characteristic of consciousness. But through the generation of attachment, aversion, etc., Jívas atain such a condition that they become ready for the assimilation of matter. It is only in such states of Jívas that there is an influx of matter in them. When there is such an influx of matter, the Jívas have to enjoy sorrow and delight, hapiness and misery, as these are the fruits of Pudgala-karmas. Thus, really, a Jívas, through its characteristic consciousness, is incapable of being affected by happiness or misery- the fruits of material karmas. It is only when matter assimilates itself with a Jíva that we see the fruits of material karmas also in that Jíva and say that this Jíva is enjoying happiness or misery the fruits of material karmas. But it should be remembered that this enjoyment of the fruits of karma by a Jiva is only apparent but not real. Really speaking, Jívas enjoy bliss only, which is the resultant of its characteristic consciousness.

The commentator says that this verse refutes the doctrine of the Buddhistic philosophy that an agent does never enjoy the fruits of karma.

GATHA NO. 10 - "Jeev" is equal to dimension of its body

अणगुरुदेहपमाणो उवसंहारप्पसप्पदो चेदा ।

असमुहदो ववहारा णिच्चयणयदो असंखदेसो वा ।।१०।।

Anugurudehapamano uvasamharappasappado cheda.
Asamuhado vavahara nichchayanayado asankhadesova. – (10)

Padapatha- O;ogkj Vyavahara, according to Vyavahara Naya. चेदा Cheda, the conscious Jiva. उवसंहारप्पसप्पदो Uvasamharappasappado, by contraction and expansion. असमुहदो Asamuhado, without Samudgháta, अणुगुरुदेहपमाणो Anugurudehapamano, equal in extent to a small or a large body. वा Va, but. णिच्चयणयदो Nichchayanayado according to Nischaya Naya. असंखदेसो Asankhadeso, existent in innumerable Pradesas. 10. According to Vyavahára Naya, the conscious Jíva, being without Samudgháta, becomes equal in extent to a small or a large body, by contraction and expansion, but, according to Nischaya. Naya (it) is existent in innumerable Pradesas.


That portion of Akásá, which is obstructed by one indivisible atom, is known as Pradesa. [See verse 27 of Dravya-samgraha.] That portion of Akásá in which Jíva Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Kála exist, is known as Lokákása, and the Akása beyond it is called Alokákása. Really speaking, Jívas fill up innumerable Pradesas in Lokákása. But, from the ordinary point of view we speak that a J́iva becomes equal in extent to a small or a large body, by contraction and expansion, when it is without Samudgháta.

Samudgháta has been thus defined: “Samudgháta is the exit of Jiva from the body to another form, without the original body altogether.” Seven kinds of Samudgháta are recognized in Jaina philosophy, viz., Vedaná, kasáya, Vikriyá, Maranántika, Teja, Ahára and kevali. When the Atmá goes out of its restraining body particles through excessive pain, without leaving the original body, we have an illustration of Vedaná-samudgháta. When, at the rise of excessive anger, etc., the Atmá goes out of its material confines without leaving the body to injure others, we have Kasáya- samudgháta. The expansion of the atmá from its Pradesas, without leaving the body, owing to some perturbation due to lust, etc., is called Vikriyá-samudgháta. The exit of Atmá, without leaving the original body, to that Pradesa where it has fixed its residence, at the time of death of being, is Máranántika-samudgháta. Teja-samudgháta are of two sorts-Subha and Asubha. It is said that when a great sage perceives some cause of harm to his mind, he becomes angry, and at that time a red figure, twelve yojanas in length and nine yojanas broad, pointed at the top and broad at the bottom, issues forth from the left shoulder of the sage and, after destroying the cause of evil assumes itself with the sage. This is Asubha-samud-gháta. There is a Jaina story that such that such a figure issued forth from the body of the Sage, Dwaípayana, and, destroying Dwarika, destroyed itself with the sage. The exit of a white form, having an extent similar to the mentioned in Asubha-samudgháta, from the right shoulder of a sage who becomes full of commiseration at some calamity of the people, like a famine or an epidemic, is known as Subha-samudgháta. This, after he destroying the calamity, enters its own place. The exit of a while figure, one cubit in length, from the head of a sage, to resolve a doubt by seeing some Kevali (possessed of infinite knowledge), is known as Ahára-samudgháta. In a certain stage through the raise of all kind of Karmas, a Kevali’s form expands and fills up the whole Lokákása, without leaving the original body. This is called Kevali-samudgháta.

A description of these forms Clearly illustrates the belief of various subtle forms by the Jainas. In all cases, when a Jíva does not assume these forms, it fills up either a large or a small body. This theory of the Jainas is severely criticized in the Vedanta philosophy of the Hindus. Sankaráchárya, in his commentary on Vedanta-sútra, Adhyáya II. Páda II, Sútra 34, had said that if it is admitted that a Jíva is equal in extent to, its body, it is impossible that the same Jíva can enter into the bodies of a fly and an elephant. This is not the place to discuss the point in detail. We shall simply mention the view held by the Jainas with respect to this point. The Jainas say that as a lamp, placed respectively in a small pot and a room, illuminates the whole of the space between each of these, so a Jíva contracts and expands, according to the dimensions of different bodies. A better example can be given by mentioning the case of gases like oxygen, which fills up the whole of the space within different vessels, having small or large dimensions but this expansion and contraction of Jívas, according to different bodies, are only recognized from the Vyavahára point of view: According to Nischaya Naya, Jívas can fill up innumerable Pradesas in lokákása.

GATHA NO. 11 - "Jeev" is "Sansari"

पुढविजलतेउवाऊवणप्फदी विविहथावरे- इंदी ।

विगतिचदुपंचक्खा तसजीवा होंति संखादी ।।११।।

Pudhavijalateuvauvanapphadi vivihathavare indi.
Vigatigachadupanchakkha tasajiva honti sankhadi. – (11)

Padapatha,- पुढविजलतेउवाऊवणप्फदी Pudhavijalateuváúvanapphadí, the earth, water, fire, air and plants. विविहथावरे- इंदी Viviha-thávare indi, various kinds of Sthávara, possessed of one sense, विगतिचदुपंचक्खा Viga-tiga-chadupanchakkhá, of two, three four and five sense, संखादी Sankhádí, conches etc. तसजीवा Tasjíva, the Trasa jívas, होंति Honti, are, 11. The earth, water, fire, air and plants are various kinds of Sthavara possessed of one sense. The Trasa Jivas , conches, etc., are possessed of two, three, four and five senses.


Jívas are classified under two principal heads – Samsári (leading a worldly existence) and Mukta (liberted). In verses 11 – 13 of Dravya –samgraha the Samsári Jívas with their sub-division are described, and the characteristics of Mukta Jívas are mentioned in verse 14. In this verse, two varieties of Samsári Jívas are enumerated- Samsári, viz., Sthávara (Immobile) and Trasa (mobile, capable of spontaneous movement) Earth, water, fire, air and vegetables are Sthávara Jívas and possess only one sense, viz., the sense of touch. Those Jívas which possess more than one sense are called Trasa Jívas. These might possess two, three, four or five senses. Worms, oysters, conches, etc., are Trasa Jívas, possessing two sense, taste and touch. Ants, bugs, lice, etc., are Trasa Jívas having three senses, touch, taste and smell. Mosquitoes, flies, bees, etc., are Trasa Jívas of four senses, touch, taste, smell and sight. Men, birds, beasts, god, inmates of hell etc., are Trasa Jívas, possessing all the five sense, viz., touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing. It should be remembered that, though really Jívas have two characteristics, viz., pure Jnána and Darsana, it is owing to the different karmas that they assume bodies of various kinds possessed of one, two three, four or five senses. That Jíva which resorts to earth for its body, is called Prithivi-Káya (i.e., having earth as its body). Stones, etc., are examples of this class of Jívas. So also there are Jívas who resort to water, air or fire to have bodies.

