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Chapter 2 Q-A
The Category of the living
aupaśamika-ksāyikau bhāvau miśraśca jīvasya svatattvamaudayika-pāriṇāmikankau
Meaning: The distinctive characteristics of the soul are the dispositions (thought-activities) arising from subsidence, destruction, destruction-cum-subsidence of karmas (miśra), the rise of karmas (audayika)and the inherent-nature / innate-nature (pāriṇāmika) or capacity of the soul.
Q.II.1.1 How many and which are the dispositions (thought-activities) of the soul?
A.II.1.1 There are five dispositions of the soul arising out of subsidence (aupaśamika), destruction (ks āyika), destruction-cum-subsidence of karmas (miśra), rise /activation of karmas (audayika) and finally the inherent-nature (pāriṇāmika) of the soul.
Q.II.1.2 What is meant by subsidence disposition?
A.II.1.2 The disposition of the soul due to the subsidence of karmas associated with the soul is called subsidence disposition.
Q.II.1.3 What is meant by subsidence?
A.II.1.3 Not letting the karmas become active even though they are associated with the soul is called subsidence e.g. letting mud settle down in a glass of muddy water.
Q.II.1.4 What is meant by destruction-disposition?
A.II.1.4 The disposition of the soul of destroying the karmas associated with it is called destruction disposition.
Q.II.1.5 What is meant by destruction?
A.II.1.5 Separation of karmas from the soul is called destruction of karmas e.g. decantation of pure water from a glass having both clean water at the top and mud settled down at the bottom.
Q.II.1.6 What is meant by mixed-disposition?
A.II.1.6 The subsidence-cum-destruction disposition is called mixed disposition.
Q.II.1.7 What is meant by destruction-cum-subsidence disposition?
A.II.1.7 The disposition of the soul arising out of simultaneous subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas is called mixed disposition e.g. in a glass of water in which mud settled at the bottom and then the mud particles continue coming up and mixing with clean water at the top.
Q.II.1.8 What is meant by subsidence-cum-destruction?
A.II.1.8 Destruction of the activation tendency of karmas in the present time and subsidence of the karmas likely to be active in the future properly, along with activation of the partially-destructive (deśaghāti) karmas, is called subsidence-cum-destruction.
Q.II.1.9 What is meant by all-destructive (sarvaghāti)?
A.II.1.9 The karmas which totally destroy or cover the inherent nature of right belief and knowledge of the soul are called all-destructive.
Q.II.1.10 What is meant by rising-karmas destruction (audayika)?
A.II.1.10 Destruction of the karmas which are becoming active without yielding their effects is called rising- karmas destruction.
Q.II.1.11 What is the meaning of spardhaka?
A.II.1.11 The group or collection of karmas is spardhaka.
Q.II.1.12 What is the meaning of nis eka?
A.II.1.12 The number of karmas which become active in a small instant (called samaya) is nis eka.
Q.II.1.13 What is the meaning of anujīvī guṇa?
A.II.1.13 The attributes (also referred as nature of) like right belief and right knowledge of the soul are called its anujīvī guṇa.
Q.II.1.14 What is the meaning of sadāvasthā upaśama?
A.II.1.14 It means the karmas which exist with the soul in a subsided state.
Q.II.1.15 What is the meaning of partially destructive?
A.II.1.15 The karmas which veil or destroy partially the attributes of soul, like knowledge etc.
Q.II.1.16 What is the meaning of ekadeśa?
A.II.1.16 It means partial or little.
Q.II.1.17 What is the meaning of disposition due to rise of karmas (audayika)?
A.II.1.17 The disposition that arises out of the activation or rise of karmas.
Q.II.1.18 What is the meaning of rise or activation?
A.II.1.18 Yielding results /effects by karmas (associated with the empirical soul) due to the impact of other entities is called rise or activation.
Q.II.1.19 What is the meaning of disposition due to the inherent-nature (pāriṇāmika) or capacity of the soul?
A.II.1.19 These are the dispositions of the soul which are independent of the karmas. Alternatively these are the dispositions of the soul which do not have any bearing to the subsidence or destruction or subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas. Or one can express the nature of the soul to be its disposition due to its inherent nature.
Q.II.1.20 What is meant by independent of karmas?
A.II.1.20 Those dispositions of the soul which do not have any relation to the karmas are called independent of karmas.
Q.II.1.21 What is meant by karma?
A.II.1.21 The entities /activities which veil the inherent nature of the soul or make it dependent on others are called karmas.
Q.II.1.22 How many types of karma are there?
A.II.1.22 They are of eight types namely: knowledge-obscuring, intuition-obscuring, misery and pleasure experiencing, deluding, life span determining, physique making, status determining and obstruction create karmas.
Q.II.1.23 What is the meaning of knowledge-obscuring karma?
A.II.1.23 It means the karmas which cover or put a veil on the knowledge capabilities of the soul.
Q.II.1.24 What is the meaning of experience-giving karma (Vedanīya)?
A.II.1.24 The karmas which make the soul experience miserys and pleasures.
Q.II.1.25 What is the meaning of deluding (mohanīya) karmas?
A.II.1.25 The karmas which make the soul intoxicated like the alcohol. The soul looses its right discriminating capabilities.
Q.II.1.26 What is the meaning of lifespan determining (āyu) karma?
A.II.1.26 The karmas which keep the soul in one state /destiny like a human being etc. and thus determine its period of activity during that state.
Q.II.1.27 What is the meaning of physique-making karma?
A.II.1.27 It means the karmas which give different forms to the empirical soul in its present destiny /state.
Q.II.1.28 What is the meaning of obstructing (antarāya) karmas?
A.II.1.28 It means the karmas which obstructs, or creates obstructions in the successful completion of an activity.
Q.II.1.29 What is the meaning of status-determining (gotra) karma?
A.II.1.29 The karmas which determine the status of a living being compared to other living beings in the same realm.
Q.II.1.30 Which karmas are called obscuring (ghātiā) karmas?
A.II.1.30 Knowledge-obscuring, intuition-obscuring, deluding and obstruction-creating karmas are grouped as obscuring karmas.
Q.II.1.31 Which are the karmas that are non-obscuring (aghātiā)?
A.II.1.31 Physique-making, life span determining, status determining and experience karmas are grouped as non-obscuring karma.
Q.II.1.32 Which karma types, when destroyed, become the efficient causes for the disposition arising from destruction?
A.II.1.32 The four obscuring karmas are responsible for this disposition.
Q.II.1.33 Which karma types, when active, become the efficient causes for the disposition arising from activation?
A.II.1.33 All eight types of karmas are responsible for this disposition.
Q.II.1.34 Which living beings can have the disposition due to the inherent-nature of the soul?
A.II.1.34 Both auspicious and inauspicious living beings can have this disposition.
Q.II.1.35 Which living beings can experience the supreme disposition due to inherent nature of soul?
A.II.1.35 Only the auspicious living beings can experience such disposition.
Q.II.1.36 Which kinds of dispositions can be experienced only by living beings with right faith?
A.II.1.36 Dispositions due to subsidence as well as from destruction are experienced by living beings with right faith only.
Q.II.1.37 Which are the kinds of dispositions which can be experienced by living beings that have either deluded belief or right belief /faith?
A.II.1.37 Dispositions due to subsidence-cum-destruction, arising of karmas and due to inherent nature of soul can be experienced by both of them.
Q.II.1.38 What is the meaning of disposition?
A.II.1.38 Disposition means state /mode or actual state (paryāya) of soul.
Q.II.1.39 What is the meaning of mode?
A.II.1.39 Mode means different and separate states of an entity at different times.
Meaning: (These are of) two, nine, eighteen, twenty-one and three kinds respectively.
Q.II.2.1 How many total subtypes of dispositions are there?
A.II.2.1 The five main types of dispositions can be further divided into fifty three subtypes.
Q.II.2.2 How many subtypes of disposition due to subsidence are there?
A.II.2.2 There are two subtypes of dispositions due to subsidence.
Q.II.2.3 How many subtypes are there of dispositions due to destruction?
A.II.2.3 There are nine subtypes of disposition due to destruction.
Q.II.2.4 How many subtypes of mixed disposition (subsidence-cum-destruction) are there?
A.II.2.4 There are eighteen subtypes of dispositions due to subsidence-cum-destruction.
Q.II.2.5 How many subtypes are there of disposition due to rising of karmas?
A.II.2.5 There are twenty one subtypes of disposition due to rising of karmas.
Q.II.2.6 How many subtypes are there of disposition due to the inherent nature of the soul?
A.II.2.6 There are three subtypes of dispositions due to the inherent nature of the soul.
Meaning: The two kinds of disposition due to subsidence are right belief and conduct.
Q.II.3.1 How many subtypes of dispositions due to subsidence are there?
A.II.3.1 There are two subtypes of dispositions due to subsidence, namely: subsidential right belief and subsidential right conduct.
Q.II.3.2 What is the meaning of subsidential right belief?
A.II.3.2 The right faith /belief arising out of subsidence of karmas are called subsidential right belief.
Q.II.3.3 What is meant by subsidential right conduct?
A.II.3.3 The right conduct arising out of the subsidence of karmas is called
subsidential right conduct.
Q.II.3.4 Define right belief due to subsidence?
A.II.3.4 The subsidence of the seven karma tendencies (prak ŗtis), namely: the infinitely contracted (anantānubaṃdhi) four passions which are anger, pride, deceit and greed; wrong belief (mithyātva), right belief (samyaktva) and mixed (samyaktva-mithyātva) results in the right belief due to subsidence.
Q.II.3.5 How does a person with wrong belief attain the subsidence for the first time?
A.II.3.5 They (the auspicious beings with wrong belief) attain the subsidence of the seven kārmika tendencies the first time on the basis of favourable opportunity and time (kāla labdhi).
Q.II.3.6 What is meant by kāla labdhi and how many subtypes are there of this?
A.II.3.6 An opportune time which results in the attainment of an objective is called kāla labdhi.
Q.II.3.7 What is the meaning of attainment (labdhi)?
A.II.3.7 Here the labdhi means the efficient cause for attainment of the objective.
Q.II.3.8 Explain the meaning of ‘an opportune time to attain an objective’ with reference to the half the time of whirling around matter or reversal (ardhapudgalparāvartana)?
A.II.3.8 An auspicious living being becomes eligible to attain the subsidential right faith when half the time of whirling around matter remains. This is ‘an opportune time to attain an objective’ with reference to half the time of whirling around matter.
Q.II.3.9 Explain ‘an opportune time to attain an objective’ with reference to the duration of the karma?
A.II.3.9 The fitness of the soul for the first stage of right belief is attained when the soul binds karmas of less than 1014 ocean-measure-periods (kotakotī sāgaropam) years duration and when the existing karmas due to purification of the soul are of duration of 1014 less numerable thousand ocean-measure-periods (sāgaropam).
Q.II.3.10 How many types of ‘whirling around matter’ (parāvartana) are there and which are they?
A.II.3.10 These are five in number, namely: substance, place, time, state /realm and disposition/ mode.
Q.II.3.11 How many subtypes are there of substance parāvartana?
A.II.3.11 Karma and nokarma are the two types of substance parāvartana.
Q.II.3.12 How long is the duration of ardhapudgalparāvartana?
A.II.3.12 It is the same as of nokarma parāvartana. Nokarma means matter particles (like body-making) associated with empirical soul as a result of soul-karma interactions.
