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Chapter 3 Q A

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Chapter III
The Lower and middle worlds







SUTRA NO. 1

Contents

Ratna-śarkarā-bālukā-paṃka-dhūma-tamo-mahātamah ̣prabhā Bhūmayo Ghanāmbu -vātākaśa-pratishthhāh ̣ Saptā(a)dho(a)dhah

Meaning: The lower world consists of seven ‘lands’ one below the other, surrounded by three kinds of strata (of light and dense air and space).

Q.III.1.1 How many ‘lands/layers’ (bhumī)’ are there in hell?
A.III.I.1 There are seven ‘lands’or layers of hell, namely: Ratnaprabhā, Śarkarāprabhā, Bālukāprabhā, Paṃkaprabhā, Dhūmaprabhā, Tamah ̣prabhā and Mahātamah ̣prabhā. These seven lands exist in the downward order (one below the other) with Ratnaprabhā being the topmost supported by the cushions of humid atmosphere (ghana), dense air /water (ambu), which rests in a ring of thin /rarified air (vāta) resting in space (ākāśa).

Q.III.1.2 Why has the word hue ‘prabhā’ been used in the aphorism?
A.III.1.2 Each ‘land’ of hell has a hue (prabhā), which is an attribute of light. Hence this word is associated with each of the seven lands.

Q.III.1.3 What is the meaning of Ratnaprabhā and Śarkarāprabhā?
A.III.1.3 That land which is gem-hued is called Ratnaprabhā. That land which is pebble-hued (Śarkarā) is called Śarkarāprabhā.

Q.III.1.4 What is the meaning of Bālukāprabhā and Paṃkaprabhā?
A.III.1.4 That ‘land’ which is sand-hued (bālukā) is called Bālukāprabhā. That ‘land’ which is mud-hued is called Paṃkaprabhā.

Q.III.1.5 What is the meaning of Dhūmaprabhā?
A.III.1.5 That ‘land’ which is smoke-hued is called Dhūmaprabhā.

Q.III.1.6 What is the meaning of Tamah ̣prabhā and Mahātamah ̣prabhā?
A.III.1.6 That ‘land’ which is dark-hued is called Tamah ̣prabhā. That ‘land’ which is pitch-dark-hued is called Mahātamah ̣prabhā.

Q.III.1.7 What is meaning of ghana, ambu and vāta?
A.III.1.7 Ghana means thick or humid; ambu means dense or a mix of water and air, and vāta means air.

Q.III.1.8 What are ghana, ambu and vāta?
A.III.1.8 These are cushions which form the support systems of the ‘lands’ filling the inter layer spaces.

Q.III.1.9 What is the foundation of all these rings?
A.III.1.9 These rings are supported by space (ākāśa).

Q.III.1.10 What is the foundation of space?
A.III.1.10 Space has no foundation to support it as the very nature of space is to provide space to all other entities.

Q.III.1.11 What is the meaning of adho-(a)dhah ̣ in the aphorism?
A.III.1.11 It is used to indicate that subsequent ‘land’ is below the previous ‘land’ i.e. all the ‘lands’ are stacked with Ratnaprabhā at the top and Mahātamah ̣prabhā at the bottom and the others sequentially stacked between these two.

Q.III.1.12 What are the other popular names of these ‘lands’?
A.III.1.12 These ‘lands’ (in sequential order) are also known as Ghammā, Vaṃsā, Meghā, Aṃjanā, Arista, Maghavī and Māghavī.

Q.III.1.13 What is the meaning of the sign ‘(a)’ used in the word adho (a) dhah ̣ in the aphorism?
A.III.1.13 This sign represents half truncation of vowel ‘a’ (similar to half pronunciation of normal Devanagari consonants) but is kept there and is not pronounced.

Q.III.1.14 How many subdivisions of the first ‘land’ are there??
A.III.1.14 The first ‘land’ i.e. Ratnaprabhā, has three subdivisions namely Khara, Paṃka and Abbahula.

Q.III.1.15 What is the other name of hell (naraka or narata in Hindi)?
A.III.1.15 The other popular name for hell is the lower world (adholoka).





SUTRA NO. 2

Tāsu triṃśatpañcaviṃśati-pañcadaśadaśa-tri-pañconaika-naraka-śata-sahasrāṇi paṃca caiva yathākramam

Meaning: In these (lands) there are thirty hundred thousand, twenty-five hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, one hundred thousand less five and only five infernal abode-holes respectively.

Q.III.2.1 How many infernal abodes (dwelling places called bila in Hindi) are there in Ratnaprabhā and Śarkarāprabhā lands?
A.III.2.1 Ratnaprabhā has three million infernal abodes and Śarkarāprabhā has two and half million infernal abodes.

Q.III.2.2 How many infernal abodes are there in Bālukāprabhā and Śarkarāprabhā ‘lands’?
A.III.2.2 Bālukāprabhā has one and half million infernal abodes and Paṃkaprabhā has one million infernal abodes.

Q.III.2.3 How many infernal abodes are there in Dhūmaprabhā land?
A.III.2.3 Dhūmaprabhā has three million infernal abodes.

Q.III.2.4 How many infernal abodes are there in Tamah ̣prabhā and Mahātamah ̣prabhā lands?
A.III.2.4 Tamah ̣prabhā has five less than one hundred thousand and Mahātamah ̣prabhā has only five infernal abodes.
 
Q.III.2.5 How many infernal abodes are there in all the seven infernal lands?
A.III.2.5 There are 8.4 million infernal abodes in the entire hell.




SUTRA NO. 3

Nārakāmityāśubhataraleśyāpariṇāmadehavedanāvikriyāh

Meaning: The thought-colouration, environment, body, suffering and shape of the body (or deeds) are in succession incessantly more and more inauspicious among the infernal beings.

Q.III.3.1 How are the infernal / hellish beings?
A.III.3.1 The infernal beings have incessantly more and more inauspicious / impure thought-colouration (leśyā), environment (pariṇāma), body (śarīra), suffering (vedanā), and shape of body or deeds (vikriyā) in successive lands.

Q.III.3.2 What is meant by infernal beings?
A.III.3.2 Infernal beings are those living beings that cannot be happy in any state or moment (i.e. naraka).

Q.III.3.3 How many incessantly impure states are there in the infernal beings?
A.III.3.3 More inauspicious / impure thought-colouration, environment, body, suffering, and shape of body or deeds/ activities are the five incessantly impure states of the infernal beings.

Q.III.3.4 Which thought-colouration is always existent in the infernal beings?
A.III.3.4 The infernal beings always have inauspicious thought-colouration.
 
Q.III.3.5 What is the incessantly inauspicious environment of the infernal beings?
A.III.3.5 The infernal beings have incessantly inauspicious environment of taste, touch, odour and colour.

Q.III.3.6 What is the character of the incessantly inauspicious bodies of the infernal beings?
A.III.3.6 Their incessantly inauspicious bodies are cruel, frightening and deformed.



Q.III.3.7 Which thought colourations are there in infernal beings of 1st and 2nd lands of hell?
A.III.3.7 Their thought colourations are grey.

Q.III.3.8 Which thought-colourations are there in the infernal beings of the 3rd and 4th lands of hell?
A.III.3.8 Their thought-colourations are grey in the upper portions of 3rd land and blue in the lower part of the 3rd layer as well as in the 4th layer/land.

Q.III.3.9 Which though-colourations are there in infernal beings of the 5th land of hell?
A.III.3.9 Their thought-colourations are blue in the upper and black in the lower part of 5th land.

Q.III.3.10 Which thought-colourations are there in the infernal beings of the 6th and 7th land of hell?
A.III.3.10 Their thought-colourations are black in the 6th land and deep black in the 7th land.

Q.III.3.11 What kinds of sufferings are experienced by the infernal beings?
A.III.3.11 They experience incessantly inauspicious sufferings /miserys.
 
Q.III.3.12 How do the incessantly inauspicious activities occur in the infernal beings?
A.III.3.12 The infernal beings think of undertaking auspicious activities but always end up performing inauspicious activities i.e. they transform their bodies as deformed. Similarly they think of happiness but only end up being unhappy.





SUTRA NO. 4

Parasparodīrita-duhkhāh ̣

Meaning: They cause misery and suffering to one another
.