GATHA NO. 12 - Fourteen varieties of "Jeev"

समणा अमणा णेया पंचेंदिय णिम्मणा परे सव्वे ।

बादर सुहमेइंदी सव्वे पज्जत्त इदरा या ।।१२।।

Samana amana neya panchendiya nimmana pare savve.
Badarasuhameindi savve pajjatta idara ya. – (12)

Padapatha.- पंचेंदिय Panchendiya [Jívas] possessing five senses. समणा Samana, having mind. अमणा Amana, without mind. णेया Neya, are known. परे Pare; the rest. सव्वे Savve, all. णिम्मणा Nimmana, without mind. एइंदी Eindi, [Jívas] possessing one sense. बादर-सुहमा Badara-suhama, Badara and Súksma. सव्वे Savve, all. पज्जत्त Pajjatta, Paryápta (complete). या Ya, and. इदरा Idara, opposite (of Paryápta).

12. [Jívas] possessing five senses are known [to be divided into] those having mind and those without mind. All the rest are without mind. [Jívas] having one sense [are divided into two classes] Bádara and Súksma. All [of these have again to varieties each] Paryápta and its opposite.


In this verse the fourteen varieties of Jíva commonly known as Jíva-samasa in Jain philosophy are briefly described. In Gommatasára (Jíva-kanda) another work of the author of Dravya- sangraha each of these varieties has been described in detail. The verse in Gommatasára which is parallel to this verse is as follows:-

“वादर-सुहुमे-इंदिय वितिचउरिंदिय असण्णिसण्णी य ।

एवं ते चोद्दसा होंति ।।“

i.e., “Jívas of one sense divided into to two classes Badara and Súksma, Jívas of two, three and four senses, Jívas having and not having Sanja, Paryapta and Aparyapta, thus they (the Jívas) are of fourteen kinds. The accompanying table (Chart No. II) illustrates these fourteen varieties of Jivas. It will be remembered that in Verse 11 it was told that Jívas are first of all divided into varieties Samsari and Mukta. The Samsari Jivas are subdivided into Trasa and Sthavara .The Sthavara Jívas possessed of one sense are again divided into Badra (gross) and Suksma (subtle). A Badra form is that which is fettered by matter. ASuksma form is not so fettered. That is to say, a Suksma is a subtle form unfettered by material things, earth, etc., while Badara is exactly its opposite. In Jaina philosophy it is said that all the universe is the place of existence of Suksma Jívas possessing one sense. It is also said that Badara Jívas possessing one sense must have some Adhara (substratum) in order to exist. Jivas of five senses may be either with mind or without mind. Those with mind are also known as Sanjí, or having Sanja. Sanja consists of attempt to gain what is beneficial and leave what is harmful and judgment of good and bad. Paryapti has been thus illustrated in Gommata-sara: -

“जह पुण्णापुण्णाइं गिहघडवत्थादियाइं दव्वाइं ।

तह पुण्णिदरा जीवा पज्जत्ति दरा मुणेयव्वा ।।“

[Jíva-kanda, Verse 118.] i.e., “As things like rooms, iars, clothes, etc., are full or empty, so Jívas should be understood to be complete or incomplete (Paryapta and Aparyapta)”. Ahara (taking food and drink) Sharira (Body), Indriya (the five senses) Anaprana (Respiration) Bhasa (Speech) and Manas (Mind), these six exist in Jívas and make them complete (Paryapta). Of these the first four make Jívas having one sense complete, and the first five make Jívas having two, three and four sense complete. As for Jívas having five senses, all the six are necessary to make them complete. In absence of these the Jívas are incomplete (Aparyapta).

GATHA NO. 13 - Characteristics of "Sansari Jeev" in general sense

मग्गणगुठाणेहि य चउदसहि हवंति तह असुद्धणया ।

वि.णेया संसारी सव्वे सुद्धा हु सुद्धणया ।।१३।।

Magganagunathanehi ya chaudasahi havanti taha asuddhanaya.
Vinneya samsari savve suddha hu suddhanaya – (13)

Padapatha- तह Taha, again. संसारी Samsari, Samari (Jíva). असुद्धणया Asuddhanaya, according to Asuddha (impure) Naya. चउदसहि Chaudasahi, (according to) fourteen. मग्गणगुठाणेहि Magganagunathanehi, Margana and Gunasthana. हवंति Havanti, are. य Ya, but. सुद्धणया Suddhanaya, according to Suddha (pure) Naya. सव्वे Savve, all. हु Hu, surely. सुद्धा Suddha, Suddha (pure). वि.णेया Vinneya, are to be known. 13. Again, according to impure (Vyavahara) Naya, Samsari Jivas are of fourteen kinds according to Margana and Gunasthana. But according to pure Naya, all Jívas should be understood to pure.


This verse, if thoroughly understood, will make known to us the doctrine of Jainism about the gradual stages of development of soul. The whole of the universe is full of very minute living beings, technically called Nigoda. These infinite and conscious beings are not in an appreciable state of development. From these beings come out developing souls and, after passing the different stages of development, become liberated. There is no chance of any soul in which development has once hegan to go back to the original Nigoda state. Now where in the universe can we find an inch of space which does not contain nigoda beings. These beings are therefore the source from which souls longing for development come out. The stages of development are fourteen in number, and technically these are known as Gunasthana .In Gommatasara, we have the following list of the fourteen Gunasthana: –

मिच्छो सासण मिस्सो अविरदसम्मो य देसविरदो य ।

विरदा पमत्त इदरा अपुव्व अणियठ्ठ सुहुमो य ।।
उवसंतखीणमोहो सजोगलेवलिजिणो अजोगी य ।
चउदरा जीवसमासा कमेण सिद्धाय णादव्वा ।।

[Jíva-kanda, 9, 10] i.e. the fourteen Gunasthanas should be known to be Mithyatva, Sasadana, Misra, Avirata-samyaktva, Desavirata, Pramatta Virata, Itara, Apramatta Virata, Apurva, Anivritta, Suksma, Upasanta-Ksina-moha, Sayogi-kevali-jina and Ayogi. In the first stage, a person has no belief in the truth of Jaina doctrines. Even when these are taught to him, he does not belief in them, but on the contrary holds false beliefs, whether taught or not. The true doctrines appear to him as distasteful as sweet syrup to a man suffering from fever. This stage is known as the Mithyatva Gunasthana. The second is the transitory stage. When one loses true belief and comes to belief false doctrines as in the first stage, he passes through the second stage which is known as Sasadana. This is an intermediate stage in the fall from the heights of Samyaktva (right belief to the level of Mithyatva (false belief).

In the third or Misra stage, a person has true and false beliefs in a mixed way. That is to say, neither a desire to have true beliefs nor a wish to give up false ones, appear in his mind. Samyaktva and Mithyatva are mixed up like curd and treacle. A person in the fourth stage, control excessive anger, pride, deceit, and greed and does not doubt the truth of right doctrine. But while in this stage, he is unable to control the moderate or slight deices of anger etc. However, an effort for self-control is made as the person appreciates the value of it, though the effort is successful only to a very limited extent. In the fifth stage, a person becomes able to control moderate degrees of passions like anger, etc., and succeeds in establishing self-control to a greater extent than in the fourth stage. In the sixth stage, a person beings to refrain from injury, falsehood, taking any substance which is not given to him, lust and a desire to have worldly possessions. But his attempts are not always successful. In the seventh stage, a person succeeds in practicing without any transgression, non-injury, truth, chastity, non-acceptance of things not presented and of possessions in general. In the eighth stage, mild stages of passions still arise, but the person enjoys an inexpressible delight by either checking or destroying their consequences.

A person in the ninth stage becomes void of the desire to have enjoyments which he saw, heard or partook of previously, and practices meditation about true nature of his soul. In the tenth stage, a person by meditation becomes capable of subduing or destroying the subtle forms of greed. In the eleventh stage, a person gains the power to control all Mohaníya (intoxícating) Karmas, but these do not disappear altogether. In the twelfth stage, all the passions and Mohaníya karmas disappear altogether. A person in the thirteenth stage, destroys the Karmas called Jnanavaraníya, Darsana-varaníya and Antaraya and appears like the sun freed from clouds. He attains knowledge of everything that existing in the universe. But in this, Yoga still remains which disappears in the next or fourteenth stage, and the person attains liberation.