Meaning: The eighteen kinds of disposition due to destruction are knowledge, wrong knowledge, perception and attainment, of four, three, three and five kinds and right faith, conduct and mixed disposition of restraint and non restraint
Q.II.4.1 How many types and their names of dispositions due to destruction of karmas are there?
A.II.4.1 It is of nine types namely indestructible (ks āyika) knowledge, intuition, charity, gain (attainment), enjoyment, repeated enjoyment, energy, right belief and conduct.
Q.II.4.2 What is meant by destructionery knowledge?
A.II.4.2 The knowledge acquired after the complete destruction of knowledge-obscuring karmas is called ks āyika knowledge.
Q.II.4.3 What is meant by destructionery intuition (darśana)?
A.II.4.3 The intuition acquired after the complete destruction of intuition-obscuring karmas is called ks āyika intuition.
Q.II.4.4 What is meant by destructionery charity (dāna)?
A.II.4.4 It is the disposition accrued as a result of complete destruction of charity obstructing karmas which results in the welfare of all living beings.
Q.II.4.5 What is meant by destructionery gain (lābha)?
A.II.4.5 The disposition accrued as a result of complete destruction of gain-obscuring karmas is called ks āyika gain.
Q.II.4.6 Which living being accrues destructionery gain?
A.II.4.6 It can be acquired only by the omniscient that is free from the needs of food in the form of morsels (kavalāhāra).
Q.II.4.7 What is food in the form of morsels?
A.II.4.7 It is the food taken in the form of morsels.
Q.II.4.8 What is the meaning of kavala or grāsa?
A.II.4.8 Morsel or lump of food, taken one at a time for eating, is called kavala or grāsa.
Q.II.4.9 How can an omniscient live without food in the form morsels?
A.II.4.9 Their supreme matter body (parama audārika) continuously accepts and rejects infinite subtle auspicious matter particles every second from the environment. Therefore they don’t need food in morsel form.
Q.II.4.10 What is meant by destructionery enjoyment?
A.II.4.10 The disposition, arising as a result of complete destruction of enjoyment-obscuring karmas, is called destructionery enjoyment.
Q.II.4.11 What is meant by destructionery re-enjoyment?
A.II.4.11 The disposition, arising as a result of complete destruction of re-enjoyment-obscuring karmas, is called destructionery re-enjoyment.
Q.II.4.12 What is meant by enjoyment?
A.II.4.12 The matter which is enjoyed once is called bhoga e.g. shower of flowers. Experiencing bhoga is called enjoyment.
Q.II.4.13 What is meant by re-enjoyment?
A.II.4.13 The matter which is enjoyed repeatedly is called upabhoga e.g. throne, clothes etc. Repeatedly enjoying upabhoga is called re-enjoyment.
Q.II.4.14 What is meant by destructiionery energy?
A.II.4.14 The disposition accrued as a result of complete destruction of energy-obscuring karmas is called destructionery energy.
Q.II.4.15 What is the literal meaning of ks āyika vīrya (destructionery energy /potency)?
A.II.4.15 The literal meaning of ks āyika vīrya is infinite energy.
Q.II.4.16 What is the meaning of vīrya?
A.II.4.16 It means energy or power.
Q.II.4.17 What is the meaning of destructionery right belief /faith?
A.II.4.17 It is the right belief which results after the complete destruction of the infinitely intense (anantānubaṃdhi) four passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed; wrong belief (mithyātva), right belief (samyaktva) and mixed (samyaktva mithyātva).
Q.II.4.18 What is meant by destructionery right conduct?
A.II.4.18 The disposition accrued as a result of complete destruction of conduct-deluding karmas is called destructionery conduct.
Meaning:(The eighteen sub types of subsidence cum destruction disposition are) knowledge, wrong knowledge, perception and attainment, of five, three, three and five kinds respectively; right faith, conduct and mixed disposition of restraint and non-restraint.
Q.II.5.1 How many types of dispositions due to subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas are there and what are their names?
A.II.5.1 They are of eighteen types due to four types of right knowledge, three types of wrong knowledge, three types of intuition, five types of attainments (labdhis) like charity etc, subsidence-cum-destruction right faith and conduct and self-restraint and non-self-restraint.
Q.II.5.2 Which are the four types of subsidence-cum-destruction knowledge?
A.II.5.2 These are mind based, scriptural, clairvoyant and telepathic knowledge.
Q.II.5.3 What are three types of subsidence-cum-destruction wrong knowledge?
A.II.5.3 These are wrong-mind-based (kumati), wrong-verbal testimony (kuśruta) and wrong clairvoyance (kuavadhi).
Q.II.5.4 What are the three types of subsidence-cum-destruction intuitions?
A.II.5.4 These are caks u (due to eyes), acaks u (due to sense organs other than eyes) and avadhi (clairvoyant) intuitions.
Q.II.5.5 What are the five types of subsidence-cum-destruction attainments (labdhis)?
A.II.5.5 These are charity, gain, enjoyment, re-enjoyment and energy.
Q.II.5.6 What is meant by subsidence-cum-destruction right belief?
A.II.5.6 The right belief caused due to the destruction of the rising of the infinitely contracted (anantānubaṃdhi) four passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed; wrong belief (mithyātva), right belief (samyaktva) and mixed (samyaktva-mithyātva) activities, subsidence of the same existing with the soul for future rising and partial destruction of the right-belief tendency of the karmas.
Q.II.5.7 What is meant by subsidence-cum-destruction conduct?
A.II.5.7 The right conduct caused due to the destruction of the twelve rising tendencies of four passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed in their states of infinitely intense (anantānubaṃdhi) leading to endless cycle of births and deaths, intense (apratyakhāna) preventing total restraint and mild (pratyakhāna) preventing partial restraint along with subsidence of all these tendencies existing with the soul from future rising; rising of any of the flickering / gleaming (saṃjvalana) tendencies of the four passions which obscure only partially, or the nine quasi passions (no-kas aya) and wrong belief (mithyātva).
Q.II.5.8 What is meant by self-restraint-cum-non restraint (abstinence and non-abstinence)?
A.II.5.8 The disposition manifesting on the destruction cum subsidence of infinitely contracted (anantānubaṃdhi) passions leading to endless cycle of births and deaths, mild (pratyakhāna) passions preventing partial restraint and on the rise of intense (apratyakhāna) passions preventing total restraint and the gleaming (saṃjavalan) passions which obscure only partially and the quasi passions according to the possibility is called saṃyamāsaṃyama or self-restraint-cum-non-restraint.
Q.II.5.9 What is saṃyamāsaṃyama i.e. self-restraint-cum-non-restraint?
A.II.5.9 The dispositions of practicing the vows and not practicing them manifested on the destruction cum subsidence of infinitely-intense (anantānubaṃdhi) passions, intense (apratyakhāna) passions and on the rise of mild (pratyakhāna) passions and the gleaming (saṃjavalan) passions and the quasi passions according to the possibility is called saṃyamāsaṃyama or self-restraint-cum-non-restraint.
Q.II.5.10 What is the meaning of infinitely-intense (anantānubaṃdhi) passions?
A.II.5.10 Those passions that are bound with the soul for infinite time period and obscures the attainment of right belief are called infinitely intense (anantānubaṃdhi) passions, e.g. infinitely intense anger, infinitely intense pride, infinitely intense deceit and infinitely intense greed.
Q.II.5.11 What is the meaning of intense-passions?
A.II.5.11 The passions which prevent the disposition of abstinence are called intense-passions, e.g. intense anger, intense pride, intense deceit and intense greed.
Q.II.5.12 What is the meaning of mild (pratyakhāna) passions?
A.II.5.12 The passions which prevent the disposition of total abstinence are called mild passions, e.g. mild anger, mild pride, mild deceit and mild greed.
Q.II.5.13 In self-restraint-cum-non-restraint disposition, explain the relevance of restraint and non restraint to different activities?
A.II.5.13 Restraint refers to the violence against mobile (trasa) living beings and non restraint refers to the violence against stationery (sthāvara) living beings.
Q.II.5.14 What is the meaning of mobile living being?
A.II.5.14 The living beings that are born due to rising of mobile-body-making-karmas (trasanāmakarma) tendencies are called mobile living beings. They can also be said as the living beings which can move around or are mobile on their own, e.g. living beings with two or more types of sense organs.
Q.II.5.15 What is the meaning of stationery or im-mobile living beings?
A.II.5.15 The stationery living beings are the living beings that are born due to rising of sthāvaranāmakarma tendencies. They can also be said as the living beings which cannot move around or are not mobile on their own, e.g. one sensed living beings like plants, air bodied, water bodied, fire bodied and earth bodied living beings.
Q.II.5.16 What is the meaning of quasi passions and what are they?
A.II.5.16 Quasi passions are slightly like passions but are not complete passions, e.g. laughter (hāsya), liking for certain objects(rati), dislike for certain objects (arati), grief or sorrow (śoka), fear (bhaya), disgust (jugupsā), hankering after men (striveda), hankering after women (purus aveda), hankering after both sexes(napuṃsakaveda).
Q.II.5.17 What is the difference between the five attainments (labdhi) of disposition due to destruction, and disposition due to subsidence-cum-destruction?
A.II.5.17 In disposition due to destructions, the attainments are accrued due to the destruction of obstructing (antrāya) karmas while in disposition due to subsidence-cum-destruction; the attainments are accrued due the subsidence-cum-destruction of obstructing karmas.
Gati-kas āya-liṃga-mithyadarśanajñānasaṃyatasiddha-lesyācatu-ścatustryekaikaikaika-s adbhedāh
Meaning:(These are) the conditions of existence, the passions, sex, wrong belief, wrong knowledge, non-restraint, non-attainment of perfection (imperfect disposition) and colouration, which are of four, four, three, one, one, one and six kinds respectively.
Q.II.6.1 How many types of dispositions due to the rising of karmas (audayikabhāva) are there?
A.II.6.1 There are twenty-one types of disposition due to rising karmas namely:
• Four existence or realms that are heavenly, infernal, human and sub human.
• Four passions that are anger, pride, deceit and greed.
• Three genders those are male, female and neutral/ hermaphroditic.
• Wrong belief (mithyādarśana), ignorance (ajñāna), non-restraint(asaṃyama),imperfect disposition (asiddhabhāva)
• Six thought-colourations (leśyās) that are black, blue, grey, yellow, pink and white.
Q.II.6.2 What is the meaning of existences /realms (gati)?
A.II.6.2 The existence due to existence of the lifespan-determining karma (āyu) is called realm.
Q.II.6.3 How many types of realms are there?
A.II.6.3 There are four types of realm namely heavenly (deva), infernal (naraka), human (manus ya) and sub human (tiryaṃca).
Q.II.6.4 What is the meaning of passions (kas āya)?
A.II.6.4 Passions are those entities which subside the potency/ energy of the soul.
Q.II.6.5 How many types of passion are there?
A.II.6.5 There are four types of passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed.
Q.II.6.6 What is the meaning of sexes (liṃga)?
A.II.6.6 State caused due to the rise of quasi passion known as veda or sex.
Q.II.6.7 How many types of sexes are there?
A.II.6.7 There are three types of sexes namely male, female and neutral.
Q.II.6.8 What causes different types of sexes?