Q.III.4.1 How do the infernal beings suffer (feel misery)?
A.III.4.1 They cause misery and suffering to each other.

Q.III.4.2 What are the other causes of sufferings of the infernal beings?
A.III.4.2 Extreme environment (heat and cold) are some of the other examples of causes of their sufferings.

Q.III.4.3 How do the infernal beings cause misery and sufferings to each others?
A.III.4.3 As they are able to foresee the causes of sufferings by their wrong clairvoyant knowledge (ku-avadhi) by birth, they change their body in the form of lethal weapons, sharp objects, frightening animals, etc to cause misery to others.






SUTRA NO. 5

Saṃklishthāsurodīritaduhkhāśca prāk caturthyāh

Meaning: Misery is also caused by the incitement of malevolent asurakumāras prior to the fourth earth.

Q.III.5.1 What are the other causes of sufferings of infernal beings?
A.III.5.1 The infernal beings suffer miserys also inflicted by the wicked demons (malevolent / mean demons / (asurakumaras).

Q.III.5.2 What is meant by saṃklishtha?
A.III.5.2 Saṃklishtha means disposition of the soul tainted with virulent passions.
 
Q.III.5.3 Disposition of which beings is tainted with virulent passions?
A.III.5.3 Such a disposition occurs only in demons.
 
Q.III.5.4 Who are called demons /asura?
A.III.5.4 The existence of a celestial living being, caused by the rise of asura-name- karma is called asura /demons.

Q.III.5.5 Do all the celestial beings of the asura class go to hell to cause miserys to infernal beings?
A.III.5.5 No, only celestial beings named Ambāvarīśa can go to the lower world to inflict misery to infernal beings.

Q.III.5.6 To which infernal lands can Ambāvarīśa named celestial beings go?
A.III.5.6 They can go down till the 4th land only.

Q.III.5.7 How do Ambāvarīśa celestial beings make the infernal beings fight with each other?
A.III.5.7 Due to their wrong clairvoyant knowledge inherited since birth, Ambāvarīśa celestial beings remind the infernal beings of their fights and miserys caused to each other in previous births to initiate infighting amongst infernal beings.

Q.III.5.8 Can infernal beings achieve premature death caused by excessive sufferings?
A.III.5.8 No, they have to live full life determined by their life-span-karma and suffer miserys all through (i.e. miserys and sufferings cannot cause death to infernal beings).

Q.III.5.9 How many wicked activities do infernal beings have and how many can they perform at a time?
A.III.5.9 They have innumerable and inseparable wicked activities. However, at a time, they can perform only one wicked activity.


SUTRA NO. 6

Teshveka-tri-sapta-daśa-saptadaśa-dvāvimśati-trayastrimśatsāgaropamāsattvānām parā- sthitih

Meaning: In these infernal lands the maximum life-span of the infernal beings is one, three, seven, ten, seventeen, twenty-two and thirty- three ocean-measure-periods (sāgaropamas) years.

Q.III.6.1 What is the maximum life span of the infernal beings?
A.III.6.1 The maximum life span of infernal beings is 1,3,7,10,17, 22 and 33 ocean-measure-periods in the respective regions downwaeds.
 
Q.III.6.2 What is the maximum life span of the infernal beings in Ratnaprabhā and Śarkarāprabhā lands?
A.III.6.2 The maximum life span of infernal beings is in Ratnaprabhā land is one ocean-meansured-period in Śarkarāprabhā land is three ocean-mesured-periods.

Q.III.6.3 What is the maximum life span of the infernal beings in Bālukāprabhā and Paṃkaprabhā lands?
A.III.6.3 The maximum life span of infernal beings in Bālukāprabhā land is seven ocean-measure-periods and in Paṃkaprabhā region is seventeen ocean-meansured-periods.

Q.III.6.4 What is the maximum life span of the infernal beings in Dhūmaprabhā land?
A.III.6.4 The maximum life span of infernal beings in Dhūmaprabhā is seventeen ocean-measure-periods.

Q.III.6.5 What is the maximum life span of the infernal beings in Tamah ̣Prabhā and Mahātamah ̣Prabhā lands?
A.III.6.5 The maximum life span of infernal beings in the Tamah ̣Prabhā land is twenty-two ocean-meansured-periods; and in Mahātamah ̣Prabhā land, it is thirty-three ocean-measure-periods.


Q.III.6.6 Which kinds of living beings are born in the lower world?
A.III.6.6 The living beings in the human and sub-human destinies with seven vices (vyasana), dispositions with intense passions, intense wrong beliefs, too much indulgence and excessive possessions are born in the lower worlds.

Q.III.6.7 In what manner are the infernal beings born in the lower worlds?
A.III.6.7 They are born (in special hole like beds in the ceilings of the layers) by falling upside down, i.e. head below and legs upwards.

Q.III.6.8 What kind of food and water do infernal beings get, when they are hungry and thirsty to quench them?
A.III.6.8 Neither a morsel of food nor a drop of water is available anywhere in the entire lower world for quenching their thirst and hunger.



Q.III.6.9 With what status can the infernal beings be born, after their death in different lands of the lower world?
A.III.6.9 As a rule the infernal beings from the seventh land are born in the subhuman realm. The infernal beings from the sixth land can be born as human beings but cannot practice the vows even partially; however they can attain right faith. The infernal beings from the fifth land can be born as a human being and can practice the vows partially or completely, but cannot attain liberation in that birth. The infernal beings from the fifth land can be born as a human being and can practice the vows partially or completely and attain liberation but cannot be a ford-maker in that birth / existence. The infernal beings from the third to first lands can be born as a human being, attain liberation and become a ford-maker in that birth also.

Q.III.6.10 Where can the infernal beings, be born after their death in the first to third land of the lower world?
A.III.6.10 The infernal beings from the third to first lands can be born as a human being, attain liberation and become a ford-maker in that birth also.

Q.III.6.11 What is the state of the infernal beings that are going to be ford-maker in their next birth, in their infernal existence?
A.III.6.11 As they have achieved subsidence of demerit karmas already, their inflictions are removed by celestial beings six months prior to their death as infernal being.


SUTRA NO. 7

Jambūdvīpa-lavaṇodādayah ̣ śubhanāmāno dvīpa-samudrāh

Meaning: Jambūdvīpa, Lavaṇoda, and the rest are the continents and the oceans with auspicious names.

Q.III.7.1 What constitute the middle-world (Madhya loka)?
A.III.7.1 Continents with auspicious names like Jambūdvīpa and oceans with auspicious names like Lavaṇasāgar (Ocean Salt) constitute the middle world. Lavaṇa means salt

Q.III.7.2 How many such continents and oceans are there in the middle world?
A.III.7.2 There are innumerable continents and oceans in the middle world.

Q.III.7.3 What are names of most known continents of the middle world?
A.III.7.3 Jambūdvīpa, Dhātakīdvīpa, Pushkaravara, Vāruṇīvara, Kshīravara, Ghrha-tavara, Ikshuvara, Nandīśvara, Aruṇavara, Kundalavara, Saṃkhavara, Rucakavara and so on innumerable continents till the last one known as Svayambūhramaṇa are names of the famous continents of the middle world.

Q.III.7.4 What are the names of the famous oceans of the middle world?
A.III.7.4 Names of the famous oceans of the middle world are; Lavaṇa, Kālodadhi, Pushkaravara, Vāruṇīvara, Kshīravara, Ghrhatvara, Ikshuvara, Nandīśvara, Aruṇavara, Kundalavara, Saṃkhavara, Rucakavara and so on innumerable oceans till the last one known as Svayambūramaṇa.

Q.III.7.5 How did Jambūdvīpa get its names as Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.7.5 Jambūdvīpa derives its name from the Jambū tree which abounds on this continent.

Q.III.7.6 What type of tree is the Jambū tree?
A.III.7.6 The Jambū tree is eternal, natural (not planted by anyone) and has ‘earth’ as its body (prhthivīkāyika).

Q.III.7.7 Where is tree located?
A.III.7.7 The main Jambū tree is located in the middle of the most auspicious-enjoyment-land (Bhogabhūmi) called Uttarakuru. Uttarakuru in turn lies north of Sudarshana Mount or Meru in Videha kshetra.