Now we shall see what is meant by marganas. Those states or conditions in which the Jívas are found, are known as Marganas; and these are of fourteen kinds, viz., (1) Gati, (2) Indriya, (3), Kaya, (4) Yoga, (5) Veda, (6) Kasaya, (7) Jnana, (8) Samyama, (9) Datsana, (10) Lesya, (11) Bhavya, (12)Samyaktva, (13) Sangya and (14)Ahara. Gati or condition of existence is of four kinds, viz., existence (1) as inmates of hell, (2) as inmates of heaven, (3) as human beings and (4) as lower animals.

Indriya or senses are five, viz., the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Kaya or body is of six kinds, viz., five kinds of Sthavata, earth, water, fire, air and vegetables and Trasa. Yoga is the power of a Jiva possessing activities of mind, speech and body by which particles matter are attracted towards it. Yoga or union is mainly of three kinds, viz., (1) with respect to mind, (2) with respect to speech, and (3) with respect to body. And , again, each of the first two of these is of four kinds. Mind may be turned to things which are true, to things which are false, to things which are both true and false , and to things which are neither true and false and to things which are neither true nor false-speech also might he directed to truth, false hood, mixed truth and falsehood, and neither truth and falsehood. Unity in body, again, is of seven kinds: (1) as in the bodies of human beings and lower animals which are fixed in limits, (2) a mixed state of the first, (3) as in bodies of the inmates of heaven and hell which can increase or diminish, (4) a mixed state of third, (5) as in the body which comes out of the head of a sage in the sixth stage of development to go to Kevali, (6) a mixed state of fifth , and (7) as in the forms which results from the eight kinds of karma.

Veda or sex is of three kind: male, female and eunuch. Kasaya of passions are four: anger, pride, deceit and greed. Each of these is, again, of four kinds according to different degrees of intensity. Inana is of eight kinds: Mati, Sruta, Avadhi , Manah-parayaya, Kevala, Kumati, Kusruta and Vibhangavadhi. Samyama or restraint consists of keeping the Vratas (vows) observing the Samitis, checking the Kasayas or passions, giving up the Dandas and controlling the Indriyas (senses).

Darsana is of four kinds: Chakshu, Achaksu, Avadhi and Kevala. Lesya is that by which a Jiva assimilates virtue and vices with itself. Feeling arising from Yoga coloured by passions lead to Bhava-Lesya and the actual colours of bodies produced by such feelings are called Dravya Lesya. The colours are black, blue, pigeon, golden, lotus-like and White. The first three are resultants of evil, and the last three of good emotions.

That quality by which a soul attains prefer faith, knowledge and conduct is known as Bhvaytva Guna, and that by which these are obstructed is called Abhavyatva Gunas. Bhvya Margana defines jivas which posses each of these sets of qualities. Samvakrva is perfect faith in the Tattvas or principal tenets of Jainism. Sangi-Jívas are those who with the help of mind are capable of teaching of action, of giving advice and of conversation. Asangai Jívas are those who are incapable of these. In Sangya Margana each of these of Jívas are described. Ahara is the assimilation of material particles by Jívas to preserve bodies. These are the fourteen kinds of Magana. Jívas may be viewed with reference to each of these Maganas or with reference to different Gunasthanas or stages of development. But it must be remembered that all these characteristics are attributed to Jivas from the ordinary point of view, for none of them really exist in Jívas.

GATHA NO. 14 - Characteristics of "Sidh" and "Urdhvagaman"

णिक्कम्मा अट्टगुणा किंचूणा चरमदेहदो सिद्धा ।

लोयग्गाठिदा णिच्चा उप्पादवयेही संजुत्ता ।।१४।।

Nikkamma attaguna kimchunacharamadehado siddha.
Loyaggathida nichcha uppadavayehi sanjutta. – (14)

Padapatha- णिक्कम्मा Nikkamma, void of Karmas. अट्टगुणा Attaguna, possessed of eight qualities. चरमदेहदो Charamadehado, than the final body. किंचूणा Kimchuna, slightly less. णिच्चा Nichcha, external. उप्पादवयेही Uppadavayehi, Utpada and Vyaya. संजुत्ता Samjutta, consisting of. सिद्धा Siddha, liberated. लोयग्गाठिदा Loyaggathida, existing at the summit of Loka. 14. The Siddhas (or liberated Jívas) are void of Karmas, possessed of eight qualities, slightly less than the final body, eternal, possessed of Utpada (rise) and Vyaya (fall), and existent at summit of Loka.


According to Jainism, Jívas, as long as they are not liberated, are connected with Karma. But a liberated Jíva is free from all Karmas. Karmas are recognized to be eight kinds, viz., Jnanavaraníya; Darsanavaraníya, Vedaníya, Mohaníya, Ayu, Nama, Gotra and Antaraya. It has already been described in the commentaries on Verses 4 and 5 the Jnanavaraníya and Darasanavaraniya Karmas are those which obscure infinite Jnana and Darsana of a Jíva. Vedaníya Karmas tend to produce pain and pleasure in a Jíva. Mohaniya Karmas infatuate Jívas, making these unable to distinguish right from wrong. Ayu Karmas sustain Jívas for a certain period and determine their tenure of existence. Nama Karmas give their personalities, and Gotra Karmas conduce to their being produced in a particular social surrounding. Antaraya Karmas throw obstacles to the performance of right action by the Jívas. Thus all these varieties of Karma operate to make a Jíva have different qualities and characterstics in its Samsari or worldly state of existence. But as a Jíva begins to pursue the path of gradual development, these Karmas disappear one by one until at last the said Jíva becomes liberated.

Being void of Karmas, a Jíva resides at the top the Loka, and the following eight qualities can then be found in it: Samyaktva, Jnana, Darsana. Vírya, Suksma, Avagahana, Agurulaghu, and Avyavadha. Samyaktva is perfect faith or belief in the Tattvas or essential principles of Jainism. Jnana and Darsana have been explained in verses 4 and 5. Virya (literally, power) is the absence of fatigue in having a knowledge of infinite substances. Suksma literally means fineness, and the possession of this quality makes a liberated Jiva in – capable of being perceived by the senses, which can perceive the gross bodies only. Avagaha is interpenetrability, that is to say, one liberated Jiva can allow others to exist without obstruction, just as the light of a lamp does not prevent the interpenetration of the light of other lamps. Agurulaghu means “neither heavy nor light.” By possessing this quality, a liberated Jiva does neither go up like a light thing nor go down like a heavy object, but remains stationaery. Avya-vadha is undisturbable bliss in which the disturbance of equilibrium caused by happiness or misery is entirely absent. In a word , a liberated Jiva being freed from Karmas goes up to the summit of the Loka and remains there stationary, possessed of perfect faith, power and infinite Jnana and Darsana and enjoying eternal bliss without obstructing other Jivas of the same kind. Such a Jiva has a body slightly less than the final body as recognized in the Jaina canons.

A liberated Jiva, again, is eternal in its essential character, though perpetual modifications of it may go on in its condition. To give an example of such modifications, we may say that a ball of gold has certain essential characteristics and may always be said to possess these characteristics throughout its various modifications. Now, if we prepare a ring from this gold, we have an instance of a modification which arises (Utpada) from the original state of the ball of gold. Again, if the ring be destroyed, we shall have another modification consisting of the destruction (Vyaya) of the stage of existence of the ball of gold as a ring. Every substance in the universe is according to Jainism, possessed of the quality of permanency (Nityatva), with generation (utpada) and decay (Vyaya) of the modifications of itself. Being possessed of these qualities, is technically called ‘Sat,’ and this ‘Sat’ defines a substance (Dravya) in Jainism.

GATHA NO. 15 - "Ajeev Dravya" and their distinction as "Murtik" and "Amurtik"

अज्जीवो पुण णेओ पुग्गल धम्मो अधम्म आयासं

कालो पुग्गल मुत्तो रुवादिगुणो अमुत्ति सेसा दु ।।१५।।

Ajjivo puna neyo puggala dhammo adhmma ayasam
Kala puggala mutto ruvadiuno amutti sesa du- (15).