A.II.6.8 Rise of different types (male, female and neutral) of sex (veda) tendencies of physique making karmas results in the respective sexes.
Q.II.6.9 What is the meaning of wrong belief?
A.II.6.9 Development of wrong belief in the realities due to the activation /rise of the intuition-deluding (darśana mohanīya) karmas is called wrong belief.
Q.II.6.10 Which type of wrong belief is mentioned in the aphorism?
A.II.6.10 The wrong belief due to rising of karmas (audayikabhāva) is mentioned in the aphorism.
Q.II.6.11 What is the meaning of audayika-wrong belief?
A.II.6.11 Manifestation of the wrong belief karmas results in audayika-wrong belief.
Q.II.6.12 What is the meaning of ignorance (ajñāna)?
A.II.6.12 Inability to know /cognize an object is called ignorance.
Q.II.6.13 What is the meaning of non-restraint?
A.II.6.13 Lack of self-restraint is called non-restraint.
Q.II.6.14 What is the meaning of imperfect disposition (asiddhabhāva)?
A.II.6.14 Lack of the perfect (siddha) state or disposition is called imperfect disposition.
Q.II.6.15 What is the meaning of thought-colourations (leśyās)?
A.II.6.15 Manifestation of activities of mind, body and speech associated with passions is called thought-colouration. They also manifest as coloured layers of aura surrounding the body.
Q.II.6.16 What is the meaning of yoga (activities) in Jainism?
A.II.6.16 Activities of mind, body and speech resulting in the vibrations of the space-points of the soul are called yoga.
Q.II.6.17 How many types of thought-colourations are there?
A.II.6.17 There are six colourations (leśyās) namely black, blue, grey, yellow, pink and white.
Meaning: (The three are) the principle of life (consciousness), capacity for salvation and incapacity for salvation.
Q.II.7.1 How many types of dispositions due to the inherent nature of the soul (pāriṇāmikabhāva) are there?
A.II.7.1 There are three types of dispositions due to inherent nature of the soul namely; principle of life or consciousness (jīvatva), capacity/ potency for salvation (bhavyatva) and incapacity for salvation (abhavyatva).
Q.II.7.2 What is the meaning of disposition ‘principle of life /consciousness’ (jīvatva)?
A.II.7.2 Disposition that arises due to the existence of consciousness (intuition and knowledge) is called ‘principle of life /consciousness’.
Q.II.7.3 What is meant by capacity for salvation?
A.II.7.3 It means the capacity of a living being to realize the right belief-knowledge and conduct fully.
Q.II.7.4 What is the meaning of incapacity for salvation?
A.II.7.4 It means the lack of capacity of a living being to realize the right belief-knowledge and conduct fully.
Q.II.7.5 Why these three dispositions are called ‘dispositions due to the inherent nature of the soul’ (pāriṇāmikabhāva)?
A.II.7.5 These three dispositions occur without the impact of kārmika activities like rising, subsidence etc. In other words these dispositions are the natural dispositions of the soul.
Q.II.7.6 Why is jīvatva considered as pāriṇāmikabhāva when the soul has the inherent nature of substantiality (vastutva) and existence (astitva) also?
A.II.7.6 The attributes substantiality (vastutva) and existence (astitva) exist with non-living substances also and hence are generic while jīvatva is the distinguishing or specific attribute of soul only.
Q.II.7.7 What is the meaning of specific or distinguishing attribute?
A.II.7.7 The unique attribute/s, which are found only in one type of substances out of the six (e.g. living beings only and not in non living beings), are called specific attributes, e.g. principle of life (consciousness), capacity for salvation, and incapacity for salvation, are associated with living beings only.
Q.II.7.8 What is the meaning of generic attributes?
A.II.7.8 The attributes which are found in all types of substances (living and non living beings alike) are classified as generic.
Q.II.7.9 Are the generic and specific attributes existent in other types of substances also?
A.II.7.9 Yes, all six types of substances have both types of attributes, e.g. the specific attributes of matter are taste, touch etc, of dharma is the support to the motion of jīva and matter, of adharma is to support the state of rest of jīva and matter, of space is to provide place to exist to the jīva and matter and of time is to provide cause for change to these. The generic attributes like substantiality and existence are common in all types of substances.
Q.II.7.10 Karma is concrete (mūrta) and jīva is non-concrete; how they both get bonded? If they are not bonded then how can the disposition due to rising of karmas occur?
A.II.7.10 Jain philosophy is the proponent of multiplicity of viewpoints. Thus the karmas are bonded with the pure soul from beginning-less time and the empirical soul is considered as concrete also. Thus the bonding takes place and the same justifies the dispositions due to rising of karmas. However from the absolute viewpoint, soul is non concrete and is thus beyond bondage with karmas.
Q.II.7.11 How many types of dispositions are possible for the empirical soul in the present time?
A.II.7.11 Four dispositions namely due to the rising, subsidence, subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas and due to the inherent nature of the soul are possible for the empirical souls at the present time.
Q.II.7.12 How many types of dispositions are there for pure souls (siddhas)?
A.II.7.12 Pure souls have two types of dispositions namely due to destruction of karmas and due to the inherent nature of the soul.
Q.II.7.13 Which dispositions can occur in different stages of spiritual purification (guṇasthānas)?
A.II.7.13 Occurrence of disposition in different stages is a follows:
Due to subsidence of karmas 4th till 11th
Due to destruction of karmas 4th till 14th and siddhas
Due to subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas 1st till 14th
Due to inherent nature of the soul 1st till 14th and siddhas
Q.II.7.14 Which disposition occur maximum and which is the one that occurs minimal?
A.II.7.14 Disposition due to rising of karmas occurs maximum and disposition due to inherent nature occurs the minimum.
Q.II.7.15 How many dispositions are possible for one jīva at a time and how?
A.II.7.15 One jīva can have seventeen dispositions at any one time namely; two types of inherent nature, eight types of disposition due to rising of karmas, one of knowledge, one of intuition and five of attainments.
Q.II.7.16 Which are the two types of dispositions due to inherent nature that can occur simultaneously to a jīva?
A.II.7.16 Consciousness and one of (either one) capacity for salvation and incapacity for salvation can occur simultaneously to a jīva.
Q.II.7.17 Which are the eight types of dispositions due to rising of karmas that can occur simultaneously to a jīva?
A.II.7.17 One type of destiny, one type of passion, one type of sex/ gender, wrong belief, ignorance, non- restraint, imperfect disposition and one type of thought-colouration can occur simultaneously in a jīva.
Q.II.7.18 How many auspicious-dispositions are there?
A.II.7.18 There are twenty-two types of auspicious-dispositions.
Q.II.7.19 How many inauspicious-dispositions are there?
A.II.7.19 There are nineteen inauspicious-dispositions.
Q.II.7.20 How many types of pure dispositions are there?
A.II.7.20 There are nine types of pure dispositions.
Q.II.7.21 How many types of dispositions due to the inherent nature of soul are there?
A.II.7.21 There are three types of dispositions due to the inherent nature of the soul.
Q.II.7.22 How many dispositions are related to the state of the karmas?
A.II.7.22 There are four dispositions which are related to the state of karmas.
Q.II.7.23 How many dispositions are there for the path to spiritual purification (moks amārga)?
A.II.7.23 There are nineteen dispositions of the path of spiritual purification.
Q.II.7.24 How many dispositions are there for Arihantas?
A.II.7.24 In the thirteenth guṇasthānas, they have fourteen dispositions and in the fourteenth guṇasthānas they have thirteen dispositions.
Q.II.7.25 Who are the sayogikevali (omniscient with activities/yoga) and ayogikevali (omniscient without activities/yoga)?
A.II.7.25 The Arihantas in the 13th and 14th guṇasthānas respectively are called sayogikevali and ayogikevali.
Q.II.7.26 What are the fourteen dispositions of sayogikevali?
A.II.7.26 These are nine due to destruction, three due to rising of karmas and two due to the inherent nature of the soul.
Q.II.7.27 What are the dispositions of siddhas?
A.II.7.27 These are four due to destruction of karmas and one due to the inherent nature of the soul.
Upayogo laks aṇam
Meaning: Functional consciousness/ sentience is the differentia (distinguishing characteristic) of the soul.
Q.II.8.1 What is the distinguishing characteristic of the soul?
A.II.8.1 Active or attentive consciousness (manifestation of consciousness) called upayoga is the distinguishing characteristic of the soul.
Q.II.8.2 What is the meaning of sentience or functional consciousness (upayoga)?
A.II.8.2 The disposition due to which the soul sees and knows is called upayoga.
Q.II.8.3 What is the difference between sentience and soul?
A.II.8.3 Sentience is an attribute and soul is the owner of the attribute.
Q.II.8.4 Who can have sentience?
A.II.8.4 Only jīva, which is sentient, can have sentience.
Q.II.8.5 We see from eyes and acquire knowledge by other sense organs. Are they all sentient?
A.II.8.5 No, they are just instruments used by the empirical soul to see and know.
Sadvividhoasta caturbhedah ̣
Meaning: Functional consciousness / sentience are of two kinds. And these in turn are of eight and four kinds respectively.
Q.II.9.1 How many types, and their names, of sentience (manifestations of consciousness) are there?
A.II.9.1 There are two types of sentience namely knowledge (jñāna) and intuition (darśana).
Q.II.9.2 How many types of intuition manifestations of consciousness are there?
A.II.9.2 They are four namely caks u (with eyes), acaks u (without eyes), avadhi (clairvoyant) and kevala (omniscient).
Q.II.9.3 How many types of knowledge manifestation of consciousness are there?
A.II.9.3 They are eight namely mind-based, scriptural, clairvoyant, telepathic (mental modes) and omniscient, wrong mind- based wrong scriptural and wrong clairvoyant knowledge.
Q.II.9.4 Why there is no ‘telepathic-intuition’?
A.II.9.4 This is so as telepathy is preceded by mind-based knowledge and mind based knowledge is its intuition.
Meaning: The transmigrating/ empirical and the emancipated/ liberated /pure souls are the two categories of soul.
Q.II.10.1 How many categories of sentients/ soul / jīva / ātmā are there?
A.II.10.1 There are two main categories of soul, namely: empirical /saṃsārī and pure or liberated.
Q.II.10.2 What is the meaning of saṃsāra/ transmigration?
A.II.10.2 The entity in which transmigration takes place. It can also be called as change /transmigration.
Q.II.10.3 What is the meaning of empirical (saṃsārī) soul?
A.II.10.3 The pure soul bonded with karmas is called empirical soul. Alternatively we can say that the empirical soul is the one that transmigrates.
Q.II.10.4 What is meant by pure or liberated state?
A.II.10.4 The state which is completely free from kārmika bondage or transmigration is called pure state.
Q.II.10.5 Who is a liberated soul?
A.II.10.5 The soul which is free from the eight types of karmas and attains the state of siddha is called pure soul.
Meaning: (The two kinds of transmigrating souls are those) with and without minds.
Q.II.11.1 How many kinds of empirical soul are there?
A.II.11.1 There are two kinds of empirical souls namely with and without mind.
Q.II.11.2 What is the meaning of ‘with mind’ (samanaska)?
A.II.11.2 The living beings with the faculty of mind are called samanaska.
Q.II.11.3 What is the meaning of ‘without mind’ amanaska?
A.II.11.3 Living beings without the faculty of mind are called amanaska.
Q.II.11.4 How many types of mind are there?