Q.III.7.8 What is the size of Jambū tree’s family?
A.III.7.8 There are four satellite trees in the four directions around this Jambū tree. There are 140115 trees around these satellite trees. Thus the total number of trees including the main and four trees is 140120.

Q.III.7.9 How did Dhātakīdvīp and Pushkaravara continents get their names?
A.III.7.9 Like Jambūdvīpa, Dhātakīdvīp and Pushkaravara continents also got their names from the Dhātakī tree and Pushkara tree which abound in those continents respectively.

Q.III.7.10 Which is the eighth continent?
A.III.7.10 Nandīśvaradvīpa is the eighth continent in the middle world.

Q.III.7.11 How many Jina temples and Jina idols (and their height) are there in Nandīśvaradvīpa?
A.III.7.11 There are 13 Jina temples each in north, south, east and west directions which makes a total of 52 temples. Each temple has 108 Jina idols which makes a total of 5616 Jina idols. Each idol is of 500 bows tall and is sitting in lotus posture (padmāsana).

Q.III.7.12 What is meant by vyavahāra-palya?
A.III.7.12 There is a well which has a diameter of 2000 kosa (1 kosa is approximately equal to 2 miles or 3.2 kilometers) and depth of 2000 kosa when filled with the smallest parts of the hair of a ram. If we take out one such piece of the the hair in every 100th years, then the number of years taken by us to empty this well is called pit-measure-period (vyavahāra-palya).

Q.III.7.12 What is meant by innumerable-pit-measured-periods (uddhāra-palya)?
A.III.7.12 It is innumerable times in duration of pit-measured-period.





SUTRA NO. 8

Dvirdvirvishkambhāh ̣ pūrva-pūrvaparikshepiṇo valayākrhtayah

Meaning: (These) are double the diameter of the preceding ones and are circular in shape, each encircling the immediately preceding one.

Q.VII.8.1 What is the form and size of the continents and oceans?
A.VII.8.1 These (i.e. each continent surrounded by an ocean) are circular (like a bangle) in shape and twice the diameter of the preceding one (i.e. 1st ocean is twice the diameter of first continent; second continent is twice the diameter of first ocean and so on).

Q.VII.8.2 What is meant by ‘dvirdvir’ in the aphorism?
A.VII.8.2 It means double the size of the previous one in succession.

Q.VII.8.3 What is meant by ‘vishkambhāh ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.VII.8.3 It means the ‘surrounding area measured as diameter’ of the continent or ocean.

Q.VII.8.4 What is meant by ‘valayākrhtayah ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.VII.8.4 It means the ‘in the form of a bangle’.





SUTRA NO. 9

Tanmadhye merunābhirvrhtto yojana-śata-sahasra-vishkambho jambūdvīpah ̣

Meaning: In the centre of these oceans and continents is Jambūdvīpa, which is round and which is one hundred thousand yojanas in diameter. At the centre of this continent is Meru (Mount) like the navel in the body.

Q.III.9.1 Which is the continent in the centre of all continents?
A.III.9.1 Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre.

Q.III.9.2 What is meant by ‘nābhirvrhtta’ in the aphorism?
A.III.9.2 Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans.

Q.III.9.3 What is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.9.3 Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

Q.III.9.4 What is the expanse of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.9.4 The expanse of Jambūdvīpa is 100000 yojana diameters. One yojana is equal to 9 miles approximately or 14.4 kilometers.

Q.III.9.5 What is the height of Sumeru Mount?
A.III.9.5 The height of Sumeru Mount is 100040 yojana.

Q.III.9.6 How many terraces/pleateus Sumeru Mount has?
A.III.9.6 Sumeru Mount has three regions in the form of terraces.

Q.III.9.7 What are the heights of the three terraces of Sumeru Mount?
A.III.9.7 The first terrace is 500 yojana from earth. The second region is 62500 yojana above the first terrace. The third terrace is 36000 yojana above the second terrace.

Q.III.9.8 How many forests are there on Sumeru Mount? What are their names and where are they located?
A.III.9.8 There are four forests (vana) on Sumeru Mount. They are called Bhadraśāla, Nandanavana, Saumanasavana and Pāṃdukavana. The first forest lies at the foot of the mountain and the rest in its platform.

Q.III.9.9 How many Jina temples are there in the four forests?
A.III.9.9 There are four Jina temples in four directions in each forest for a total of 16 temples on the mount.

Q.III.9.10 Where is Pāṃduka-śilā on Sumeru Mount?
A.III.9.10 It is one of the four divine rocks (śilās) in the four directions of Pāṃdukavana) situated in the north-east direction.

Q.III.9.11 What is the significance of these divine-śilās?
A.III.9.11 The ford-makers (tīrthaṃkaras) from the four directions are given their first bath (or anointed) on these Pāṃduka-śilās in the four directions.
 
Q.III.9.12 What are the names and colours of the four Pāṃduka-śilās?
A.III.9.12 The first one is called Pāṃduka-śilā and it has a golden hue. The second one is called Pāṃdukaṃbalā-śilā and is of silver hue. The third one is called Rakta-kambalā-śilā and its hue is like red jewel (blood red). The fourth one is called Rakta-śilā and has molten gold hue.

Q.III.9.13 What are the directional locations of the four Pāṃduka-śilās?
A.III.9.13 The first one is located in Īśāna direction (north-east), the second one is located in south east (Āgneya) direction, the third one is located in south west (Naitrhtya) direction and the fourth one is located in North West (Vāyavya) direction.

Q.III.9.14 How many Jina idols are located on each of the five mountains?
A.III.9.14 There are sixteen Jina temples on each of the five mountains. Each temple has 108 Jina idols for a total of 1728 Jina idols on each mountain. Thus for the five mountains are there are 8640 Jina idols.



SUTRA NO. 10

Bharata-haimavata-hari-videha-ramyaka-hairaṇyavatairāvatavarshāh ̣ kshetrāṇi

Meaning: Bharata, Haimavata, Hari, Videha, Ramyaka, Hairaṇyavata and Airāvata are the seven regions cleaning.

Q.III.10.1 How many regions are there in Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.1 Jambūdvīpa is divided into seven regions separated by six dividing mountain ranges parralelly spread in east west orientation.
 
Q.III.10.2 What are the names of the seven regions of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.2 The seven regions of Jambūdvīpa are: Bhāratavarsha, Haimava-tavarsha, Harivarsha, Videhavarsha, Ramyakvarsha, Airāvatavarsha and Hairanyavatavarsha counting from south to north.

Q.III.10.3 Why Bhāratavarsha is named Bhāratavarsha?
A.III.10.3 It is named after supreme lord (cakravarti) Bharata.

Q.III.10.4 Where is the Bharata region?
A.III.10.4 The Bharata region is surrounded by Himavāna Mount in the north, and an ocean in the south, east and west directions.
 
Q.III.10.5 How many subcontinents of this Bharatakshetra are there?
A.III.10.5 It is divided in six subcontinents by the Vijayārdha Mountain range in the middle and the rivers Ganga and Sindhu flowing from north to south.

Q.III.10.6 Why the mountain in the middle is called Vijayārdha?
A.III.10.6 Half of the territorial domain of a supreme lord (cakravarti) is determined by this mountain chain. So it is called Vijayārdha. Its other name is Rajatācala.

Q.III.10.7 What is the hue of the Vijayārdha Mount and what is it made of?
A.III.10.7 It is made of silver and its hue is auspicious white.

Q.III.10.8 Where do the supreme lords write their credentials?
A.III.10.8 They write their credential on a mount called Vrhshabhagiri.

Q.III.10.9 Which type of epoch (time cycle or kāla) exists in Mlecchakhaṇda and Vijayārdha region of Bharatakshetra?
A.III.10.9 The time period there is similar to the 4th time epoch (Caturthakāla).

Q.III.10.10 What are the human beings born on Vijayārdha called?
A.III.10.10 They are called Vidyādharas.

Q.III.10.11 What is the means of livelihood of Vidyādhara?
A.III.10.11 Their occupations for livelihood are the six occupations instructed by Lord Adinātha as defense (asi), distribution and accounting (masi), agriculture (krhshi), education (vidyā), trade (vāṇijya) and crafts (śilpa) with the human beings called mānava.