Padapatha- पुण Puna, again. पुग्गल Puggala, Pudgala. धम्मो Dhammo, Dharma. अधम्म Adhmma, Adharma. आयासं Ayasam, Akasa. कालो Kalo, Kala (Time). अज्जीवो Ajjiva, Ajiva. णेओ Neyo, to be known. पुग्गल Puggala, Pudgala. रुवादिगुणो Ruvadiguno, possessing the qualities, Rupa, etc. मुत्तो Mutto, having form. दु Du, but. सेसा Sesa, the rest. अमुत्ति Amutti, without form. 15. Again, Ajivas should be known to be Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Akasa and Kala. Pudgala has form and the qualities, Rupa, etc. But the rest are without form.


We have now arrived at the end of the subdivisions of Dravya. The following table will illustrate the varieties of Dravya with sub-classes.

Innumerable passages might be quoted from all sorts of Jain works which contain a mention and description of these varieties of Dravya. In Tattvarthadhigam Sutra we have: -

“द्रव्याणि” [V. I]

“अजीवकाया धर्माधर्माकाश पुद̖गला:” [V. I]
“जीवाश्च” [V. 3]
“कालश्च” [V. 39]

i.e., “The Dravyas are Dharma, Adharma, Akasa and Pudgala which are Ajivas having Kaya (body). The Jivas also (are Dravyas). Kala too is Dravya.” Jiva and the four Ajivas Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Akasa have Kaya (body) and are known as Panchastikayas (the Five Astikayas). Kala, though an Ajiva, has no body. It is Akaya (without body). This is why Kala is mentioned separately and last of all the Sutra quoted above. In all the Jain Puranas there is a description of Dravyas. We quote one verse only from a manuscript of Vardhamana Purana by Bhattaraka Sakalakirti.

अथ पुद्गल एवात्र धर्मोऽधर्मो द्विधा नभः ।

कालश्च पञ्चधैवेत्यजीवतत्त्वं जगौ जिन रू ।।“

[Canto XVI. Sloka 15] i.e., “Then Jina (Mahavira) spoke about the five sorts of Ajiva, viz., Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Akasa and Kala. As in all the Puranas so in all Jain Kavyas also we found enumeration and description of Dravyas. A peculiarity of Jain Kavyas is that in the last Canto of nearly all of these works we find a brief summary of the principles of Jainism. It is no wonder therefore that we shall find a description of Dravyas there. Two such passages are quoted here.

“धर्माधर्मा नभः कालः पुद्गलश्चेति पञ्चधा ।

अजीवः कथ्यते सम्यग्जिनैस्तत्त्वार्थंदर्शिभीः ।।
षड्-द्रव्याणीति वणर्यन्ते समं जीवेन तान्यपि ।
विना कालेन तान्येव यान्ति पञ्चास्तिकायताम् ।।

[Dharmasaramabhyudaya Kavya, Canto XXI. 81, 82]

“धर्माधर्मावथाकाशं कालः पुद्गल इत्यपि ।

अजीवः पञ्चधा ज्ञेयो जिनागमविशारदै : ।।
एतान्येय सजीवानी षड्द्रव्याणि प्रचक्षते ।
कालहीनानि पञ्चास्तिकायास्तान्येव कीर्त्तिता:।।”

[Chandraprabha-Charita Kavya, Canto XVIII. 67,68] i.e., “Dharma, Adharma, Akasa, Kala and Pudgala- these five are called Ajivas. These with Jiva make up the six Dravyas. Excluding Kala the remaining five make up the five Astikayas.” It is needless to quotes any more parallel passages from works like Panchastikayasamayasara, Dravyanuyogatarkana, etc. In the text we have “Pudgala has form.” In Tattvarthadhigama Sutra, we find “The Pudgala have Rupa” [“रूपिणः पुद्गलाः V. 5]. The following explanation of Rupa in this aphorism is found in the Tattvartharaja-varttika : “Though the word Rupa has various meanings, it is here synonymous with ‘shape’ according to the authority of the Sastras. Or it may be taken to mean a certain quality (viz., that quality which is capable of being perceived by the eyes “चक्षुर्ग्रंहणयोग्यः”)” The word “Murttah” in our text signifies that which has Murtti (shape). This Murtti should be understood to be the same as “Rupa” mentioned in Tattvarthadhigama Sutra. That is to say the word “Rupa” in our text is not used in the same sense as it is used in the Tattvarthadhigama Sutra. In the latter “Rupa” is used to denote “Shape or form” but in our text it is used to denote “colour.” In our text “Shape or form” is indicated by the word “Murtti” and not “Rupa.” This should be remembered to avoid confusion. In our text we have “Pudgals have the qualities, Rupa, etc.” The qualities are touch, taste, smell and colour. All these qualities are enumerated in Tattvarthadhigama Sutra “स्पर्शरसगन्धवर्णवन्त: पुद्गला: ।” [V. 23] i.e. Pudgalas have touch, taste, smell and colour. In Vardhamana-Purana by Sakalakirti also we have “वर्णगन्धरसस्पर्शमयाश्चानन्तपुद्गला: ।” [Canto XVI. Verse, 16] i.e., “Pudgalas are endless and characterised by colour, smell, taste and touch.” The varieties of colour etc., have already been mentioned in the commentary to Verse7. Thus we find that among the five varieties of Ajiva, Pudgala has shape and possesses colour, smell, taste and touch. The other four Ajivas, Dharma, Adharma, Kala and Akasa have no form.

GATHA NO. 16 - Modifications of "Pudgal Dravya"

सद्दो बंधो सुहमो थूलोसंठाणभेदतमछाया ।

उज्जोदादवासहिया पुग्गलदव्वस्स पज्जाया ।।१६।।

Saddo bandho suhamo thulo samthana-bheda-tama-chhaya.
Ujjodadava-sahiya puggala-davvassa pajjaya. – (16)

Padapatha- सद्दो Saddo, sound. बंधो Bandho, union. सुहमो Suhamo, fineness. थूलो Thulo, grossness. संठाणभेदतमछाया Samthana-bheda-tama-chhaya, shape, division, darkness and image. उज्जोदादवासहिया Ujjodadava-sahiya, with luster and heat. पुग्गलदव्वस्स Puggala-davvassa, of Pudgala substances. पज्जाया Pajjaya, modifications. 16. Sound, union, fineness, grossness, shape, division, darkness and image, with lustre and heat (are) modifications of the substance (known as) Pudgala.


Sabda or sound is said to be of two kinds- Bhasa-laksana (as incorporated in languages) and Abhasa-laksana (which does not find place in any language). The first, again, is of two kinds: (1) sounds which are expressed by letters and (2) sounds which are not expressed by letters. It is said that the last mentioned kind of sound is made by creatures who possess two, three or four senses or by the Kevalis.

Sounds not finding place in languages are again of two kinds: (1) produced by human beings and (2) resulting from other sources, as the noise of thunder, etc. The first of these, again are of four kinds:(a) Tata or that produced from musical instruments covered by leather, (b) Vitata or that produced from string-instruments, (c) Ghana or that produced from metallic instrument and (d) Sausira or that produced from wind-instruments. It should be mentioned in this connection that there is a difference in the nomenclature of musical instruments between the Jains and the Hindus, for the latter call Tata by the name of Anaddha and Vitata by the name of Tata.

The following theory of the sounds is found in verse 79 of the Panchastikayasamayasara:

सद्दो खंधप्पभवो खंधो परमाणुसंगसंघादो ।

पुद्देसु तेसु जायदि सद्दो उप्पादगो णियदो ।।

i.e. “The combination of atoms is known as Skandha. Sound results when skandhas strike against one another". Thus it has been laid down that all sounds result from the Skandhas of Pudgala (matter).

Bandha or union is mainly divided into heads: (1) Prayogika (produced by the efforts of body, speech or mind of a person) and (2) Vaisrasika (produced without any kind of effort of any person).

Prayogika may again be (1) Jiva-visaya i.e. union of non-living substances only or (2) Jivajiva-visaya i.e, union of living with non-living substances. Jiva-visayai Bandha, again, may result (1) from Karma (producing eight kinds of bondage corresponding to eight kinds of Karma viz. Jananavaraniya, Darsanavaraniya, Wedaniya, Mohaniya, Nama, Gotra, Ayu and Antaraya) or (2) from no Karma. This last, again, is of five kinds: (1) Alapana (e.g. the fastening of a rope or chain to a chariot etc.), (2) Alepana (e.g. painting the walls etc.) (3) Samslesa (e.g. joining of pieces of wood together by a carpenter etc.), (4) Sarira (e.g the union of limbs in a body) and (5) Sariri (e.g. the union of different bodies).