A.II.11.4 There are two types of mind namely matter /physical (dravya) and psychic (bhāva).
Q.II.11.5 What is the meaning physical-mind?
A.II.11.5 Matter formation shaped like an eight petal lotus near the heart is called physical-mind.
Q.II.11.6 What is the meaning of psychic mind?
A.II.11.6 The entity which is having that capability of manifesting consciousness is called psychic- mind.
Q.II.11.7 What is the other term used for psychic / volite mind?
A.II.11.7 The other term used for psychic mind is intellect.
Q.II.11.8 Why the word samanaska is mentioned first in the aphorism?
A.II.11.8 It is mentioned first as it is venerable.
Q.II.11.9 How is a ‘living being with- mind’ venerable?
A.II.11.9 As only they can attain right belief, it is said to be venerable.
Q.II.11.10 What is meant by physical-mind?
A.II.11.10 The eight petal lotus shaped matter formation near the heart due to the rising of the ‘major and minor limbs of the body-making-karma’ (aṃgopāṃa-nāmakarma) is called physical mind.
Q.II.11.11 Define psychic/volite mind
A.II.11.11 The purification of the soul due to the subsidence-cum-destruction of power-obstructing (vīryantrāya} and inner-sense-obscuring (no-indri- āvaraṇa) karmas is called psychic-mind.
Meaning: The transmigrating soul are (of two kinds), the mobile and the immobile beings.
Q.II.12.1 How many types of empirical soul are there?
A.II.12.1 According to their capability of mobility, the empirical souls can be classified in two ways also, namely those with mobile bodies (trasa) and others with stationery bodies (sthāvara).
Q.II.12.2 What is the meaning of with mobile bodies?
A.II.12.2 The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘mobile-physique-making karma’/ trasa nāmakarma, having more than one type of sense organs (two, three, four and five types of sense organs) and capable of freely moving around are called with mobile bodies.
Q.II.12.3 What is the meaning of with stationery bodies?
A.II.12.3 The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘stationery-body-making karma’/ sthāvara nāmakarma, having only one type of sense organ namely body and which cannot move around freely are called with stationery bodies.
Q.II.12.4 Why is the word trasa mentioned first in the aphorism?
A.II.12.4 Since the word trasa consists of less alphabets, so it is mentioned first.
Q.II.12.5 What is so special about trasa that it is mentioned first and considered prior to stationery?
A.II.12.5 Since the trasa beings can become venerable they are mentioned first.
Q.II.12.6 Why are trasa living beings venerable?
A.II.12.6 As they can attain the three jewels namely right belief-knowledge and conduct, so they are capable of being venerated.
Q.II.12.7 Why is stationery being not capable of veneration?
A.II.12.7 As they cannot attain right belief, they are not venerable.
Prthivyaptejo-vāyu-vanaspatayah ̣ sthāvarāh
Meaning: Earth, water, fire, air and plants bodied are immobile beings.
Q.II.13.1 How many types of stationery living beings are there and what are there names?
A.II.13.1 They are of five types, namely: earth-bodied, water-bodied, fire-bodied, air-bodied and plant-bodied.
Q.II.13.2 What is meant by earth-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.2 These are the living beings that have earth as their body.
Q.II.13.3 What is meant by water-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.3 These are the living beings that have water as their body.
Q.II.13.4 What is meant by fire-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.4 These are the living beings that have fire as their body.
Q.II.13.5 What is meant by air-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.5 These are the living beings that have air as their body.
Q.II.13.6 What is meant by plant bodied living beings?
A.II.13.6 These are the living beings that have their vegetation as their body.
Q.II.13.7 How many types of earth (prthvi) are there?
A.II.13.7 There are four types of earth namely earth, earth-bodied, life in earth body and life tending towards an earth body.
Q.II.13.8 What is the meaning of earth?
A.II.13.8 The crust of the earth having hardness as its own nature but no consciousness is called earth.
Q.II.13.9 What is the meaning of earth-body?
A.II.13.9 Body of the earth is called earth body.
Q.II.13.10 What is the meaning of earth-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.10 The living being which has earth as its body is called earth bodied living being.
Q.II.13.11 What is the meaning of life tending towards an earth body or earth soul?
A.II.13.11 It is the soul which has acquired the name karma of earth body but is in transit with the kārmika body i.e. in viraha state.
Q.II.13.12 What is the meaning of vigraha stage?
A.II.13.12 When a living being dies, it leaves its old body and acquires a new body. This transitory state of the living being is called vigraha gati /stage.
Q.II.13.13 How many types of fire (agni) are there?
A.II.13.13 There are four types of fire namely fire, fire-bodied, life in fire body and life tending towards a fire body.
Q.II.13.14 What is the meaning of fire?
A.II.13.14 The crust of the fire having heat and light as its own nature but no consciousness is called fire.
Q.II.13.15 What is the meaning of fire-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.15 The living being which has fire as its body is called fire bodied living being.
Q.II.13.16 What is the meaning of life tending towards fire body or fire soul?
A.II.13.16 It is the soul which has acquired the name karma of fire body but is in transit with the kārmika body i.e. in vigraha state.
Q.II.13.17 How many types of water (jala) are there?
A.II.13.17 There are four types of water namely water, water-bodied, life in water body and life tending towards a water body.
Q.II.13.18 What is the meaning of water?
A.II.13.18 The crust of the water having coolness as its own nature but no consciousness is called fire.
Q.II.13.19 What is the meaning of water body?
A.II.13.19 Body of water is called water body.
Q.II.13.20 What is the meaning of water-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.20 The living being which has water as its body is called water bodied living being.
Q.II.13.21 What is the meaning of life tending towards water body or fire soul?
A.II.13.21 It is the soul with name karma of water body but is in transit to acquire water body.
Q.II.13.22 How many types of air are there?
A.II.13.22 Four types of air namely air, air bodied, life in air body and life tending towards an air body.
Q.II.13.23 What is the meaning of air?
A.II.13.23 The crust/layer of the air having no consciousness is called air.
Q.II.13.24 What is the meaning of air-body?
A.II.13.24 Body of the air is called air body.
Q.II.13.25 What is the meaning of air-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.25 The living being which has air as its body is called air bodied living being.
Q.II.13.26 What is the meaning of life tending towards an air body or air soul?
A.II.13.26 It is the soul with the name karma of air body but is in transit to air body.
Q.II.13.27 How many types of plants are there?
A.II.13.27 There are four types of plants namely plant, plant-bodied, life in plant body and life tending towards a plant body.
Q.II.13.28 What is the meaning of plant?
A.II.13.28 The crust of the plant having no consciousness is called plant.
Q.II.13.29 What is the meaning of plant-body?
A.II.13.29 Body of the plant is called plant body.
Q.II.13.30 What is the meaning of plant-bodied living beings?
A.II.13.30 The living being which has plant as its body is called plant bodied living being.
Q.II.13.31 What is the meaning of life tending towards plant body or plant soul?
A.II.13.31 It is the soul which has acquired the name karma of plant body but is in transit with the kārmika body i.e. in vigraha state.
Meaning: The mobile beings are from the two- sensed beings onwards.
Q.II.14.1 Who are the mobile living beings?
A.II.14.1 Mobile living beings are the living beings with two to five kinds of sense organs.
Q.II.14.2 Which are the mobile living beings with two or more types of sense organs?
A.II.14.2 These living beings are with two or three or four or five types of sense organs?
Q.II.14.3 What is the meaning of mobile (trasa)?
A.II.14.3 A living being whose present mode /state is due to the rise of trasa physwique-making karma is called trasa. Mobile also means those beings that can move on their own.
Q.II.14.4 What is the meaning of living beings with two types of sense organs and who are they?
A.II.14.4 The living being with body (touch sense organ) and taste sense organs, e.g. the worms that live in cereals like rice when kept for long, worms inside the stomach, conch shell etc.
Q.II.14.5 What is the meaning of living beings with three types of sense organs and who are they?
A.II.14.5 The living being with body (touch sense organ), taste sense organ and smell sense organ, e.g. ants, bed bugs, scorpion etc.
Q.II.14.6 What is the meaning of living beings with four types of sense organs and who are they?
A.II.14.6 The living being with body (touch sense organ), taste sense organ, smell sense organ and eyes, e.g. bumble bee, flies etc.
Q.II.14.7 What is the meaning of living beings with five types of sense organs and who are they?
A.II.14.7 The living being with body (touch sense organ), taste sense organs, smell sense organ eyes and hearing sense organ, e.g. human and sub human beings.
Meaning: The senses are five.
Q.II.15.1 How many types of sense organs are there and which are they?
A.II.15.1 There are five types of sense organs namely body, tongue, nose, eyes and ear.
Q.II.15.2 What is the meaning of sense organs?
A.II.15.2 The entity, by which, a living being cognizes and is cognized is called sense organ.
Q.II.15.3 What is the meaning of touch sense organ?
A.II.15.3 The sense organ used by its owner for touching an object of knowledge is called touch sense organ.
Q.II.15.4 What is the meaning of taste sense organ?
A.II.15.4 The sense organ used by its owner for tasting an object of knowledge is called taste sense organ.
Q.II.15.5 What is the meaning of smell sense organ?
A.II.15.5 The sense organ used by its owner for smelling an object of knowledge is called smell sense organ.
Q.II.15.6 What is the meaning of eye sense organ?
A.II.15.6 The sense organ used by its owner for seeing an object of knowledge is called eyes sense organ.
Q.II.15.7 What is the meaning of hearing sense organ?
A.II.15.7 The sense organ used by its owner for hearing the sound of an object of knowledge is called hearing sense organ.
Q.II.15.8 Why are there only five types of sense organs? Why hands and feet are not called as sense organs?
A.II.15.8 Hands and feet are the implements used for performing actions. Here the sense organs are used with respect to the manifestation (upayoga) of consciousness.
Q.II.15.9 What is the meaning of sense organs having manifestation (upayoga) of consciousness (jñānendriya)?
A.II.15.9 An entity through the use of which the empirical soul cognizes is called jñānendriya.
Q.II.15.10 What is the meaning of karmendriya (sense organs used to perform an action)?
A.II.15.10 A sense organ used to perform an action by the empirical soul is called karmendriya.
Meaning:The senses are of two types.
Q.II.16.1 How many kinds of sense organs are there?
A.II.16.1 There are two kinds of sense organs.
Q.II.16.2 What is the meaning of Dvividha in the aphorism?
A.II.16.2 It means ‘of two kinds’, or two kinds of an entity.
Q.II.16.3 Do all the five types of sense organs have each two kinds?
A.II.16.3 Yes, all the five types of sense organs have each two kinds.
Q.II.16.4 What are the two kinds of sense organs?
A.II.16.4 These are physical (dravya) and psychic (bhāva).
Q.II.16.5 What is the meaning of physical sense organ?
A.II.16.5 The rising of name karma results in the creation of physical sense organ. It can also mean the cognizable sense organs due to its matter form.
Q.II.16.6 What is the meaning of psychic sense organ?
A.II.16.6 It means subsidence-cum-destruction of knowledge -obscuring karmas which enable a sense organ to cognize according to its peculiar capability.
Meaning: The physical sense consists of accomplishment (of the organ itself) and means or instruments (its protecting environment).
Q.II.17.1 How many types of physical sense organ are there and which are they?