Q.III.10.12 What is the basis of assigning the names Haimvatavarsha and Harivarsha to the two regions of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.12 Proximity to Himavāna region is the reason for assigning the name Haimavatavarsha to 2nd region. The green (harit) colour of the bodies of inhabitants of the 3rd region is the cause for assigning it the name Harivarsha.

Q.III.10.13 What is the basis of assigning the name Videhakshetra to the 4th region of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.13 The human beings from this region can attain the relm of siddha (without body or videha). Hence it is called Videhakshetra. It is possible as the region always has the time of 4th time epoch existent.

Q.III.10.14 What is the basis of assigning the the name Ramyakakshetra to the 5th of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.14 This region is very beautiful due to the presence of many rivers, forests, gardens etc and hence the name Ramyaka (beautiful) assigned to it.

Q.III.10.15 Why is the name Hairaṇyavatakshetra assigned to the 6th region of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.15 Hiraṇya in Hindi means gold or golden. Due to the fact that this region is in close proximity to the Rukmi Mount which have a golden hue, this region has been given the name Hairaṇyavatakshetra.

Q.III.10.16 Why is the name Airāvatakshetra assigned to the 7th region of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.10.16 Due to its association with the Kshatriya King Airāvata, this region is called Airāvatakshetra.

Q.III.10.17 Which are the least auspicious Bhogabhūmi (region of enjoyment, called paradise) and medium Bhogabhūmi?
A.III.10.17 Hairaṇyavatakshetra and Haimavatavarsha are considered as minimum (or with least) Bhogabhūmi. Ramyakakshetra and Harivarsha are considered as medium Bhogabhūmi.

Q.III.10.18 Which are the most auspicious or excellent (uttama) Bhogabhūmi?
A.III.10.18 Uttarakuru and Devakuru are the most auspicious Bhogabhūmi.

Q.III.10.19 What are the human beings of most auspicious Bhogabhūmi called?
A.III.10.19 They are called Ārya.

Q.III.10.20 What is the source do the people of Bhogabhūmi use for getting tyheir food clothing etc?
A.III.10.20 They use the wish trees (kalpavrhksha) to get their food etc.

Q.III.10.21 How many types of wish trees (kalpavrhksha) are there?
A.III.10.21 They are of ten types, namely: Madhyāṃga, Vāditrāṃga, Bhūshaṇāṃga, Mālyāṃga, Jyotirāṃga, Dipāṃga, Grhhāṃga, Bhojāṃga, Bhājāṃga and Vastrāṃga.
 
Q.III.10.22 What is the height of the human beings of different Bhogabhūmis?
A.III.10.22 The heights of the human beings of the different Bhogabhūmis are: three kośa for most auspicious, two kośa for medium auspicious and one kośa for least auspicious Bhogabhūmis respectively.

Q.III.10.23 What is the life span of the human beings of different Bhogabhūmis?
A.III.10.23 The life spans of human beings of the Bhogabhūmis are: three palya for most supreme, two palya for medium auspicious and one palya for least auspicious Bhogabhūmis respectively.

Q.III.10.24 What is the body colour of the human beings of different Bhogabhūmis?
A.III.10.24 The body colours of human beings of the Bhogabhūmis are: like the rising sun for most auspicious, white like the moon for the medium auspicious and pleasant black in the least auspicious Bhogabhūmis respectively.

Q.III.10.25 What is the time interval of food intake of the human beings of different Bhogabhūmis?
A.III.10.25 The time interval of food intake of the human beings of different Bhogabhūmis are: after three days and of the size of a wild apple (bera) for most auspicious, after two days and of the size of a date (baheda) for the medium auspicious and alternate days and of the size of an olive for least auspicious Bhogabhūmis respectively.

Q.III.10.26 How are the human beings of Bhogabhūmis conceived?
A.III.10.26 They are conceived when the life of their parents is just nine months only i.e. the parents die after giving birth to a twin (boy and a girl).
Q.III.10.27 How do the human beings die in Bhogabhūmis?
A.III.10.27 They die by just sneezing or stretching their body /arms.

Q.III.10.28 In how many days can human beings attain the right belief?
A.III.10.28 The human beings of different Bhogabhūmis can attain right belief in: twenty one days in most auspicious, thirty five days in the medium auspicious and forty nine days in least auspicious Bhogabhūmis respectively.






SUTRA NO. 11

Tadvibhājinah ̣ pūrvāparāyatā himavānmahāhimavannishadha-nīla-rukmi-śikhariṇo varshadhara-parvatāh ̣

Meaning: The mountain chains Himavān, Mahāhimavān, Nishadha, Nīla, Rukmi, and Sikhari, running east to west, divide these regions.



Q.III.11.1 How many mountain chains are there which divide the continent into seven regions?
A.III.11.1 There are six mountain chains running east to west, namely: Himavān, Mahāhimavān, Nishadha, Nīla, Rukmi, Śikhari.

Q.III.11.2 Which mountain chain separates the Bharata and Haimavata regions (kshetras)?
A.III.11.2 The mountain chain Himavana separates the Bharata and Haimavata regions.

Q.III.11.3 Which mountain chain separates the Haimavata and Harivarsha regions?
A.III.11.3 The mountain chain Mahāhimavān separates the Haimavata and Harivarsha.

Q.III.11.4 Which mountain chain separates the Harivarsha and Videha kshetras?
A.III.11.4 The mountain chain Nishadha separates the Harivarsha and Videha regions.

Q.III.11.5 Which mountain chain separates the Videha and Ramyaka regions?
A.III.11.5 The mountain chain Nīla separates the Videha and Ramyaka regions.

Q.III.11.6 Which mountain chain separates Ramyaka and Hairaṇyavata regions?
A.III.11.6 The mountain chain Rukmi separates Ramyaka and Hairaṇyavata regions.

Q.III.11.7 Which mountain chain separates the Hairaṇyavata and Airāvata regions?
A.III.11.5 The mountain chain Śikhari separates the Ramyaka and Airāvata regions.




SUTRA NO. 12

Hemārjuna-tapanīya-vaidūrya-rajata-hemamayāh

Meaning: They are of golden, white, like hot gold, blue, silvery and golden in colour.

Q.III.12.1 What are the hues of the six mountains?
A.III.12.1 The hues of the six mountains (Himavān, Mahāhimavān, Nishadha, Nīla, Rukmi, Śikhari) are golden, silvery, hot gold/ rising sun, blue (like the neck of peacock), silvery white and golden respectively.

Q.III.12.2 Why do the mountains Himavān and Mahāhimavān have their specific hues?
A.III.12.2 They have the hues as the sand and stones which constitute these mountains and are golden and silvery in colours respectively.



Q.III.12.3 Why do the mountains Nishadha and Nīla have their specific hues?
A.III.12.3 They have the hues as the sand and stones which constitute these mountains have the colour of molten gold or the rising sun and blue (like the neck of peacock) respectively.

Q.III.12.4 Why do the mountains Rukmi and Śikhari have their hues?
A.III.12.4 They have the hues of the sand and stones which constitute these mountains are silvery white and golden respectively.


SUTRA NO. 13

Maṇivicitra-pārśvā-upari-mūle ca tulya-vistārāh ̣

Meaning: The sides (of these mountains) are studded with various jewels, and the mountains are of equal width at the foot, in the middle and at the top.

Q.III.13.1 With what are these mountain chains studded on the sides?
A.III.13.1 The sides of these mountains are of variegated colours being studded with precious stones of various colours.

Q.III.13.2 What is the expanse (length, breadth and depth or height) of these mountains?
A.III.13.2 These Mountains are of same expanse from the top to the bottom.

Q.III.13.3 What is on the tops of the mountain chains?
A.III.13.3 There are lakes in the middle of these mountain chains.


SUTRA NO. 14

Padma-mahāpadma-tigiñcha-kesari-mahāpundarīka-pundarīkā hradā-steshāmupari

Meaning: Padma, Mahāpadma, Tigiñcha, Kesari, Mahapundarīka and Pundarīka are the lakes on the tops of these (mountains).

Q.III.14.1 How many lakes are there at the tops of these mountains and what are their names?
A.III.14.1 The six lakes named as: Padma, Mahāpadma, Tigiṃcha, Kesari, Mahāpundarīka and Pundarīka.