Vaisrasika Bandha, again, is either (1) Anadi or enternal, as the union of the whole mass or parts of Dharama, Adharma and Akasa or (2) Adimat or that which has beginning having resulted from a definite cause e.g. the union of different colours in a rainbow.

The whole or half or a quarter of each of Dharma, Adharma and Akasa may be said to contain different parts which are attached to one another. Thus there arises nine kinds of union which are enternal. Sauksmya or fineness is of two kinds: (1) that which is found in the atoms, beyond which there is nothing more fine, and (2) that which is found in other substances and which is of different degrees as the same is relatives to that different substances.

Sthaulya or grossness is, similarly, of two kinds: (1) grossness of the maximum limit e.g. that of the whole universe and (2) grossness less than the maximum limit which may be of various degrees. Samsthana or shape is of two kinds: (1) that which can be permanently defined (e.g. round, square, triangular, etc.) and (2) that which cannot be permanently defined (e.g. the shape of cloud). Bheda (division or separation ) is of six kind: (1) Utkara (e.g. sawing a piece of wood), (2) Churna (e.g. grinding wheat into powder), (3) Khanda (e,g breaking up a pitcher into its different parts ), (4) Caurnika (e.g. separating the chaff from rice, pulses, etc), (5) Pratara (e.g. dividing mica into many slices) and (6)Anuchatana (e.g. causing sparks to fly out from a glowing ball of iron). Tamah is darkness. Chhaya is of two kinds: (1) Inverted images, as seen in mirror etc. and (2) un-inverted images. In the first of these the left side becomes right and vice versa. Herein lies the differences between the two. Atapa is heat caused by the sun, and Udyota is the light resulting from the moon, fire-fly, jewels, etc. All these things are mere modifications of Pudgala.

GATHA NO. 17 - Characteristics of "Dharam Dravya"

गइ-परिणयाण धम्मो पुग्गलजीवाण गमणसहयारी ।

तोय जह मच्छाणं अच्छंता णेव सो णई ।।१७।।

Gayi-parinayana dhammo pugalajivana gamanasahayari.
Toyam jaha machchhanam achchhanta neva so nei. (17)

Padapatha– जह Jaha, as. गइ-परिणयाण Gai-parinayana, engaged in moving. मच्छाणं Machchhanam, fish. गमणसहयारी Gamana- sahayari, assisting the movement. तोय Toyam,water. पुग्गलजीवाण Puggala-jivana, of the Pudgala and Jivas. धम्मो Dhammo, Dharma. सो So, that. अच्छंता Achchhanta, those not moving. णेव Neva, does not. णई Nei, moves. 17. As water assists the movement of moving fish, so Dharma assists the movement of moving). Pudgala and Jiva. (But) it does not move (Pudgala and Jiva which are) not moving.


In this verse, we have a description of a peculiar substance known as Dharma in Jain philosophy. It should be remembered that the meaning of the word Dharma, as used by the Jains, has not the slightest resemblance to that of the same word in Hindu philosophy. The Jain philosophers mean by Dharma a kind of ether which is the fulcrum of motion. With the help of Dharma, Pudgala and Jiva move. Dharma does not make these move, but only assists them in their movement when they begin to move. In all workers in Jain literature, we have nearly the same illustration given of Dharma, The illustration is as follows: As fish move in water, without being impelled in their movement by water, but only receiving assistance of the water in their movement, so Pudgala and Jiva move, assisted by Dharma, but not impelled buy it. Dharma has no form, is eternal and void of activity. These characteristics of Dharma has been thus enumerated in Varadhamana Purana by Sakala-Kirti:

जीवपुद्गलयोर्धर्म्मः सहकारी गतेर्म्मतः ।

अमूर्त्तो निष्कियो नित्यो मत्स्यानां जलवद् भुवि ।।”

(Canto XVI. Verse 29) i.e. “Dharma is known to be the helper of motion of Jiva and Pudgala, is formless, inactive and eternal. (It acts like) water to fish in the world.” In Panchastikaya Samaysara we have:

उदयं जह मच्छाणं गमणाणुग्गहयरं हवदि लोए ।

तह जीवपुग्गलाणं धम्मं दव्वं वियाणेहि ।।

(Verse 85)

i.e. “Know that, as water helps the movement of fish so Dharma (helps the movement of) Jiva and Pudgala”.

Amrita Chandra Suri has written in his Tattvarthasara, ”That is called Dharma which helps the motion of things which have begun to move by themselves. Jiva and Pudgalas restort to Dharma when they are going to move, as fish take the help of water in their movement.”

क्रियापरिणतानां यः स्वयभेव क्रियावताम् ।

आदधाति सहायत्वं स धर्म्मः परिगीयते ।।
जीवानां पुद्गलानां च कर्त्तव्ये गत्युपग्रहे ।
जलवन्मत्स्यगमने धर्म्मः साधारणाश्रयः ।।”

[तत्वार्थसारः ३ । ३३। ३४ ।]

In Jain Kavyas also we have the same illustration of Dharma, and we shall only quote two such passages here:

“धर्म्मः स तात्विकैरुक्त्तो यो भवेद् गतिकारणम् ।

जीवादीना पदार्थानां मत्स्यानामुदकं यथा ।।“

[ धर्मशर्माभ्युदयम् । २१ । ८३ ।]

i.e. “That which becomes the fulcrum of motion of substances like Jivas etc., as water is to fish, is called Dharma by those versed in the Tattvas.’’

जलवन्मत्स्ययानस्य तत्र यो गितकारणम् ।

जीवादिनां पदार्थानां स धर्म्मःपरिवर्णितः ।।
लोकाकाशमभिव्याप्य संस्थितो मूर्त्तिवर्ज्जितः ।
नित्यावस्थितिसंयुक्त्तः सर्वज्ञज्ञानगोचरः ।।“

[ चन्द्रप्रभचरितम् । १८ । ६९-७०]

i.e. “That is called Dharma which is the cause of movement of substances like Jivas etc., as water (is the helper) of the movement of fish. It exists pervading Lokakasa, is formless and eternal, and is the object of knowledge of only the omniscient.” Dharma is, therefore, that which, not moving in itself and not imparting motion to any thing, help the movement of Jiva and Pudgala. Without Dharma, the motion of Jiva and Pudgala would be impossible.

GATHA NO. 18 - Characteristics of "Adharam Dravya"

ठाणजुदाण अधम्मो पुग्गलजीवाण ठाणसहयारी ।

छाया जह पहियाण गच्छंता णेव सो धरई ।।१८।।

Thanajdana adhamno puggalajivana thanasayari.
Chhaya jaha pahiyanam gachchhanta neva so dharayi. – (18)

Padapatha – जह Jaha, as. छाया Chhaya, shadow, ifg;k.ka Pahi-yanam, of the travellers. ठाणजुदाण Thanajudana, stationary. पुग्गलजीवाण Puggalajivana, of the Pudgalas and Jivas. ठाणसहयारी Thanashayari, is assistant in making statiohary. अधम्मो Adhamno, Adharma. सो So, that. गच्छंता Gachchhanta, those moving. णेव Neva, does not. धरई Dharai, holds. 28. As shadow (assists the staying of) the travellers, (so) Adharma assists the staying of the Pudgalas and Jivas which are stationary, But that (i.e. Adharma ) does not hold back moving ( Pudgalas and Jivas).