A.II.17.1 There are two types of physical sense organs namely formation (nivrtti) and means or instruments (upakaraṇa).
Q.II.17.2 What is the meaning of formation (nivrtti)?
A.II.17.2 Formation of a specific shape and at a specific place of a matter entity due to the rise of name karma is called formation.
Q.II.17.3 How many types of formation are there?
A.II.17.3 It is of two kinds namely external and internal.
Q.II.17.4 What is the meaning of internal formation?
A.II.17.4 The spreading of a small part of the soul’s space points in the shape of a sense organ is called internal formation.
Q.II.17.5 What is the meaning of external formation?
A.II.17.5 The formation of matter particles in the shape of a specific sense organ at a specific place is called external formation.
Q.II.17.6 What is the meaning of instrument /means?
A.II.17.6 It means an entity which assists in the completion or protection of the formation.
Q.II.17.7 How many types of instruments are there and which are those?
A.II.17.7 These are two namely external and internal.
Q.II.17.8 What are the external instruments?
A.II.17.8 For example the eye lids and the eye lashes are the instruments of the eye sense.
Q.II.17.9 What is the meaning of internal formations?
A.II.17.9 Formations inside the external physical sense organ etc. for example retina, white and black balls inside the eye.
Meaning: The psychic sense consists of attainment and consciousness.
Q.II.18.1 What is the meaning of psychic sense?
A.II.18.1 Attaining completion (labdhi) and its manifestation (upayoga) is called psychic sense organ.
Q.II.18.2 What is meant by attainment?
A.II.18.2 The ability in the soul to cognize the object of knowledge due to the subsidence-cum-destruction of knowledge -obscuring karmas is called attainment.
Q.II.18.3 What is meant by manifestation?
A.II.18.3 Activities of the soul involved in cognizing an object of knowledge are called manifestation.
Q.II.18.4 What is the difference between attainment and manifestation?
A.II.18.4 Attainment is the capability to cognize and manifestation is the use of that capability to cognize the object.
Q.II.18.5 What is the difference between manifestation and yoga (activities of mind, body and speech)?
A.II.18.5 Manifestation is the inclination of knowledge while yoga is the tendency of mind, body and speech.
Q.II.18.6 What is meant by auspicious manifestation and to whom can it occur? To whom can auspicious activities occur?
A.II.18.6 Auspicious manifestation is to acquire merit. It can occur only to the person who has right belief. Auspicious activities can occur to persons both with and without right belief.
Q.II.18.7 How many types of manifestation are there?
A.II.18.7 There are three types of manifestation namely inauspicious, auspicious and pure.
Q.II.18.8 What is meant by pure manifestation?
A.II.18.8 It means the manifestation of the soul in its own nature.
Sparśana-rasana- ghrāṇa-caks u śrotāṇi
Meaning: Touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing are the five sense organce.
Q.II.19.1 How many types of sense organs are there and their names?
A.II.19.1 There are five types of sense organs namely touch, taste, smell, eye and hearing.
Q.II.19.2 What is the meaning of touch sense organ?
A.II.19.2 The sense organs which cognizes for touching an object of knowledge is called touch sense organ.
Q.II.19.3 What is the meaning of taste sense organ?
A.II.19.3 The sense organ used by its owner for tasting an object of knowledge is called taste sense organ.
Q.II.19.4 What is the meaning of smell sense organ?
A.II.19.5 The sense organ used by its owner for smelling an object of knowledge is called smell sense organ.
Q.II.19.5 What is the meaning of eye sense organ?
A.II.19.5 The sense organ used by its owner for seeing an object of knowledge is called eyes sense organ.
Q.II.19.6 What is the meaning of hearing sense organ?
A.II.19.6 The sense organ used by its owner for hearing the sound of an object of knowledge is called hearing sense organ.
Q.II.19.7 What type of subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas and the support does these sense organs need to cognize?
A.II.19.7 Subsidence-cum-destruction of energy/potency-obscuring and mind based knowledge-obscuring karmas and support of aṃgopāṃga name karma is needed by all sense organs to cognize.
Sparśa rasa gandha varṇa śabdāstadarthāh ̣
Meaning: Touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing are the objects of five sense organce respectively.
Q.II.20.1 What is the meaning of objects in the aphorism?
A.II.20.1 The attributes of the matter which can be cognized by the sense organs are said to be objects, e.g. touch, taste, smell, colour and sound.
Q.II.20.2 How many objects of sense organs are there, and name them?
A.II.20.2 There are five objects of the sense organs and these are touch, taste, smell, colour and sound.
Q.II.20.3 What is the meaning of touch?
A.II.20.3 Cognition which results by touching the object of knowledge is called touch.
Q.II.20.4 What is the meaning of taste?
A.II.20.4 Cognition which results by tasting the object of knowledge is called taste.
Q.II.20.5 What is the meaning of smell?
A.II.20.5 Cognition which results by smelling the object of knowledge is called smell/odour.
Q.II.20.6 What is the meaning of colour?
A.II.20.6 Cognition which results by seeing the object of knowledge is called colour.
Q.II.20.7 What is the meaning of sound?
A.II.20.7 Cognition which results by hearing the object of knowledge is called sound.
Q.II.20.8 How many kinds of touch are there?
A.II.20.8 There are eight namely cold-hot, oily-dry or smooth-rough, soft-hard and heavy-light.
Q.II.20.9 How many types of taste are there?
A.II.20.9 There are five types of taste namely spicy, bitter, poisonous, sour and sweet.
Q.II.20.10 How many types of odour /smell are there?
A.II.20.10 There are two types of smell namely fragrant and foul.
Q.II.20.11 How many types of colour are there?
A.II.20.11 They are five namely while, blue, yellow, red and black.
Q.II.20.12 How many types of sound are there?
A.II.20.12 There is only one type of sound but they can broadly classified as of seven types namely Do, Re, Me, far, sew, la and tee or sā, re gā , mā , pā, dhā, ni and sā in Hindi.
Q.II.20.13 What is the spatial limit of touch for one sensed living beings?
A.II.20.13 It is a maximum of 400 bows (dhanus a).
Q.II.20.14 What is the spatial limit of touch for two sensed living beings?
A.II.20.14 It is a maximum of 800 bows.
Q.II.20.15 What is the spatial limit of touch for three sensed living beings?
A.II.20.15 It is a maximum of 1600 bows.
Q.II.20.16 What is the spatial limit of touch for four sensed living beings?
A.II.20.16 It is a maximum of 3200 bows.
Q.II.20.17 What is the spatial limit of touch for five sensed living beings?
A.II.20.17 It is a maximum of 6400 bows.
Q.II.20.18 What is the spatial limit of taste for two sensed living beings?
A.II.20.18 It is a maximum of 64 bows.
Q.II.20.19 What is the spatial limit of taste for three sensed living beings?
A.II.20.19 It is a maximum of 128 bows.
Q.II.20.20 What is the spatial limit of touch for four sensed living beings?
A.II.20.20 It is a maximum of 256 bows.
Q.II.20.21 What is the spatial limit of touch for five sensed living beings?
A.II.20.21 It is a maximum of 512 bows for living beings without mind and nine yojanas for living beings with mind.
Q.II.20.22 What is the spatial limit of smell for three sensed living beings?
A.II.20.22 It is a maximum of 100 bows.
Q.II.20.23 What is the spatial limit of smell for four sensed living beings?
A.II.20.23 It is a maximum of 200 bows.
Q.II.20.24 What is the spatial limit of smell for five sensed living beings?
A.II.20.24 It is a maximum of 400 bows for living beings without mind and nine yojanas for living beings with mind.
Q.II.20.25 What is the spatial limit of colour for four sensed living beings?
A.II.20.25 It is a maximum of 2954 bows.
Q.II.20.26 What is the spatial limit of colour for five sensed living beings without mind?
A.II.20.26 It is a maximum of 5908 yojanas.
Q.II.20.27 What is the spatial limit of colour for five sensed living beings with mind?
A.II.20.27 It is a maximum of 47263 yojanas.
Q.II.20.28 What is the spatial limit of sound for five sensed living beings without mind?
A.II.20.28 It is a maximum of 8000 bows.
Q.II.20.29 What is the spatial limit of sound for five sensed living beings with mind?
A.II.20.29 It is a maximum of 12 yojanas.
Q.II.20.30 What is the form of touch sense organ?
A.II.20.30 There are innumerable forms of touch sense organ.
Q.II.20.31 What is the form of taste sense organ?
A.II.20.31 It is in form of a spade / axe (khurpā).
Q.II.20.32 What is the form of smell sense organ?
A.II.20.32 It is in form of a sesamum flower.
Q.II.20.33 What is form of eye sense organ?
A.II.20.33 It is of the form of lentil (masūra dāla)
Q.II.20.34 What is form of ear sense organ?
A.II.20.34 It is of the form of barley tube (jau nalī).
Meaning: Scriptural knowledge is the province of the mind.
Q.II.21.1 What is object of scriptural knowledge?
A.II.21.1 It is the object of mind.
Q.II.21.2 Why is mind object of scriptural knowledge?
A.II.21.2 Since scriptural knowledge is acquired by the mind, so it is the object of mind.
Q.II.21.3 Is mind the only the cause of scriptural knowledge?
A.II.21.3 Yes, like mind based knowledge is acquired through the use of all sense organs, scriptural knowledge is acquired only through mind but not due to both the sense organs and mind.
Q.II.21.4 Is it possible for living beings without mind also to acquire scriptural knowledge?
A.II.21.4 Yes, they can acquire it due to subsidence-cum-destruction of scriptural knowledge -obscuring karmas.
Q.II.21.5 The acarya has mentioned mind as the source o scriptural knowledge in the aphorism. Why is it so?
A.II.21.5 Scriptural knowledge is accrued due to the subsidence-cum-destruction of scriptural knowledge -obscuring karmas only and mind is just an instrument to its accrual.
Q.II.21.6 Why is scriptural knowledge indicated as the object of mind in the aphorism?
A.II.21.6 The mind, with the assistance of mind based knowledge, knows an object with more specific details. Therefore scriptural knowledge is indicated as the object of mind.
Q.II.21.7 Is the meaning of śruta hearing?
A.II.21.7 Yes this is the traditional meaning of śruta but here in the context of knowledge, it relates to specific and detailed knowledge acquired based on mind based knowledge.
Meaning: Up to the end of plants-bodied living beings, there is only one sense.
Q.II.22.1 Which sense organs are possessed by the plant bodied living beings?
A.II.22.1 They have just the touch sense organ only.
Q.II.22.2 What is the meaning of Vanaspatyantānāma in the aphorism?
A.II.22.2 Living beings having bodies from earth based till plant based are included in this word.
Q.II.22.3 Which are the living beings with earth bodies till plant bodies?
A.II.22.3 One sensed living beings with touch sense only and having earth, water, fire, air and plant as bodies are included in this statement.
Q.II.22.4 Why is plant bodied living beings kept at the end?
A.II.22.4 The sequence of five types had been kept keeping the difficulty in cognition in mind, e.g. plant bodied living beings are the easiest to cognize compared to all others while earth based living beings are the toughest to cognize and in that order.
Q.II.22.5 In modern science, which scientist established life in plant bodied living beings?
A.II.22.5 Sir Jagdish Chander Basu first proved existence of life in plants.
Q.II.22.6 Who are the owners of touch sense organs?