Q.III.14.2 Which lakes are there at the tops of the Himavān, Mahāhimavān, and Nishadha mountains respectively?
A.III.14.2 The lakes on tops of the Himavān, Mahāhimavān, and Nishadha mountains are Padma, Mahāpadma and Tigiṃcha respectively.


Q.III.14.3 Which lakes are there on tops of the Nīla, Rukmi and Śikhari mountains?
A.III.14.3 The lakes on the summits of Nīla, Rukmī and Śikharī mountains are Kesari, Mahāpundarīka and Pundarīka respectively.


SUTRA NO. 15

Prathamo yojana-sahasrāyāmastadardha-vishkambho hradah

Meaning: The first lake is 1,000 yojanas in length and half of it in breadth.

Q.III.15.1 What is the length and breadth of the first lake?
A.III.15.1 The expanse of the first lake is 1000 yojanas in length (east to west) and 500 yojanas in width (north to south).

Q.III.15.2 What is a yojana?
A.III.15.2 One yojana is 68000 fingers long, or approximately 9.09 miles /14.5 kilometers.

Q.III.15.3 What is the meaning of hrhda in the aphorism?
A.III.15.3 It means a large lake.


SUTRA NO. 16

Daśayojanāvagāhah ̣

Meaning: Its depth is ten yojanas.

Q.III.16.1 What is the depth of the first lake?
A.III.16.1 The depth of the first lake is 10 yojana.

Q.III.16.2 What is meant by avagāha in the aphorism?
A.III.16.2 It means the depth.

Q.III.16.3 Where has the word padma been used earlier?
A.III.16.3 It has been borrowed from aphorism number 14.




SUTRA NO. 17

Tanmadhye yojanaṃ pushkaram

Meaning: In the middle of this first lake, there is a lotus of the size of one yojana.

Q.III.17.1 What is there in the middle of the Padma Lake?
A.III.17.1 There is a giant lotus in the centre of the Padma Lake.

Q.III.17.2 What is the expanse of this giant lotus?
A.III.17.2 This lotus has an expanse of one yojana.

Q.III.17.3 What are the expanse of the stalk and the leaves of this lotus?
A.III.17.3 The stalk of this lotus is two kośas and of the leaf is one kośa.

Q.III.17.4 What is meant by ‘tanmadhye’ in the aphorism?
A.III.17.4 The centre of the lake

Q.III.17.5 What is meant by ‘pushkara’ in the aphorism?
A.III.17.5 The lotus

SUTRA NO. 18

Taddviguṇadviguṇā hradāh ̣ pushkarāṇi ca

Meaning: The sizes of lakes as well as the lotuses are of double the sizes successively.

Q.III.18.1 What is the size of the other lakes and lotuses?
A.III.18.1 The size of the subsequent lakes and the lotuses is twice the previous one.

Q.III.18.2 Why is the word ca used in the aphorism?
A.III.18.2 This word ca means ‘and’ to denote between lakes and lotuses both.

Q.III.18.3 In what sense is the subsequent lake and lotus double in size?
A.III.18.3 The subsequent lakes and lotuses are twice in length, breadth and depth.




SUTRA NO. 19

Tannivāsinyo devyah ̣ śrī-hrī-dhrhti-kīrti-buddhi-lakshmyah ̣Palyopama-sthitayah ̣ sasāmānika-parshatkāh

Meaning: In these lotuses live the nymphs called Srī (fortune), Hrī (modesty), Dhrhti (patience), Kīrti (fame), Buddhi (wisdom) and Lakshmī (wealth), whose lifetime is one pit-measured period (playa) and who live with Sāmānikas (co-chiefs) and Pārishadas (counsellors).

Q.III.19.1 What are the name of the nymphs (devī) living on the lotuses of the six lakes?
A.III.19.1 There names are Srī, Hrī, Dhrhti, Kirti, Buddhi and Lakshmī respectively.

Q.III.19.2 What is the life span of these nymphs?
A.III.19.2 The life span of these nymphs is one pit-measured period.

Q.III.19.3 With what kind of deities do these nymphs live?
A.III.19.3 These nymphs live with co-chief / Sāmānika (deity who is equal to Indra in life-span, power and enjoyment but lack grandeur) and counsellors /Pārishada (friendly deities who are members of Indra’s council).

Q.III.19.4 What is meant by Sāmānika?
A.III.19.4 The word samāna means equal. The word Sāmānika therefore means those who live as equals but are like the grand parents and teachers.

Q.III.19.5 What is meant by Pārishada?
A.III.19.5 The word Pārishada means council members. They are like friends.

Q.III.19.6 Which nymphs live in Kesari, Mahāpundarīka and Pundarīka lakes?
A.III.19.6 Nymphs Kirti, Buddhi and Lakshmī live in Kesari, Mahāpundarīka and Pundarīka lakes respectively.

Q.III.19.7 Whom do these nymphs serve?
A.III.19.7 Srī, Hrī and Dhrhti serve Saudharma Indra and Kirti, Buddhi and Lakshmī serve Īśāna Indra. All the nymphs with their families serve these beings.


SUTRA NO. 20

Gaṃga-sindhu-rohidrohitasyā-hariddharikāntā-sītā-sītodā-nārī narakāntā-suvarṇa-rūpya-kūlā-raktā-raktodāh ̣saritastanmathyagāh

Meaning: The Gaṃgā, the Sindhu, the Rohit, the Rohitāsyā, the Harit, the Harikāntā, the Sitā, the Sitodā, the Nārī, the Narakāntā, the Suvarṇakūlā, the Rūpyakūlā, the Raktā, and the Raktodā are the rivers flowing across these regions.

Q.III.20.1 Which rivers divide Bharata Kshetra?
A.III.20.1 Gaṃga and Sindhu rivers divide Bharata Kshetra.

Q.III.20.2 Which rivers divide HaimavataKshetra?
A.III.20.2 Rohita and Rohitāsyā rivers divide Haimavata Kshetra.

Q.III.20.3 Which rivers divide Harivarsha Kshetra?
A.III.20.3 Harit and Harit-Kāntā rivers divide Harivarsha Kshetra.

Q.III.20.4 Which rivers divide Videha Kshetra?
A.III.20.4 Sītā and Sītodā rivers divide Videha Kshetra.

Q.III.20.5 Which rivers divide Ramyak Kshetra?
A.III.20.5 Gaṃga and Sindhu rivers divide Ramyak Kshetra.

Q.III.20.6 Which rivers divide Hairanyavatavarsha Kshetra?
A.III.20.6 Nāri and Nara-kānta rivers divide Hairanyavata Kshetra.

Q.III.20.7 Which rivers divide Airāvata Kshetra?
A.III.20.7 The Rivers Raktā and Raktodā divide Airāvata Kshetra.


SUTRA NO. 21

Dvayordvayoh ̣ pūrvāh ̣ pūrvagāh ̣

Meaning: The first (i.e.odd numbered) of each pair flows eastwards.

Q.III.21.1 How many rivers flow towards the east?
A.III.21.1 Seven rivers flow towards the east.

Q.III.21.2 What are their names?
A.III.21.2 They are called Gaṃga, Rohita, Harita, Sītā, Nārī, Suvarṇakūlā and Raktā.

Q.III.21.3 What is the meaning ‘pūrvāh ̣pūrvagāh ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.III.21.3 It means ‘the first flowing towards eastern ocean’.





SUTRA NO. 22

Sesiāstvaparagāh ̣

Meaning: The rest flow towards the west.

Q.III.22.1 How many rivers flow towards the west?
A.III.22.1 Seven rivers flow towards the west.

Q.III.22.2 What are their names?
A.III.22.2 They are called Siṃdhu, Rohitāsyā, Harikānta, Sītodā, Narakānta, Rupyakūlā and Raktodā.

Q.III.22.3 What is the meaning ‘aparagāh ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.III.22.3 It means ‘flowing towards the west’.


SUTRA NO. 23

Caturdaśa-nadī-sahasra-parivritā gaṃgā-siṃdhvādayo nadyah

Meaning: The Gaṃgā, and the Siṃdhu, etc. are rivers having 14,000 tributaries.