Adharma is exactly the opposite of Dharma which has been described in Verse 17. Dharma is the fulcrum of motion, and Adharma is the fulcrum of rest. Vide-

जह हवदि धम्मदव्वं तह तं जाणेह दव्वमधमक्खं ।

ठिदिकिरियाजुत्ताणं कारणभूदं तु पुढवीव ।।

[पञ्चास्तिकायसमयसारः । ८६ ।]

Adharma, like Dharma, is eternal, without form and without activity. It does not stop the motion of Jiva or Pudgala, but it assists them in staying still, while they are in a state of rest. Vide-

स ह्याकर्त्ताप्यधर्मस्याजीवपुद्गलयोः स्थितेः ।

नित्योऽमूर् क्रियाहीनः छायेव पथिकाग्ङिनाम्।।ष्

[Vardhamane Purane, XVI-30] The following examples are invariably found in all Jain works, as illustrating Adharma. First, Adharma is likened to earth which does not stop creatures from moving but becomes a support of them when they are at rest. Secondly, Adharma is said to be like shadow which does not forcibly stop the travellers scorched by the rays of the sun from moving, but assists in their rest while they of their own accord come to sit in the shade. Both these examples are given in the Verse 84, Canto XXI of Dharmasarmabhyudaya Kavya:

“छायेव धर्मतप्तानामश्वादीनामिव क्षितिः।

द्रव्यानाँ पुद्गलादीनामधर्मः स्थितिकारणम्।।”

i.e. “Adharma is the cause of rest of Dravyas, Pudgala, etc. as shadow is that of (persons) heated by rays of the sun, or as the earth is that of (creatures like) horses, etc.” In Tattverthasara, Chapter III, Verses 35 and 36 we have:

“स्थित्या परिणतानां तु सचिवत्वं दधाति यः ।

तमधर्म जिनाः प्राहुर्निरावरणदर्शनाः ।।
जीवानां पुद्गलाना कर्त्तंव्ये स्थित्युपग्रहे ।
साधारणाश्रयो∙धर्म पृथिवीवगवां स्थितौ ।।

i.e. “Jivas, whose faith is unclouded, call that to be Adharma which ministers to the staying of Jivas and Pudgalas when these are prone to rest. Adharma supports all (to rest), like the earth allowing rest to the cows.” In Chandraprabhacharita, Canto XVIII, Verse 71,we have:

द्रव्यानां पुद्गलादिनामधर्मः स्थितिकारणम् ।

लोके∙भिव्यापकेत्वादिर्धो∙धर्मो∙पि धर्मवत्।।

i.e. “Adharma is the cause of rest of Dravyas, Pudgala, etc. Adharma, like Dharma, has the same characteristics viz. it pervades Lokakasa etc. (the other qualities are that of being eternal, being without form, and being perceptible only by the omniscient.) We should therefore remember that, without Dharma, it will be impossible for any substances (Dravya) to move. The universe is divided into two parts: (1) Lokakasa, which is pervaded throughout by Dharma and Adharma, and in which movement or rest may therefore happen and (2) Alokakasa, which is beyond Lokakasa, and in which Dharma and Adharma are absent. We have learnt previously that one of the characteristics of a Jiva is to move upwards. When a Jiva makes an attempt to move upwards, in its gradual stages of development, it is able to do so through the assistance of Dharma. By gradually moving higher and higher, it reaches the limits of Lokakasa, beyond which there is no Dharma. Hence, it is bound to stay there. This will explain why in Verse 14 we have said that liberated Jivas stay at the top of Lokakasa and, though possessing the characteristic of having an upward motion, they do not proceed any further.

GATHA NO. 19 - Characteristics of "Aakash Dravya"

अवगासदाणजोग्गं जीवादीणं वियाण आयासं ।।

जेणं लोगागासं अल्लोगागासमिदि दुविहं ।।१९।।

Avagasadanajogasam jivadinam viyana ayasam
Jenam logagasam allogagasmidi dubiham – (19)

Padapath- जीवादीणं Jivadinam, of the Jivas. अवगासदाणजोग्गं Avagasadanajogasam, capable of allowing space. जेणं Jenam, Jain. आयासं Ayasam, Akasa. वियाण Viyana, know. लोगागासं Logagasam, Lokaskasa. अल्लोगागासां Allogagasam, Alokakasa. इदि Idi, thus. दुविहं Duviham, of two kinds. 19. Know that which is capable of allowing space to Jiva etc. to be Akasa, according to Jainism Lokakasa and Alokakasa, thus (Akasa is) of two kinds.


The word Akasa is thus derived: “That in which the substances, Jiva etc. are revealed or that which reveals itself is known as Akasa,” or it may be thus derived: “Akasa is that which allows space to other substances.” In our text, the last of the derivations is adopted, as this clearly explains the characteristics of Akasa. The chief characteristic of Akasa is to allow other substances to enter into or penetrate itself. This entering or penetration by the word Avagaha, which AkalankaDeva explains as Anuprabesa or interpenetration. Uma Swami has also mentioned this characteristic of Akasa, e.g. “आकाशस्यावगाहः ।”

[Tattvarthadhigama Sutra V. 18] i.e. “interpenetrability is the characteristic of Akasa.” In Panchastikayasamayasara, verse 90, we have: “That which gives all the room to all Jivas, Pudgalas, and the rest (i.e. Dharma, Adharma and Kala) is Akasa.” In Tattvarthasara, Chapter iii. Verse 38, we have a similar idea: “Akasa is eternal, pervasive and all objects of the universe exist in it,” and it has no form.” Akalanka Deva gives the following example to illustrate the interpenetrability of Akasa. He says that as water allows a swan to enter in itself, so Akasa allows the other substances to penetrate itself. But this example, being taken from the material word, should not be accepted in a strict sense. For, really, a swan displaces some water; but Akasa being a subtle substance does not obstruct other substances. To have a better example, let us suppose the empty space between a room to be Akasa and the substance Dharma, Adharma, etc. to be lights of different lamps. Now, the space in a room can be filled up by the lights of different lamps which intermingle and penetrate the space. In the same manner, Akasa can allow the substances, Dharma, etc. to penetrate itself. Akasa is of two kinds: Lokakasa and Alokakasa. These will be explained in the next verse.

GATHA NO. 20 - Characteristics of "Lokakash" and "Alokakash"

धम्माधम्मा कालो पुग्गलजीवा य संति जावदिये ।

आयासे सो लोगो तत्तो परदो अलोगुत्तो ।।२०।।

Dhammadhamma kalo puggala-Jiva ya santi Javadiye.
Ayase so logo tattoo parado alogutto. – [20]

Padapatha- जावदिये Javadiye, in which. आयासे Ayase, in Akasa. धम्माधम्मा Dhammadhamma, Dharma and Adharma. कालो Kalo, Kala. य Ya, and. पुग्गलजीवा Puddalajiva, Pudgala and Jiva. संति Santi, exist. सो So, that. लोगो Logo, Lakakasa. तत्तो Tatto, that. परदो Parado, beyond. अलोगुत्तो Alogutto, is called Alokakasa. 20. Lokakasa is that in which Dharma, Adharma, Kala, Pudgala and Jiva exist. That which is beyond (this Lokakasa) is called Alokakasa.


Loka is that place in which happiness and misery are seen as results of virtue or vice, or Loka might be said to be that place in which things are got , or Loka is that place which is perceived by the omniscient. “This is how Akalanka Deva derives the word Loka. Akasa with reference to Loka, or Akasa similar in extent to Loka is Lokakasa and Akasa beyond Loka is Alokakasa. Loka or the universe , according to the Jain idea consist of three division – Urdha Loka or the upper world, Madhya Loka or middle world and Adho Loka or the lower world. The first is the above of celestial beings, the second of men and of other creatures and the third of the inmates of hell. Surrounding these Lokas, which are situaled one above the other, are three layers of air, the inner being humid, the middle dense and the outer rarified. Within the envelope of these layers, there is Lokakasa– an invisible substance which allow space to other substance and is equal in extent to be the Lokas. In this Lokakasa, jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Kala exist. Beyond this Lokakasa there is Alokakasa which is eternal, infinite, formless, without activity and perceptible only by the omniscient in Alokakasa, there is only the substance Akasa and not Dharma, Adha-rma, Kala, Pudgala, or Jiva.