A.II.22.6 All living beings have touch sense organ. However in this aphorism the reference is to the five one sensed living beings namely living beings with earth, water, fire, air and plant bodies
Q.II.22.7 Why are these five types of one sensed living beings indicated in this sequence?
A.II.22.7 Water is base of earth, fire is the anti of water, air is helpful in fire growing, and plants survive due to all the four types of living beings.
Meaning: The worm, the ant, the bee and man, etc. have each one more sense than the preceding one.
Q.II.23.1 Who are the owners of two and more sense organs?
A.II.23.1 The worms and lice are two sensed; ants etc are three sensed; bumble bee, flies etc are four sensed and human beings and animal beings are five sensed living beings.
Q.II.23.2 What is meant by worms (kŗmi)?
A.II.23.2 The lie which is born in the old rice kept.
Q.II.23.3 Who is bumble-bee (bhramara)?
A.II.23.3 It is the bee (bhaurā) which is seen in the gardens, black in colour and sipping juice out of the flowers.
Q.II.23.4 What is meant by vikalendriya?
A.II.23.4 Living beings with two to four types of sense organs are called vikalendriya.
Q.II.23.5 The word manus ya is used in the aphorism. Does it mean that human beings are the only five sensed living beings?
A.II.23.5 Here the word manus ya has been used as a representative of five sensed living beings only. By saying manus ya, both types of five sensed beings with or without mind are included here.
Q.II.23.6 By saying five sensed living beings, who else besides human beings are included?
A.II.23.6 Heavenly, infernal /hellish, sub human and human are included here.
Q.II.23.7 By saying sub-human (tiryaṃca), who all are included here?
A.II.23.7 All living beings with one to five senses are included here.
Q.II.23.8 Who are included in vikalatrya?
A.II.23.8 Worms, lice, ants etc are included in vikalatraya.
Saṃjñinah ̣ samanaskāh ̣
Meaning: The five- sensed beings with minds are called are rational beings (saṃjñijīvas).
Q.II.24.1 Who are called rational beings?
A.II.24.1 The five – sensed beings with minds are called are rational beings.
Q.II.24.2 Who are called samanaska?
A.II.24.2 Five sensed living beings with mind are called samanaska. Saṃjñi and samanska are synonymous.
Q.II.24.3 The aphorism says saṃjñi only. How do we infer asaṃjñi also?
A.II.24.3 By mentioning saṃjñi, the reference to asaṃjñi is automatic.
Q.II.24.4 What is the literal meaning of saṃjñi?
A.II.24.4 It has several meanings e.g. name, knowledge, desire for food and with mind. Here the meaning of with mind is used particularly. Mind here means the special attribute of discriminating between good and evil and hence which can acquire knowledge, intelligence and ability to perform accordingly.
Q.II.24.5 What is the meaning of asaṃjñi?
A.II.24.5 It means the opposite of saṃjñi.
Vigrahagatau karmayogāh ̣
Meaning: In transit from one body to another, (there is) vibration of the karmic body only.
Q.II.25.1 Which is the activity that exists in the state of transition?
A.II.25.1 There is only vibration of kārmika particles existent in the state of transition.
Q.II.25.2 What is the meaning of the state of transition?
A.II.25.2 The movement /transition of the soul after leaving the present body and to acquire a new body is called transitory state.
Q.II.25.3 What is the literal meaning of vigraha?
A.II.25.3 It means the body.
Q.II.25.4 What is the meaning of gati?
A.II.25.4 It means movement or transition.
Q.II.25.5 What is the meaning of karmayoga (kārmika vibration)?
A.II.25.5 The vibrations caused by the karmas are called kārmika vibration.
Q.II.25.6 What is the meaning of yoga?
A.II.25.6 Vibrations of the space points of the soul caused by the mind, body and speech are called yoga.
Q.II.25.7 What is the meaning of kārmaṇa body?
A.II.25.7 The body consisting of the karmas is called kārmaṇa body.
Q.II.25.8 What is the special meaning of transitory state?
A.II.25.8 The movement of the empirical soul during the interval of leaving one body and acquiring the new body is called transitory state.
W.II.25.9 Which yoga causes kārmika bondage?
A.II.25.9 It is caused due to kārmika vibration.
Q.II.25.10 Is the empirical soul takes no-karma food during transitory state?
A.II.25.10 As nokarma (physical-body making matter) body does not exist during transitory state, so there is no intake of no-karma food. However due to the presence of kārmika vibration, it does accept karmas.
Anuśreṇi gatih ̣
Meaning: Transit (takes place) in rows (straight lines) in space.
Q.II.26.1 How does the motion of living beings and matter take place?
A.II.26.1 The transit /motion of living beings and matter take palces in rows (straight lines).
Q.II.26.2 What is the meaning of rows (śreṇi)?
A.II.26.2 Commencing from the centre of the universe, the regular series of points (vertically and horizontally) in all directions higher up and lower and sideways are called rows e.g. horizontal lines appearing on a TV screen in the beginning.
Q.II.26.3 What are the meaning successive-rows (anuśreṇi)?
A.II.26.3 The meaning of anu means is successive. So the meaning of successive-rows is the regular series of successive space points (vertically and horizontally) in all directions higher up and lower and sideways.
Q.II.26.4 Which substance types have motion in successive-rows?
A.II.26.4 Only jīva (living beings) and matter (pudgala) follow this type of motion.
Q.II.26.5 When does jīva follow its motion in successive-rows?
A.II.26.5 Jīva follows its movement in successive-rows while transiting from one body to another or during vertically upwards movement to the summit of loka/universe called Moks a.
Q.II.26.6 Who follows movement without following successive-rows?
A.II.26.6 All other living beings except the two indicated in answer number 5 follow this type of movement.
Q.II.26.7 In which part of space does successive-rows (anuśreṇi) movement takes place?
A.II.26.7 It takes place in cosmos only and not in trans-cosmos (alokākāśa).
Meaning: The movement of a (liberated) soul is without a bend.
Q.II.27.1 How does the movement of liberated /pure soul take place?
A.II.27.1 The liberated souls move without hindrance / bend in its direction of movement.
Q.II.27.2 What is the meaning of avigraha state?
A.II.27.2 The state which is without bend or hindrance while in transit is called without hindrance / bends state (avigraha).
Q.II.27.3 Is movement of the living being in transition state not always vertically straight direction?
A.II.27.3 Movement of the living being in transition state can be straight as well as in different direction also.
Q.II.27.4 Is movement of the living being in transition state with bends possible for both living beings as well as matter?
A.II.27.4 It is possible only for the living beings.
Q.II.27.5 Why is movement with bend during transition state possible only for living beings?
A.II.27.5 Vigraha means body also. Only empirical souls move from one body to another for acquisition of a new body. Therefore it is possible only for living beings.
Vigrahavatī ca saṃsāriṇah ̣ prākcaturbhyah ̣
Meaning: The movement of the transmigrating souls is with bend also prior to the fourth instant.
Q.II.28.1 What is the type of movement of empirical souls?
A.II.28.1 It can be with or without bends both.
Q.II.28.2 What if the time limit for the movement with bends?
A.II.28.2 It can take place prior to four time-instants (samaya).
Q.II.28.3 What is the meaning of prāk-caturbhyah ̣ in the aphorism?
A.II.28.3 It means prior to four time-instants.
Q.II.28.4 What is the meaning of prāk in the aphorism?
A.II.28.4 It means ‘prior to’.
Q.II.28.5 Why is the word ‘ca’ used in the aphorism?
A.II.28.5 It is used to talk about avigraha state in the next aphorism.
Meaning: Movement without a bend (takes) one instant.
Q.II.29.1 What is the time limit of movement without bend in transitory state?
A.II.29.1 It is only one time-instant.
Q.II.29.2 What is the meaning of avigraha?
A.II.29.2 It means simple or straight.
Q.II.29.3 What is the name of the state with one time instant duration only?
A.II.29.3 It is called is u.
Q.II.29.4 What is the meaning of is u state?
A.II.29.4 It means the state of movement of the living being straight like that of an arrow.
Q.II.29.5 How many types of movement with bend in transitory state are here?
A.II.29.5 It is of three types namely parimuktā, lādagalikā and gomūtrikā.
Q.II.29.6 What is the meaning of parimuktā state?
A.II.29.6 The state, with one turn; like handful of water which when thrown upwards takes one turn to fall down, is called parimuktā state.
Q.II.29.7 How long the parimuktā state of exists?
A.II.29.7 It exists for two time-instants only.
Q.II.29.8 What is the meaning of lādalikā state?
A.II.29.8 It means the state of movement with two bends like the bends in the plough.
Q.II.29.9 How long does lādagalikā state exist?
A.II.29.9 It exists for three time-instants only.
Q.II.29.10 What is the meaning of gomūtrikā state?
A.II.29.10 It is the state of movement like the urine of the cow i.e. movement with three bends like the falling urine discharged by the cow.
Q.II.29.11 How long does gomūtrikā state exists?
A.II.29.11 It exists for four time-instants only.
Q.II.29.12 How long does an empirical soul take to acquire a new body?
A.II.29.12 The empirical soul takes a minimum of one time-instant (pure soul) to a maximum of four time instants.
Ekaṃ dvau trīnvā anāhārakah ̣
Meaning: For One, two or three time-instants (the soul remains) non-assimilative.
Q.II.30.1 For how long does an empirical soul in transitory state stay without intake of matter food (anāhāraka or non-assimilative)?
A.II.30.1 It stays non-assimilative during transitory state or one, two and a maximum of three time instants.
Q.II.30.2 What is the meaning of assimilative (āhāraka) and non-assimilative (anāhāraka)?
A.II.30.2 Assimilation of matter particles for three kinds of matter bodies, namely physical or gross of human and subhuman beings, celestial for heavenly and hellish beings and conveyance emanating out of saints with high purity to attain six kinds of completions/ mature-organs (paryāptis) is called assimilative. Non assimilation of these is called non-assimilative.
Q.II.30.3 Which are the six completions or mature-organs?
A.II.30.3 These are assimilation of matter for formation of body, the senses, the respiratory organ, the organ of speech and the mind.
Q.II.30.4 How long does the empirical soul in the parimuktā state exist as non-assimilative?
A.II.30.4 It exists without intake of food for one time-instant only.
Q.II.30.5 How long does the empirical soul in the lādagalikā state exist as non-assimilative?
A.II.30.5 It exists as non-assimilative for two time-instants only.
Q.II.30.6 How long does the empirical soul in the gomūtrikā state exist as non-assimilative?
A.II.30.6 It exists as non-assimilative for three time-instants only.
Q.II.30.7 When does the empirical soul become assimilative (āhāraka) in the transitory state?
A.II.30.7 It can exist as non-assimilative for a period of one to a maximum of three time-instants and then in the maximum of fourth time-instant it becomes assimilative.
Meaning: Birth is by spontaneous generation, from the uterus or in the special bed.
Q.II.31.1 How many types of birth (method of getting born) are there?
A.II.31.1 There are three types namely spontaneous generation (sammūrchina), uterus/womb (garbha) and by descent-in-the-special-bed (upapāda).
Q.II.31.2 What is the meaning of being born (birth)?
A.II.31.2 Acquisition of the new body by the empirical soul is called birth or getting born.
Q.II.31.3 What is the meaning of spontaneous birth?
A.II.31.3 Acquisition by formation of the body, limbs etc. by the empirical soul by acquiring matter particles from the environment spontaneously are called spontaneous birth.