Q.III.23.1 How many tributaries do the rivers Gaṃgā and Siṃdhu have?
A.III.23.1 Rivers Gaṃgā and Siṃdhu have 14000 tributaries.

Q.III.23.2 How many tributaries do the rivers Rohita and Rohitāsyā have?
A.III.23.2 Rivers Rohita and Rohitāsyā have 28000 tributaries.

Q.III.23.3 How many tributaries of do the rivers Harit and Harikāntā have?
A.III.23.3 Rivers Harit and Harikāntā have 56000 tributaries.

Q.III.23.4 How many tributaries do the rivers Sītā and Sītodā have?
A.III.23.4 Rivers Sītā and Sītodā have 112000 tributaries.

Q.III.23.5 How many tributaries do the rivers Nārī and Narakāntā have?
A.III.23.5 Rivers Nāri and Narakānta have 56000 tributaries.

Q.III.23.6 How many tributaries do the rivers Suvarṇakūlā and Rupyakūlā have?
A.III.23.6 Rivers Suvarṇakūlā and Rūpyakūlā have 28000 tributaries.
  
Q.III.23.7 How many tributaries do the rivers Raktā and Raktodā have?
A.III.23.7 Rivers Raktā and Raktodā have 14000 tributaries.


SUTRA NO. 24

Bharatah ̣siadviṃśati-pañcayojana-śatavistārah ̣siaticaikonaviṃśati-bhāgah ̣ yojanasya

Meaning: Bharata is 526 6/19 yojanas in width.

Q.III.24.1 What is the expanse of Bharata Ksietra?
A.III.24.1 Its expanse is 526 and 6/19 yojana.

Q.III.24.2 What is meant by ‘siadviṃśati’ in the aphorism?
A.III.24.2 Twenty six

Q.III.24.3 What is meant by ‘paṃcayojana śata’ in the aphorism?
A.III.24.3 526 yojana

Q.III.24.4 What is the meaning of ‘caikonaviṃśatibhāgāh ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.III.24.4 The word ca means ‘and’. The word bhāgā means ‘part’ or division. The word siat means six, viṃśati means ninteen and bhāgā means ‘part or division’. Thus it means ‘19th division of one’. There is a word śati (six) in front of caikonaviṃśatibhāgāh ̣. Thus ‘śati caikonaviṃśatibhāgāh ̣’ means plus six divided by nineteen parts of a yojana added.





Q.III.24.5 How the idea of six divided by nineteen come forth from the aphorism?
A.III.24.5 The word ‘bhāgā’, which means part or divisions of, gives this meaning.





SUTRA NO. 25

Taddviguṇadviguṇavistārā varsiadharavarsiā videhāntāh ̣

Meaning: The Mountains and the regions are double in width up to Videha.

Q.III.25.1 What is the size of the subsequent mountains and regions?
A.III.25.1 The subsequent mountains and regions are twice the size of Bharata and Airāvata regions.

Q.III.25.2 What is the meaning of ‘varsia’?
A.III.25.2 The word ‘varsia’ means region or area.

Q.III.25.3 What is the meaning of ‘varsiadhara’?
A.III.25.3 The word ‘varsiadara’ means the mountain.

Q.III.25.4 Are all the mountains and regions double the size of the former?
A.III.25.4 Yes, counting from Bharata and Airāvata regions and upto Videha.

Q.III.25.5 What is the meaning of the word ‘videhāntā’ in the aphorism?
A.III.25.5 This means ending at Videha ksietra only’.

SUTRA NO. 26

Uttarā daksiiṇatulyāh ̣

Meaning: Those in the north are equal in expanse to those in the south.

Q.III.26.1 How much is the expanse (length, breadth and depth) of mountains and regions in the north of Videha?
A.III.26.1 The expanse of the mountains and regions in the north of Videha is similar to the expanse of mountains and regions in the south of Videha

Q.III.26.2 Which region has an expanse equal to Bharata region?
A.III.26.2 The expanse of Airāvata Ksietra is equal to that of Bharata region.

Q.III.26.3 Which is the other mountain whose expanse is the equal to that of Mountain Himavan?
A.III.26.3 The expanse of Śikharī Mountain is equal to that of Mountain Himavan.

Q.III.26.4 Which is the other mountain whose expanse is the equal to that of Haimavata Ksietra?
A.III.26.4 The expanse of Hairaṇyavata Ksietra is equal to that of Haimavata region.
 
Q.III.26.5 Which is the other mountain whose expanse is the equal to that of Mountain Mahāhimavan?
A.III.26.5 The expanse of Mountain Rukmī is equal to that of Mountain Mahāhimavan.

Q.III.26.6 Which is the other mountain whose expanse is the equal to that of Hari Ksietra?
A.III.26.6 The expanse of Ramyaka Ksietra is equal to that of Hari Ksietra.

Q.III.26.7 Which is the other mountain whose expanse is the equal to that of Mountain Nisiadha?
A.III.26.7 The expanse of Nīla Mountain is equal to that of Mountain.Nisiadha

Q.III.26.8 What is the meaning ‘daksiiṇatulyah ̣’ in the aphorism?
A.III.26.8 It means similar to the southern.

Q.III.26.9 What is the expanse of the lotuses in the mountains of Airāvata regions etc?
A.III.26.9 It is similar to expanse of lotuses in the mountains of Bharata region etc.





SUTRA NO. 27

Bharatairāvatayorvriddhihrāsau siatisamayābhyā mutsarpiṇyavasarpiṇībhyām

Meaning: In the Bharata and Airāvata regions, there is gain and loss (regeneration and degeneration) during the six periods of the two aeons/ half cycles of ‘regeneration and degeneration’ (also called ascending and descending).

Q.III.27.1 Are the life span and experience of human beings in Bharata and Airāvata regions the same throughout all time periods?
A.III.27.1 No, they increase and decrease according to the increasing (utsarpiṇī) and decreasing (avasarpiṇī) time epochs /aeons.

Q.III.27.2 What are the attributes that increase or decrease in Bharata and Airāvata regions?
A.III.27.2 The life span, experience, body size increase and decrease according to the time cycles in Bharata and Airāvata regions.

Q.III.27.3 What is meant by life span, experience and size?
A.III.27.3 Experience of miserys and pleasures is called experience. Duration of the life span is called life span. The height of the body is called size.



Q.III.27.4 What is the efficient cause of this increase and decrease?
A.III.27.4 Time i.e. increasing and decreasing time epochs are the efficient cause of this increase and decrease.

Q.III.27.5 What is meant by increasing and decreasing time epochs?
A.III.27.5 The time period during which experience and life span increase is called utsarpiṇī kāla, and the time period thee attributes decrease is called avasarpiṇī kāla.

Q.III.27.6 What are the subdivisions of avasarpiṇī kāla?
A.III.27.6 It has six subdivisions: happy-happy (susiamā- susiamā), happy (susiamā), happy-misery (susiamā-dusiamā), misery-happy (dusiamā-susiamā), misery (dusiamā), misery-misery (dusiamā – dusiamā).

Q.III.27.7 What are the subdivisions of utsarpiṇ kāla?
A.III.27.7 It has six subdivisions namely misery-misery (dusiamā-dusiamā), misery (dusiamā), misery-happy (dusiamā-susiamā), happy-misery (susiamā-dusiamā), happy (susiamā), happy-happy (susiamā-susiamā).

Q.III.27.8 What is the duration of increasing and decreasing epochs?
A.III.27.8 Both time epochs are of 1014 oean-measured duration (kotiā-kotiī sāgara)

Q.III.27.9 What is meant by kalpakāla?
A.III.27.9 The time duration of one ascending and one decending time epoch is called kalpakāla.



Q.III.27.11 When are the kulakara (chiefs of the tribes and ethical founders) born?
A.III.27.11 They are born in the third time period when one eighth part of the same is remaining.

Q.III.27.12 When are the sixty famous personalities (śalākā purusia) born?
A.III.27.12 They are born in the fourth time period.

Q.III.27.13 Who are the sixty three famous personalities (śalākā purusia)?
A.III.27.13 These are: 24 ford-makers (tīrthaṃkaras), 9 lords (nārāyaṇa), 9 rivals of lords (pratinārāyaṇa), 9 co-brothers of lords (balabhadra) and 12 supreme-lords (cakravarti).