GATHA NO. 21 - Characteristics of "Kaal Dravya"

दव्वापरिवट्टरूवो जो सो कालो हवेइ ववहारो ।

परिणामादीलक्खो वट्टणलक्खो य परमट्टो ।।२१।।

Davvaparivattaruvvo Jo so kalo havei vavaharo.
Parinamadilakkho vattanalakkho ya paramattho.-(21)

Padapatha – जो Jo, which. दव्वापरिवट्टरूवो Davvaparivattaruvo, helping changes in substance, परिणामादिलक्खो Parinamadilakkho, understood from modifications, etc. सो So, that. ववहारो Vavaharo, Vyavahara. कालो Kalo, time , हवेय Havei, is. या Ya, which. वट्टणलक्खो Vattanalakkho, understood from continuity. परमट्टो Paramattho, real. 21. Vyavahara Kala (time from the ordinary point of view) is that which help to produce changes in substance and which is known from modification (produced in substance), while Parmarthika (i.e. real) Kala is understood from continuity.


Real time is, according to the Jain view that which assists the changes in substance. To give a concrete example we might say that the stone under a potter’s wheel assists in the movement of the wheel. The stone here does not impart motion to the wheel, but without this stone such a kind of motion would not have been possible. Similarly time according to Jainism, assists in the change produced in substance, through it does not cause the same. The Jain view is, that time does not cause the change which are produced in the substance, but indirectly aids the production of such changes. This is real time. But time, from the ordinary point of view, consists of hours, minutes, seconds, etc. by which we call a thing to be new or old according to change produce in the same. These two kinds of time are technically called Kala and Samaya respectively. In all the Angas of the Jains we find the phrase. “In that Kala and in that Samaya” (“तेणं कालेणं तेणं समएणं”). Kala is eternal, void of form and without beginning or end. Kala has no varieties. Samaya has a beginning and an end, and consists of varieties, viz. hour, minute, second, etc. Kala may be said to be the substantial cause (Upadana Karana) of Samaya.

“Some say that there is no other Kala, except that which consists of acts comprised by the rising and setting of the sun, etc.” That is to say, some deny that there is a real time (Nischaya Kala) behind the apparent time (Vyavahara Kala). But this view is untenable, for there must be a time having the characteristics of a substance different from the act mentioned above. There must be something behind to help these acts. Though in ordinary parlance we apply the word time to such acts, real time is not identical with the same. Vartana or continuity is the perception of the existence of a substance understood from change produced in the same in separate moments of time. For example, we put rice in a pot containing water and place the same on a fire. After sometime, we find that the rice has been boiled. From this we infer that slow change must have been going on in the rice from the moment we put it in the raw state in the vessel, till we saw it in the boiled condition. Throughout this period an existence is to be inferred .This perception of existence is called Vartana. Of course, this inference of existence of real time can only be made from the effects of apparent Time (Vyavaharika Kala) viz. the change in the rice.

GATHA NO. 22 - Count of "Kaal Dravya"

लोयायपदेसे इक्केक्के जे ठ्ठिया हु इक्केक्का ।

रयणाणं रासीमिव ते कालाणू असंखदव्वाणि ।।२२।।

Loyayapadese ikkekke je tthia hu ikkekka.
Rayananam rasimiva te kalauu asamkhadavvani. -- (22)

Padapatha- इक्केक्के Ikkeke, in each. लोयायपदेसे Loyayapadese, Pradesa of Lokakasa. जे Je, which. इक्केक्का Ikkekka, one by one. कालाणू Kalanu, point of Time. रयणाणं Rayananam, jewels. रासीमिव Rasimiva, heaps. हु Hu, certaicly. ठ्ठिया Tthia, are. ते Te, that. असंखदव्वाणि Asamkhadavvani, innumerable substances. 22. Those innumerable substance which exist one by one in each Pradesa of Lokakasa, like heaps of jewels, are points of time.


Kala or time consists of minute, point or particles which never mix with one another, but are always separate. The universe (Lokakasa) is full of these particles of time, no space within it being void of the same. It needed not be mentioned that these particles of time are invisible innumerable inactive and without form. In all the Jain works, these particles have been compared to innumerable jewels. This example illustrates the fact that the particles of time never mix up with one another. In Tattavarthasara, we have

एकैकवृत्त्या प्रत्येकमणवस्तस्य निष्कियाः ।

लोकाकाश-प्रदेशेषु रत्नराशिरिव स्थिताः।।” [३१४४]

i.e. “The particles of that (Time) exists each in its own capacity, like heaps of jewels in the Pradesa of the Lokakasa (universe), and are without activity.” In Vardhamana Purana we have:

““लोकाकाशप्रदेशस्था ये ह्येकैका अणवः स्थिताः ।

भिन्नभिन्नप्रदेशस्था रत्नानामिव राशयः ।।”

[Canto XVI. Verse 35] i.e. “The particles exist separately in different Pradesas of Lokakasa, like heaps of heaps of jewels in different places.” This characteristic of Time differentiates it from the other five kinds of substances for, while the former consists of separable particles, the later are collections of indivisible and inseparable parts.

GATHA NO. 23 - Varieties of "Dravya" and "Astikaya"

“एवं छवंभेयमिदं जीवाजीवप्पभेददो दव्वं ।

उत्तं कालविजुत्तं णायव्वा पंच अत्थिकाया दू ।।२३।।

Evam chhavbheyamidam jivajivappabhedado davvam.
Uttam kalavijuittam nayavva pancha attikaya du- (23)

Padapatha- एवं Evam, in this manner. जीवाजीवप्पभेददो Jivajivappabhedado, according to the subdivisions of Jiva and Ajiva. इदं Idam, this. दव्वं Davvam, Dravya. छवंभेयं Chhavbheyam, of six kinds. उत्तं Uttam, is called. दु Du and. कालविजुत्तं Kala-vijuttam, without Kala. पंच Pancha, five. vfRFkdk;k Atthikaya, Astikayas. णायव्वा Nayavva, to be known. 23. In this manner this Dravya is said to be of six kinds, according to the subdivisions of Jiva and Ajiva. The five, without Kala, should be understood to be Astikayas.


Dravya is divided into Jiva and Ajiva. Ajiva, again, is subdivided into Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Akasa and Kala. These five Ajivas, with Jiva make up the six varieties of Dravya.

Of these six varities, Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Akasa are technically known as the five Astikayas. The meaning of the word Astikaya will be understood from verse 24, and the reason why Kala, the sixth variety of Dravya, is not called Asti-kaya, will be explained in verse 25.

GATHA NO. 24- Characteristics of "Astikaya" and significance of its name.

संति जदो तेणेदे अत्थीति भणंति जिणवरा जम्हा ।

काया इव वहुदेसा तम्हा काया य अत्थिकाया य ।।२४।।

Santi jado tenede atthiti bhananti jinavara jamha,
Kaya iva vahudesa tamha kaya ya atthikaya ya – (24)

Padapatha- जदो Jado, because. एदे Ede, these. संति Santi, exist. तेण Tena, on that account. जिणवरा Jinavara, the great Jinas. अत्थीति Atthiti, as “Asti”. भणंति Bhananti, say. य Ya and. जम्हा Jamha, because. dk;k Kaya, because. काया Kaya, bodies. इव Iva, like. वहुदेसा Vahudesa, having many Pradesas. तम्हा Tamha, therefore. काया Kaya, Kayas. य Ya, and. अत्थिकाया Atthikaya, Astikayas. 24. As these exist, they are called “Asti” by the great Jinas, and because (they have) many Pradesas, like bodies therefore (they are called) Kayas. (Hence these are called) Astikayas.


“Astikaya” consists of two words, “Asti’ and “Kaya”. ‘Asti’ literally means exists. Now, the five kinds of substance , viz. Jiva, Pudgala , Dharma, Adharma and Akasa always exists, hence, while mentioning any of these , one might says, “it exists”. Again each of these substances has many Pradesas, like bodies. Hence each of these might also be said to be “Kaya” (literally, body). These two characteristics being combined, each of the aforesaid five substances are named “Astikaya” or ‘that which exists and has different Pradesas like a body’. It should be remembered that to be an Astikaya, a substance must have both these characteristics. The substance Kala (Time), though having the first characteristic (viz. existence), is not called Astikaya, because it does not have many Pradesas.