Q.II.31.4 What is the meaning of uterus birth?
A.II.31.4 The birth that occur due to the union of the sperm of the father and the egg of the mother in the womb of the mother is called uterus birth e.g. of human beings.
Q.II.31.5 What is the meaning of birth in special beds?
A.II.31.5 The birth which takes place in special bed without the union of the sperm of father and egg of the mother is called birth in special beds e.g. of celestial /heavenly and hellish beings.
Sacitta-śīta-saṃvŗtāh ̣ setarā miśrāścaikaśastadyonayah ̣
Meaning: Living matter, cold covered, their opposites and their combinations are the nuclei (seats of birth) severally.
Q.II.32.1 How many nuclei (yoni) of birth are there and which are they?
A.II.32.1 There are nine namely living matter (sacitta), cold (śita), covered (saṃvŗta), non living beings (acita), hot(uśṇa), exposed (vivŗta), mixed (living and non living being), Hot and cold (śitośṇa) and covered-uncovered (saṃvŗta- vivŗta).
Q.II.32.2 What is the meaning of nuclei?
A.II.32.2 The place of birth of a living being is called nucleus (nuclei is the plural). The nucleus is like a container.
Q.II.32.3 What is the difference between birth and nucleus?
A.II.32.3 Nucleus is the container and birth is like what is contained in it. It can also be said that nucleus is like the foundation and birth is the structure built on the foundation.
Q.II.32.4 What is the meaning of the foundation?
A.II.32.4 It means the place or thing on which (or in which) the work to be done takes place.
Q.II.32.5 What is the meaning of work /content?
A.II.32.5 The work in the form of birth that place is called work /content.
Q.II.32.6 What is the meaning of living and non living nuclei?
A.II.32.6 Living nucleus means nucleus which has life in it and non living nuclei are the nuclei which is just matter and does not have life in it.
Q.II.32.7 What the meaning is of covered and exposed nuclei?
A.II.32.7 The nucleus which cannot be seen is called covered and the one which can be seen is called exposed.
Q.II.32.8 What is the meaning of hot and cold nuclei?
A.II.32.8 The nuclei which are cold or hot are called cold and hot nuclei respectively.
Q.II.32.9 What is the meaning of mixed nucleus?
A.II.32.9 The nucleus, which is a mix of partly cold and partly hot; or partly living and partly non living or partly covered and partly exposed, is called mixed nucleus.
Q.II.32.10 What types of living beings have nuclei of living, non-living and living-non living entities?
A.II.32.10 The living nucleus is of the living beings with common body (sādhāraṇa); the non living nuclei is for two to four sensed living beings with maimed senses and the mixed nuclei is for living beings born out of the womb /uterus.
Q.II.32.11 What types of living beings have cold, hot and mixed hot and cold nuclei?
A.II.32.11 Some have cold, hot or mixed nuclei. The celestial and infernal beings have cold or hot and cold-hot nuclei. Those with hot body (fire body) take their rise from hot nuclei. Those who possess their body of heat have hot nuclei. All others, besides celestial, infernal and fire body have mixed or cold-hot nuclei.
Q.II.32.12 What type of living beings have covered and exposed nuclei?
A.II.32.12 The covered nuclei are of celestial, infernal and one senses living beings. The exposed nuclei are of two to four sensed living beings with maimed senses. The mixed i.e. covered and exposed nuclei are of living beings born out of uterus.
Q.II.32.13 How many classes of nuclei are there?
A.II.32.13 There are two classes namely guṇa or quality based and ākāra or form based (with 8.4.million subclasses).
Q.II.32.14 How many types of guṇa nuclei are there?
A.II.32.14 There are nine types as given in AII.32.1
Jarāyujāndaja-potānāṃ garbhah ̣
Meaning: Uterine birth is of three kinds, with placenta, incubatory (from an egg) and without placenta.
Q.II.33.1 Which living beings have the uterine birth (birth from the uterus)?
A.II.33.1 The living beings with placenta (jarāyuja), egg (aṃdaja) and without placenta (potaja) have uterine birth.
Q.II.33.2 What is the meaning of ‘born with placenta’?
Q.II.33.2 The living beings born out of the uterus with a thin covering on their body are called born with placenta.
Q.II.33.3 What is the meaning ‘born out of an egg’?
A.II.33.3 The living beings born out of an egg (hard shell broken at the time of birth) coming out from a uterus are called aṃdaja.
Q.II.33.4 What is the meaning ‘born without placenta’?
A.II.33.4 It means the living beings born out of the uterus without any covering on their body.
Q.II.33.5 Give examples of the three types of living beings mentioned above?
A.II.33.5 Human beings are jarāyuja, birds like chicken are aṃdaja and animals like cubs of lions and calves of cows etc are potaja
Meaning: The birth of celestial and infernal beings is (by instantaneous rise) in special beds.1
Q.II.34.1 What type of birth do heavenly and infernal beings have?
A.II.33.1 They both have their birth by descent-on-special-beds (upapāda).
Q.II.34.2 What is the meaning of upapāda?
A.II.34.2 It means the birth by descent-on-special-beds. On it the living beings are born in the same pose as they sleep on it.
Q.II.34.3 How are the special-beds of heavenly /celestial beings?
A.II.34.3 The heavenly beings have auspicious and beautiful special-beds.
Q.II.34.4 How are the special-beds of infernal beings?
A.II.34.4 The infernal beings have inauspicious and ugly special-beds.
Q.II.34.5 What is the form of special beds of heavenly and hellish beings?
A.II.34.5 The heavenly beings have saṃpus t a bed while the hellish beings have it in the shape of the mouth of the camel.
Q.II.34.6 What do the heavenly beings experience on their special-beds?
A.II.34.6 They experience comfort in it.
Q.II.34.7 What do the infernal beings experience on their special-beds?
A.II.34.7 They immediately feel the misery caused by the bites of thousands of scorpions.
Meaning: The birth of the rest of living beings is by spontaneous-generation.
Q.II.35.1 What type of birth do the rest of the living beings have?
A.II.35.1 The rest of the living beings have spontaneous birth.
Q.II.35.2 Who are included in the rest of the living beings here?
A.II.35.2 From one sensed upto five sensed living beings with mind are included here.
Q.II.35.3 Can human beings also have spontaneous birth?
A.II.35.3 Yes, The human beings with potential but no completions have spontaneous birth.
Q.II.35.4 How is the giant whale fish in the Svyambhū Ramaṇasāgar born?
A.II.35.4 It has spontaneous-generation/birth.
Q.II.35.5 How are Taṃdula whale fish and Sālisiktha whale fish born?
A.II.35.5 They also have spontaneous-generation/birth.
Meaning: The gross, the protean or transformable, the conveyance or assimilative, the fiery /luminous and the karmic are the five types of bodies.
Q.II.36.1 How many types of bodies are there?
A.II.36.1 There five types of bodies namely gross (audārika), the transformable /protean (vaikriyika), the coveyance (āhāraka), the luminous (tejasa) and the kārmika bodies.
Q.II.36.2 What is meant by body (śarīra)?
A.II.36.2 The matter body/ amalgam which is formed or disintegrated due to the rise of the name karma.
Q.II.36.3 What is the meaning of gross body?
A.II.36.3 The body that is gross e.g. of the human beings.
Q.II.36.4 What is the meaning of protean body?
A.II.36.4 The body having the nature to change its forms at will is called transformable body.
Q.II.36.5 What is the meaning of conveyance body?
A.II.36.5 The white coloured small body which emanates from the forehead of a saint with high spiritual purity (6th guṇasthāna) to resolve doubts or ascertain the subtle philosophical matter is called conveyance body.
Q.II.36.6 What is the meaning of luminous body?
A.II.36.6 That body which is the cause of brilliance or which is caused by brilliance is called luminous body. All empirical souls are endowed with it.
Q.II.36.7 What is the meaning of kārmika body?
A.II.36.7 The body composed of karmas is called kārmika body. All empirical souls are endowed with it.
Paraṃ paraṃ sūks mam
Meaning: (The bodies are) more and more subtle successively.
Q.II.37.1 Are these body perceptible by our sense organs?
A.II.37.1 No. except the one body as each successive body is subtle than the previous one.
Q.II.37.2 Which is the type of body which is perceptible by our sense organs?
A.II.37.2 The gross body is perceptible by our sense organs.
Q.II.37.3 What is the sequence of subtlety of bodies?
A.II.37.3 The transformable body is subtle than the gross body, the conveyance body is subtler than protean body, the luminous body is subtle than the conveyance body and the kārmika body is subtler than the luminous body.
Pradeśatoasaṃkhyeyaguṇaṃ prāk taijasāt
Meaning: Prior to the luminous body, each has innumerable times the number of space-points of the previous one.
Q.II.38.1 Are the succeeding bodies subtler than the previous one with respect to space points?
A.II.38.1 No, the succeeding bodies are not subtler with respect to space points. Prior to the luminous body, the bodies, each has innumerable times the space points than the previous one.
Q.II.38.2 What is the meaning of space points here?
A.II.38.2 Here the space point refers to atoms (paramāṇus).
Q.II.38.3 Which body type has more space points than the preceding one?
A.II.38.3 The protean body has innumerable times more space points than the gross body and the conveyance body has innumerable times more space points than the protean body.
Meaning: The last two have infinite fold (space-points).
Q.II.39.1 How many space points do luminous and kārmika body have?
A.II.39.1 These two have infinite space points.
Q.II.39.2 How many more space points does luminous body have compared to conveyance body?
A.II.39.2 The luminous body has infinite times more space points than the conveyance body.
Q.II.39.3 How many space points kārmika body has compared to luminous body?
A.II.39.3 The kārmika body has infinite times more space points than the luminous body.
Meaning: (The last two are) without impediment.
Q.II.40.1 What is the special attribute of kārmika body and the luminous body?
A.II.40.1 Both are without impediment i.e. cannot be obstructed by any other concrete substance of any shape or size.
Q.II.40.2 What is the meaning of impediment (pratighāta)?
A.II.40.2 Obstruction caused by one concrete substance to another concrete substance is called impediment.
Q.II.40.3 How are luminous and kārmika body without impediment?
A.II.40.3 Like fire being subtle can enter iron, similarly both luminous and kārmika body being subtle can cross any obstruction.
Q.II.40.4 The transformable and the conveyance bodies are also subtle, then how can they have impediment?
A.II.40.4 These two types of body are not without impediment everywhere but are without impediment at some places only.
Q.II.40.5 How are luminous and kārmika body without impediment up to the limits of universe (loka)?
A.II.40.5 The omniscient, due to samudraghāta are without impediments till the limits of the universe.
Meaning: (These are of) beginning less association also.
Q.II.41.1 Which bodies are associated with the soul from the beginning-less time?
A.II.41.1 Both the luminous and the kārmika bodies are associated with the soul from the beginning-less time.
Q.II.41.2 Are the luminous and the kārmika bodies associated from the beginning-less time?
A.II.41.2 They are related to each other from the beginning-less time, However they have a relationship with a starting point /time with respect to dissociation (nirjāra) and bondage of karmas.
Q.II.41.3 What is the meaning of beginning-less (anādi) and with a starting point (sādi)?
A.II.41.3 A relationship without a beginning is called beginning-less and a relationship which starts at a specific time is called with a starting point.