Q.III.27.14 Why are they born in the fourth time period only?
A.III.27.14 They are born in the fourth time period as attainment of liberation (pure soul state) is possible in this time period only.

Q.III.27.15 What is the epoch/time period in Bharata and Airāvata regions now?
A.III.27.15 The time period in Bharata and Airāvata regions now is called Huṇdāvasarpiṇī.

Q.III.27.16 After how many kalpakāla does huṇdāvasarpiṇī epoch comes?
A.III.27.16 The huṇdāvasarpiṇī time period comes after the passage of innumerable palyakala (series of simultaneous increasing and decreasing time epochs).

Q.III.27.17 What is the peculiarity of the huṇdāvasarpiṇī epoch?
A.III.27.17 In avasarpiṇī epoch extraordinary events like the birth of ford-maker (tīrthaṃkaras), affliction of misery on ford maker, loss of pride of supreme lords and rise of Brāhmaṇa cult etc happen.

Q.III.27.18 What is meant by time of catastrophe (pralaya kāla)?
A.III.27.18 There is chaos all around the earth resulting in massive disaster.

Q.III.27.19 When is the time period of catastrophe?
A.III.27.19 It occurs during the last 49 days of the misery-misery time period of avasarpiṇī epoch.

Q.III.27.20 How does the world get recreated (srisitii-nirmāṇa) again after catastrophe?
A.III.27.20 At the end of the catastrophe, it rains milk (ksiīra) day and night continuously followed by rains of nectar for 49 days time period. These cause the birth of classes of living beings again and thus the world gets organized again.

Q.III.27.21 What is the life span and food of subhumans/animals in the regions of enjoyment (bhogabhūmi)?
A.III.27.21 The animals eat auspicious fodder and have a life span equal to that of human beings.

Q.III.27.22 What kinds of living beings do not exist in regions of enjoyment?
A.III.27.22 The hemophrodatic or neutral gender beings and deficient living beings do not exist in the regions of enjoyment.






SUTRA NO. 28

Tābhyāmaparā bhūmayo avasthitāh ̣

Meaning: The regions other than these two are stable.




Q.III.28.1 What is the nature of other (other than Bharata and Airāvata) regions(bhūmiyā)?
A.III.28.1 They are forever of the same state or condition, i.e. the time remains same and does not change in time cycles.

Q.III.28.2 Does time change in cycles there?
A.III.28.2 Never, it stays the same i.e. unchanged.

Q.III.28.3 Which are such stable regions?
A.III.28.3 These regions are Haimavat, Harivarsia and Devakuru.





SUTRA NO. 29

Eka-dvi-tri-palyopamasthitayo haimavataka-hārivarsiaka- daivakuravakāh

Meaning: The human beings in Haimavata, Hari and Devakuru are of one, two and three palyas respectively.

Q.III.29.1 What is the life span of human beings in these (Haimavat, Harivarsia and Devakuru) regions?
A.III.29.1 The life span of inhabitants of Haimavat, Harivarsia and Devakuru beings is one, two and three palyopama.

Q.III.29.2 What are the regions of the south?
A.III.29.2 These are Haimavat, Harivarsia and Devakuru regions.

Q.III.29.3 What are the peculiarities of inhabitants of the Haimavat region?
A.III.29.3 The five Haimavat regions of two and a half continents (Dhāi-dvīpa), in which inhabitants live, have the happy-misery period (3rd time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of one palya, the height of their body is 2000 bows, they take food once on alternate days, and they have bodies are of blue colour (like blue lotus).

Q.III.29.4 What are the peculiarities of inhabitants in Harivarsia region?
A.III.29.4 The five Harivarsia regions in which inhabitants live have a happy period (2nd time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of two palya, height of their bodies is 4000 bows, they take food once after an interval of two days, and the body are of white colour (like conch shell).

Q.III.29.5 What are the peculiarities of inhbaitants in Devakuru region?
A.III.29.5 The five Devakuru regions in which inhabitants live have a happy-happy period (1st time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of one palya, height of their bodies is 6000 arrows, they take food once after an interval of three days, and their bodies are of golden colour.






SUTRA NO. 30

Tathottarāh ̣

Meaning: The condition is the same in the north.

Q.III.30.1 What is the state/condition in northern regions?
A.III.30.1 The state in the northern regions is similar to the states in the southern regions.

Q.III.30.2 Which are the regions of the north?
A.III.30.2 These regions of the north are the Hairaṇyavata, Ramyak and Uttarakuru.

Q.III.30.3 What are the peculiarities of inhabitants in the Hairaṇyavata region?
A.III.30.3 The five Hairaṇyavata regions in which human beings live have a happy-misery period (3rd time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of one palya, height of their bodies is 2000 bows, they take food once on alternate days, and their bodies are of blue colour (like blue lotus) which is similar to the Haimvata regions in the north.

Q.III.30.4 What are the peculiarities of inhabitants in Ramyak region?
A.III.30.4 The five regions Ramyak in which inhabitants live has happy period (2nd time period) always. There the human beings have a life span of two palya, height of their body as 4000 bows, food once after two days, and the body of white colour (Like conch shell) which is similar to that in Harivarsia regions in the north

Q.III.30.5 What are the peculiarities of inhabitants in the Uttarakuru region?
A.III.30.5 The five Uttarakuru regions in which inhabitants live have a happy-happy period (1st time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of three palya, height of their bodies is 6000 arrows, they take food once after an interval of three days, and their bodies are of golden colour which is similar to that in the Devakuru in southern region.








SUTRA NO. 31

Videhesiu saṃkhyeyakālāh ̣

Meaning: In Videha region the lifetime is numerable years.

Q.III.31.1 What is the life span of inhabitants in Videha region?
A.III.31.1 The life span of inhabitants in Videha region is numerable years.

Q.III.31.2 What is the height and food of inhabitants in Videha region?
A.III.31.2 There height is 500 bows and they take food once a day.





Q.III.31.3 What is the maximum and minimum life span of inhabitants in Videha region?
A.III.31.3 The maximum life span is one pūrva-kotii i.e. seven-hundred thousand crore (7*1012) years and the minimum life span is fifty six thousand (56*1010) crore years.


SUTRA NO. 32

Bharatasya visikambho jambūdvīpasya navatiśatabhāgah ̣</font>

Meaning:The width of Bharata is one hundred and ninetieth (1/190) part of that of Jambūdvīpa.

Q.III.32.1 What is the expanse of Bharata Ksietra?
A.III.32.1 The expanse of Bharata Ksietra is 190th part of Jambūdvīpa.

Q.III.32.2 How the expanse of Bharata Ksietra is 190th part of Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.32.2 The expanse of Jambūdvīpa is 100000 yojana. 190th part of this is 526 and 6/19 yojana. This is the expanse of Bharata Ksietra.

Q.III.32.3 Which oceans surround Jambūdvīpa?
A.III.32.3 The Lavaṇa Ocean (Salt Ocean) surrounds Jambūdvīpa.

Q.III.32.4 What is the taste of liquids (water) contained in the Lavaṇa, Vāruṇī, Ksiīra and Ghritoda oceans?
A.III.32.4 The taste of water in Lavaṇa Ocean is salty. The taste of water in Vāruṇī Ocean is called wine. The taste of water in Ksiīra Ocean is like milk. The taste of water in Ghritoda Ocean is like ghee (butter).

Q.III.32.5 What is the taste of liquid (water) contained in the Kālodadhi, Pusikara, Svayaṃbhūramaṇa and other oceans?
A.III.32.5 The taste of water in Kālodadhi, Pusikara and Svayaṃbhūramaṇa oceans is like water. The taste of water in other oceans is like sugarcane juice.

Q.III.32.6 Which oceans have aquatic life (living beings that live in the ocean) in them?
A.III.32.6 Lavaṇa, Kālodadhi and Svayaṃbhūramaṇa oceans have aquatic life in them.

Q.III.32.7 Which ocean has the purest water?
A.III.32.7 The Lavaṇa Ocean has the purest water.

Q.III.32.8 Which continent surrounds the Lavaṇa Ocean and what is its expanse?
A.III.32.8 Dhātakīkhaṇda continent surrounds Lavaṇa Ocean and its expanse is 400000 yojana.