To be more clear, first let us understand what is meant by a Pradesa. Pradesa has been defined in Verse 27 to be that part of space which is obstructed by one individual atom of matter. A Pradesa can contain not only atoms of matter, but the particles of other substances also. Thus each of the substances have Pradesas. Now, Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Akasa have many Pradesas, as these consist of many indivisible and inseparable parts, or, in other words, the particles of these are not separate, but are mixed up or capable of being mixed up. Hence, as we are unable to locate these particles indefinite Pradesas, these substances can be said to occupy many Pradesas. But Kala consists of particles which never mix up, and consequently each of these particles occupies a particular Pradesas. Hence Kala is said to have one Pradesas only. But the other substances Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Akasa having no separable and distinct particles occupying distinct Pradesas, are said to be of many Pradesas.

Kaya is that which has many Pradesas . The five substances, Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Aharma and Akasa have many Pradesas, and hence these are called Kayas; but Kala having but a single pradesa, is not called so. This is the reason why Kala is not called an ‘Astikaya’.

GATHA NO. 25 - Count of "Pradesh Dravya"

होंति असंखा जीवे धम्माधम्मे अणंत आयासे ।

मुत्ते तिवह पदेसा कालस्सेणो ण तेण सो काओ ।।२५।।

Honti asamkha jiva dhammadhamme ananta ayyase,
Mutte tivaha padesa kalassego na tena so kayo. - (25)

Padapatha –जीवे Jiva, in Jiva. धम्माधम्मे Dhammadhamme, in Dharma and Adharma. असंखा Asamkha, innumerable, पदेसा Padesa, Pradesas. होंती Honti, are. आयासे Ayase, in Akasa. अणंत Ananta, मुत्ते Mutte, in that which has form, तिविह Tiviha, of three sorts. कालस्स Kalassa, of Kala. एगो Ego, one. तेण Tena, for that. सो So, that. काओ Kayo, having body. ण Na, not. 25. In Jiva and in Dharma and Adharma, the Pradesas are innumerable, in Akasa (the Pradesas are) infinite and in that which has form (viz. Pudgala) (these are) of three kind (viz., numerable, innumerable and infinite). Kala (the time) has one (Pradesas). Therefore, it is not (Called) Kaya.


Every kind of substance is made up of ultimate in indivisible particles. The space occupied by one such particle is known as Pradesa. Now the substance Jiva, Dharma and Adharma have innumerable Pradesas. That is to say, the Pradesas of Jiva, Dharma and Adharma are beyond calculation. Lokakasa or the universe contain innumerable Pradesas and, as Jiva can fill up the whole of the universe by expansion, it is said to contain innumerable Pradesas. Dharma and Adharma also pervade all parts of the universe, as oil pervades the whole portion of mustard seed. Hence these two substances also have innumerable Pradesas. Akasa is infinite, for it only pervades the universe, but is even existent beyond it, hence its Pradesas are infinite. The distinction between innumerable and infinite Pradesas consists in this that, while the former have a limit, though it is beyond the power of even an omniscient being to count them, the latter is without limits. It may be urged that, without knowing the number of the Pradesas belonging to Akasa, how can one become, omniscient? Akalanka Bhatta has replied to this that, to be omniscient, is sufficient to know that these are innumerable. When we say that Pradesas of such and such a substance are innumerable, we mean that in reality these are incapable of being counted by any one. We are not speaking this with reference to the ordinary human beings who have limited powers of perception, but with reference to all beings. Hence it must supposed that an omniscient being only knows that Pradesas of such substance are innumerable. This is also the case when we speak of the infinite Pradesas.

Pudgala has Pradesas which are numerable, innumerable and infinite. To be more explicit, Pudgala or matter consists of ultimate indivisible particles which we might call atoms, remembering, however, that these atoms are fine than the atoms as understood in the modern science. Now two or more atoms of matter may combine and produce what is technically known as a Skandha. A Skandha may contain two, four, six, a hundred, a million or more atoms. The Pradesas or spaces obstructed by atoms in the state of Skandhas can, therefore be counted, and hence we might say in this respect that matter (Pudgala) has numerable Pradesas. From another point of view, if we do away with the combination which produce Skandhas and suppose the atoms to exists separately, contemplating a division, Pudgala should be understood to have innumerable atoms for, Pudgala, as mentioned before exists throughout Lokakasa or the universe. Again, Pudgala may be said to have infinite Pradesas also from another point of view, viz. the atoms of matter in a subtle state may be considered to be infinite. It a doubt be started that how can infinite atoms exists in finite Lokakasa, we reply that atoms in a subtle state, though infinite, can exist in one Pradesa of Akasa, though in the gross state this is not possible. Thus matter in subtle state may be said to possess infinite Pradesas. It has already been mentioned in the Commentary on Verse 24 that Kala has only one Pradesa, and this is the reason why we do not call it Kaya, for a Kaya is that which has more than one Pradesa.

GATHA NO. 26 - "Pudgal Parmanu" is "Astikaya"

एयपदेसोवि अणु णाणाखंधप्पदेसदो होदी ।

बहुदेसो उवयारा तेणा य काओ भणंति सव्वण्हु ।।२६।।

Eyapadesovi anu nanakhandha ppadesado hodi.
Bahudeso uvayara tena ya kayo bhananti savvanhu. - (26)

Padapatha – एयपदेसोवि Eyapadesovi, though of one Pradesa. अणु Anu, atom. णाणाखंधप्पदेसदो Nanakhandhaon, account of being Pradesa of many Shandhas. बहुदेसो Bahudeso, of many Pradesa. होदि Hodi, becomes. तेण Tena, therefore. या Ya, and. सव्वण्हु Savvanhu, the omniscient. उवयारा Uvayasa, ordinary. काओ Kayo, Kaya. भणंति Bhananti, say. 26. An atom (of Pudgala), though having one Pradesa, becomes of many Pradesas, through being Pradesa in many Skandhas. For this reason, from the ordinary point of view, the omniscient ones call (it to be) Kaya.


It may be urged that, as each particle of Kala occupies a separate Pradesa, so we have said that Kala has one Pradesa, only, in the same manner, each atom of matter occupies one Pradesa, and consequently matter might also be said to have only one Pradesa. To this, we reply that it is true that a single atom of matter occupies a single Pradesa but this atom may combine with other atoms and form different Skandhas which have many pardesas. With reference to this stage atom may be said to have many Pardesas. For this reason, from the ordinary point of view, we recognize even one atom to have many Pradesas. And as that which has many Pradesas is called Kaya so this atom also is known as Kaya. The atoms in matter are capable of combining with one another and from Skandhas, but particles of time cannot combine in this manner. It has been mentioned before that each particle of Time exists separately. Hence, though from the ordinary point of view we may say an atom of matter to have many Pradesas with reference to its existence in a Skandha stage, we cannot say that a particle of Time in the same manner contains many Pradesas.

GATHA NO. 27 - Characteristics of "Pradesh" and its quality

जावदिवं आयासं अविभागीपुग्गलाणुवाट्टद्धं ।

तं खु पदेसं जाणे सव्वाणुठ्ठाणदाणरिहं ।।२७।।

Javadivam ayasam avibhagipuggalanuvatthaddham,
Tam khu padesam jana savvanutthanadanariham. - (27)

Padapatha- जावदिवं Javadiyam, which portion. आयासं Ayasam, Akasa. अविभागीपुग्गलाणुवाट्टद्धं Avibhagipuggalanuvattaddham, is obstructed by one indivisible atom of Pudgala. तं Tam, that. खु Khu, surely. सव्वाणुठ्ठाणदाणरिहं Savvanutthanadhanadanariham, capable of giving space to particles of all. पदेसं Padesam, Pradesa. जाणे Jane, know. 27. Know that (to be) surely Pradesa which is obstructed by one indivisible atom of Pudgala and which can give space to all particles.


We have already mentioned more than once what is meant by a Pradesa. In this verse, we have a definition of Pradesa. That portion of Akasa which is obstructed by one invisible ultimate atoms of matter is known as a Pradesa. In such a a Pradesa of Lokakasa, one Pradesa of Dharma, one Pradesa of Adharma, one particle of Kala innumerable atoms of matter, or even Skandhas in a subtle state may exist. The characteristic of Akasha is to give space to all chese.