Meaning: (These two are associated) with all.
Q.II.42.1 What types of living beings have luminous and kārmika bodies?
A.II.42.1 All empirical souls have these two body types.
Q.II.42.2 The statement ‘with all or sarvasya’ mean that all living beings including liberated souls (siddhas) have these two bodies?
A.II.42.2 Siddhas do not have a body and so the question of their having bodies does not arise. Also by definition in A.1 above, the mention was made of all empirical souls only.
Q.II.42.3 Do ‘emancipated souls with a body’ (arihantas) have both these types of bodies and how?
A.II.42.3 The arihantas do have these two types of bodies also as these are associated with the empirical soul from beginning-less time but have an end time for this relationship (as they have gross body and the four non-obscuring (aghātiā) karmas existent with them until they attain liberation (nirvāṇa) or siddha state).
Tadādīni bhājyāni yugapadekasminnācaturbhyah ̣
Meaning: Commencing with these, up to four bodies can be had simultaneously by a single soul.
Q.II.43.1 How many types of bodies can one living being have at one time-instance simultaneously?
A.II.43.1 A living being can have up to four types of body simultaneously.
Q.II.43.2 Who has two bodies?
A.II.43.2 A living being in the state of transition from one body state to another can have two types of bodies.
Q.II.43.3 Who has three types of bodies?
A.II.43.3 The human and sub human beings have gross luminous and kārmika bodies. The heavenly beings as well as hellish beings have transformable luminous and kārmika bodies.
Q.II.43.4 Who has four types of bodies?
A.II.43.4 An auspicious saint with high levels of spiritual purity in the 6th stage of spiritual purification can have conveyance body also besides gross, luminous and kārmika bodies.
Q.II.43.5 Can a living being have all the five types of bodies simultaneously?
A.II.43.5 No, it is not possible.
Q.II.43.6 Do supreme-lords (cakravartis), lords (nārāyaṇas) and brothers of lords /co-lords (balabhadra) have transformable bodies?
A.II.43.6 No, they do not have protean bodies.
Meaning: The last is not the means of enjoyment.
Q.II.44.1 Is the kārmika body without enjoyment (upaboga)?
A.II.44.1 It is without enjoyment.
Q.II.44.2 What is the meaning of enjoyment?
A.II.44.2 Enjoyment here means experience of misery /pleasure with the aid of sense organs.
Q.II.44.3 Why is kārmika body said to be without enjoyment?
A.II.44.3 In the transitory state, the empirical soul has only psychic senses and not physical senses. Hence the kārmika body is said to be without enjoyment.
Meaning: The first is of uterine birth and spontaneous-generation.
Q.II.45.1 How is gross body born?
A.II.45.1 The gross body is born by uterine and spontaneous-generation births.
Q.II.45.2 What is the meaning of uterine?
A.II.45.2 The birth that takes place in the uterus.
Q.II.45.3 What is the meaning of the word sammūrcchana in the aphorism?
A.II.45.3 The birth caused by absorbing physical matter from the environment to form the gross body is called spontaneous-generation.
Meaning: The transformable body originates by birth in special beds.
Q.II.46.1 How are protean bodies born?
A.II.46.1 They are born by descent-on-special-beds.
Q.II.46.2 What is the meaning of aupapādika birth?
A.II.46.2 It means the birth in fully grown form in the posture of sleeping on special bed is called aupapādika.
Q.II.46.3 What is the meaning of vaikriyika?
A.II.46.3 It means the protean body resulting from the birth due to the act of descent-on-special-beds.
Labdhi pratyayaṃ ca
Meaning: Attainment is also the cause (of its origin).
Q.II.47.1 How else are the protean bodies caused?
A.II.47.1 It can be caused by attainment (labdhi) also.
Q.II.47.2 What is the meaning of attainment?
A.II.47.2 Attainment of supernatural powers by performing special austerities like penance, self-restraint, etc. is called attainment.
Q.II.47.3 What is the meaning of the word ca in the aphorism?
A.II.47.3 The word ca means ‘and the cause of which can also be the birth in a realm (bhavapratyaya)’.
Meaning: The luminous body also (is caused by attainment).
Q.II.48.1 What is the meaning of the word api in the aphorism?
A.II.48.1 The participle ‘api’ represents the context of luminous body in the previous aphorism i.e ‘attainment as the cause (labdhipratyaya)’. It therefore implies that like the protean body, luminous body is also caused by attainment.
Q.II.48.2 How many types of luminous body caused by attainment are there?
A.II.48.2 There are two types namely nih ̣saraṇātmaka (inauspicious) and anih ̣saraṇātmka (auspicious).
Q.II.48.3 Which is the anih ̣saraṇātmaka luminous body?
A.II.48.3 Luminous body associated with gross, protean and conveyance bodies is called anih ̣saraṇātmaka. This luminous body stays inside the three types of bodies and generates luminosity by consuming the food assimilated by these three types of bodies.
Q.II.48.4 Which is the nih ̣saraṇātmaka luminous body?
A.II.48.4 The luminous body caused by attainment is called nih ̣saraṇātmka.
Q.II.48.5 What is the meaning of inauspicious luminous body?
A.II.48.5 An ascetic, with hot temper, having luminous body caused by attainment, when crosses the limits of temper originates a 12 yojana long and 9 yojanas broad red coloured body in the form of japa-lotus from his left shoulder and throws it at a person (he gets angry) to destroy/kill him. This body after destroying the target person returns and enters the body of the originating ascetic and destroys/kills him also. It is also called inauspicious luminous samudaghāta.
Q.II.48.6 What is auspicious luminous body?
A.II.48.6 An ascetic with high spiritual purification develops a feeling of compassion and well being for the masses. He generates a white coloured body from his right shoulder and throws it in the adjacent area of 12 yojanas to remove draught, hunger, diseases etc. after performing its work, it returns to the body of the originating ascetic. This luminous body is called auspicious. This is called auspicious luminous samudaghāta also.
Q.II.48.7 Who achieves luminous samudaghāta?
A.II.48.7 An ascetic practicing the major vows, self-restraint may attain this luminous samudaghāta. However the ascetic, who only practices subsidence of karmas, cannot achieve this luminous samudaghāta.
Q.II.48.8 In which directions the luminous samudaghāta spreads?
A.II.48.8 It spreads in all the ten directions.
Q.II.48.9 What is the duration of luminous samudaghāta.
A.II.48.9 It is of numerable time instants.
Śubhaṃ viśuddhamavyāghāti cāhārakaṃ pramattasamyatasyaiva
Meaning: The conveyance body, which is auspicious and pure and without impediment, originates in the saint of the sixth stage of spiritual purity (gunasthana) only.
Q.II.49.1 Why is the conveyance body said to be auspicious only?
A.II.49.1 It is auspicious as it originates due to the auspicious karma conveyance-body-making-karma (āhāraka nāma karma).
Q.II.49.2 Why the conveyance body is called pure also?
A.II.49.2 As it is the cause of a pure action /activity, it is called as pure.
Q.II.49.3 Why is the conveyance body called without impediments?
A.II.49.3 Since it cannot be obstructed by any type of matter entity, it is called without impediments.
Q.II.49.4 What is the intention of saying pramatta saṃyata in this aphorism?
A.II.49.4 It means that this type of body cannot be accrued by householders who either are not observing the vows at all or doing so partially. The ascetics who are moving upwards i.e. 8th gunasthan and up, also do not have this type of body.
Q.II.49.5 What is the intention of using ca in the aphorism?
A.II.49.5 It implies that the conveyance body originates for different reasons, such as to understand and show the special meaning of attainment, or to decide the metaphysical aspects about the validity of subtle substances, or sometimes even to protect the self-restraint practice itself.
Q.II.49.6 What is the form of the conveyance body?
A.II.49.6 It is white like a swan, of the size of approximately one hand, all beautiful, devoid of the seven gross body making matter types, free from impediments like fire / pillars / poison, or rocks /mountains, water and capable of fast movement. It emanates from the forehead of the ascetic and returns back to the ascetic after touching the feet of an omniscient.
Meaning: The infernal beings and the spontaneously-generated are hermaphroditic (of the neuter sex.)
Q.II.50.1 What gender do the hellish and living beings with spontaneous-generation have?
A.II.50.1 They both have neutral gender only.
Q.II.50.2 How many types of sense organs can spontaneously generated subhuman beings with neutral gender have?
A.II.50.2 They can have from two to five types of sense organs.
Q.II.50.3 To which destiny do the spontaneously generated living beings belong?
A.II.50.3 They can belong to sub-human destiny only.
Na devāh ̣
Meaning: The celestial beings are not of neuter sex.
Q.II.51.1 Which sex does not occur in the heavenly beings?
A.II.51.1 The neutral sex does not occur in the heavenly beings.
Q.II.51.2 Which sexes can occur in the heavenly beings?
A.II.51.2 The heavenly beings have either masculine or feminine sex only.
Q.II.51.3 What is the intention of saying na devāh ̣ in the aphorism?
A.II.51.3 The preceding aphorism talks of neutral gender only, so here negation implies ‘not hermaphroditic’.
Śes āstrivedāh ̣
Meaning: The rest are of three sexes (genders).
Q.II.52.1 Which genders occur for human and sub human beings?
A.II.52.1 All the three genders i.e. male, female and neutral occur in human and sub human beings.
Q.II.52.2 Which are the three genders?
A.II.52.2 These are male, female and neutral.
Q.II.52.3 What is the gender of arihantas and siddhas?
A.II.52.3 They are without gender.
Aupapādika-caramottamadehāsaṃkhyeya-vars āyus oanapavartyāyus ah ̣
Meaning: The lifetime of beings born in special beds, those with final, superior bodies and those of innumerable years, cannot be cut short.
Q.II.53.1 Which living beings cannot have their life span cut short?
A.II.53.1 The lifetime of those beings born in special beds, or with final or superior bodies or with innumerable years cannot be cut short.
Q.II.53.2 What is the meaning of cut short of life span (an-apavartya āyu)?
A.II.53.2 When the life-span/ duration, determined at the time of the bondage of the life-span-determining karma, had been enjoyed completely and the person/ living being dies, then the life is said to be full/ complete-lifespan. When the death occurs accidently before such determined life span, then it is called ‘cut-short (an-apavartya āyu) life span’.
Q.II.53.3 What is the meaning of caramottama / superior most?
A.II.53.3 ‘Caram’ means final and ‘uttama’ means superiormost body and is vajravras abhanārāyaṇasahanana.
Q.II.53.4 Can the living beings endowed with superior most body have an accidental death?
A.II.53.4 Like the monk Gaja Kumar and Pāṃdavas had accidental death due o some calamities, those endowed with superior most bodies may or may not have accidental death. There is no hard and fast rule on such deaths.
Q.II.53.5 Can the living beings endowed with final superior bodies have accidental death?
A.II.53.5 Like Subhoma and Brhma Datt cakravarti, even though endowed with superior bodies, can have accidental deaths also.
Q.II.53.6 Which living beings with superior most bodies cannot have accidental death?
A.II.53.6 The ford-makers (tirthañkaras ̣) cannot have accidental death.
Q.II.53.7 What are the external causes which weaken the life span determining karma?
A.II.53.7 Consuming poison, destruction/depletion of blood cells, fear, death,weapons of destruction, animosity, stoppage of breath, starving, etc weaken the life determining karma.