SUTRA NO. 33

Dvirdddhātakīkhande

Meaning: In Dhātakīkhanda it is double.

Q.III.33.1 How many regions and mountains etc are there in Dhātakīkhaṇda continent?
A.III.33.1 The number of regions and mountains in Dhātakīkhaṇda continent is twice those of Jambūdvīpa.

Q.III.33.2 What are the things has Dhātakīkhaṇda has twice?
A.III.33.2 In Dhātakīkhaṇda there are two Merus i.e. Vijay in East and Acala in West; two Bharata regions,two Himavāna etc, and six mountains with each Meru.
 
Q.III.33.3 What is the size of the lotuses in Dhātakīkhaṇda?
A.III.33.3 The expanse of each lotus in Dhātakīikhaṇda is twice that of lotus in Jambūdvīpa.

Q.III.33.4 Which mountain separates Dhātakīkhaṇda in the east and west sub regions?
A.III.33.4 Isivākāra Mountain, one each in north and south regions, divide Dhātakīkhaṇda in eastern and western regions.

Q.III.33.5 How did Dhātakīkhaṇda get its name?
A.III.33.5 Dhātakī trees exists all over in Dhātakīkhaṇda. Khaṇda means part /division.Even though the region should be named as Dhātakīdvīpa, yet this continent is known as Dhātakīkhaṇda.

Q.III.33.6 Which ocean surrounds Dhātakīkhaṇda continent and what is its expanse?
A.III.33.6 The Ocean Kālodadhi surrounds it and its expanse is 8, 00,000 yojana.

Q.III.33.7 Which continent surrounds the Ocean Kālodadhi and what is its expanse?
A.III.33.7 Pusikara continent surrounds the Ocean Kālodadhi and its expanse is 16, 00,000 yojana.






SUTRA NO. 34

Pusikarārddhe ca

Meaning: Half of Pusikaradvīpa has as many regions and mountains as Dhātakīkhaṇda continent..

Q.III.34.1 How many regions and mountains etc are there in the Pusikarārdha continent?
A.III.34.1 The number of regions and mountains in the Pusikarārdha continent is same as in Dhātakīkhaṇda continent.

Q.III.34.2 What is the number of mountains, Merus and regions in Pusikarārdha continent?
A.III.34.2 In Pusikarārdha continent there are two Merus, namely Mandara and Vidhyunamāli, two Isivakāra mountains two Bharata regions, two Himavāna, etc.
 
Q.III.34.3 How did the Pusikara continent get its name?
A.III.34.3 The tree Pusikara grows in the Pusikara continent. Hence, the name is assigned as Pusikarārdha continent.
 
Q.III.34.4 Why the word ardha appear in the name of this continent?
A.III.34.4 The Mānusiottara Mountain bifurcate Pusikara continent in two regions. Each region is called Pusikarārdha i.e. half Pusikara. Alternatively it is also said that all trees and mountains et5c in this region are in the inner half of the continent; and no human-being can cross Mānusiottara Mount to see the outer half of this region.

Q.III.34.5 Why is the word ca used in the aphorism?
A.III.34.5 To indicate that Pusikarārdha continent is similar to Dhātakīkhaṇda continent.








SUTRA NO. 35

Prāṇ mānusiottarānmanusiyāh ̣

Meaning: (There are) human beings up to Mānusiottara.

Q.III.35.1 Up to which region are human beings found?
A.III.35.1 Human beings are found up to the Mānusiottara Mountain.

Q.III.35.2 Where is Mānusiottara Mountain?
A.III.35.2 Mānusiottara Mountain, of the form of a bangle, is in the middle of Pusikara continent.
 
Q.III.35.3 In which region are human beings found?
A.III.35.3 The human beings are found in Two-and-half continents (Dhāi dvīpa) only. This whole region is called Manusiyaloka (the region where human beings can exist).

Q.III.35.4 Which are the Two-and-half continents and the two oceans?
A.III.35.4 Jambūdvīpa, Dhātakī and Pusikarārdha constitute Two-and-half continents. Kālodadhi and Lavaṇa are the two oceans.

Q.III.35.5 How did Mānusiottara Mountain get its name?
A.III.35.5 The location of the Mānusiottara Mountain, that marks the boundaries of the region of Manusiyaloka, gave its name as Mānusiottara Mountain.



Q.III.35.6 What is the expanse of Mānusiottara Mountain?
A.III.35.6 Mānusiottara Mountain (the mountain up to where the human beings can go) is 1721 yojana high and 430 yojana down inside the earth. It is 1022 yojana at the surface of the earth, 723 yojana in the middle and 420 yojana at the top.

Q.III.35.7 How many Jina temples are there on the Mānusiottara Mountain?
A.III.35.7 There are four Jina temples in the four directions on the Mānusiottara Mountain.

Q.III.35.8 Can ascetics with high spiritual purification (i.e. with supernatural powers) and vidyādharas (human beings who live on Mānusiottara Mountain and are always busy in auspicious activities) go beyond Mānusiottara Mountain?
A.III.35.8 No, they cannot go beyond Mānusiottara Mountain.

Q.III.35.9 Why is birth as a human being essential?
A.III.35.9 Since observing self-restraint and practicing the three jewels (ratnatraya) is possible in human realm, it is considered as essential to be born as human being.







SUTRA NO. 36

Āryā mlecchāśca

Meaning: The civilized people and the barbarians.

Q.III.36.1 How many types of human beings are there?
A.III.36.1 There two types of human beings, namely: civilized (ārya) and barbarian (mleccha).
     
Q.III.36.2 Who are called civilized?
A.III.36.2 The human beings who have virtues and live with virtuous people are called civilized (āryas).

Q.III.36.3 Who are called barbarian (mleccha)?
A.III.36.3 Those human beings who have no control over their speech i.e. behave and speak shamelessly without regard to anyone are called barbarians.

Q.III.36.4 How many subclasses are there amongst the civilized people?
A.III.36.4 There are two subclasses of the civilized people, namely: those have attained extraordinary powers (riddhidhāri) and those who are without such extraordinary powers.

Q.III.36.5 How many types of extraordinary powers (riddhis) are there?
A.III.36.5 Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called riddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers namely: intellect (buddhi), activity (kriyā), change of form (vikriyā), austerity (tapa), might (bala), healing power (ausiadhi), occult power to change food (rasa) and power to ensure inexhaustible food and space(ksietra). The word extraordinary is attached as a prefix to each of these eight types.

Q.III.36.6 Which are further subtypes of extraordinary intellect?
A.III.36.6 The extraordinary intellect is of eighteen subtypes namely: omniscience, telepathy (mental modes reading), clairvoyance (avadhi), seed intellect (bīja), search-intellect (kositha), sounds discriminating intellect (saṃbhinnaśrotri), syllable based intellect (padānusārī), tele-touch intellect (dūrasparśī), tele-taste intellect (dūrasvādī), tele-smell intellect (dūraghrāṇasamartha), tele-hearing intellect (dūraśravaṇasamartha), tele-viewing intellect (dūrāvalo-kanasamartha), authoritative knowledge of ten purvas (dasapūrvī), authoritative knowledge of 14 purvas (caudahapūrvī), eightfold prognostical intellect (asitiāṃgamahānimittajñāna),self-owned intellect (pratyekabuddha), debating capability (vāditva) and sagacity (prajñāśramaṇatva). The word ‘extraordinary’ in English and ‘riddhi’ in Hindi is added to each one of these.

Q.III.36.7 What is meant by extraordinary clairvoyance (avadhi-riddhi)?
A.III.36.7 Owner of clairvoyant knowledge cognizesdirectly, the concrete objects within certain limitations of the time periods and distance and without the assistance of sense organs. It is of three types namely partial (Deśa), all (Sarva) and supreme (Parama).

Q.III.36.8 What is meant by extraordinary telepathy (manah ̣paryaya-riddhi)?
A.III.36.8 the objects of thoughts of other’s mind are cognized by telepathy directly (without the assistance of sense organs). It is of two types namely simple (rijumati) and all (vipula).

Q.III.36.9 What is meant by omniscience (kevala-riddhi)?
A.III.36.9 Omniscience knows all concrete and non-concrete objects of all places and times clearly.

Q.III.36.10 What is meant by extraordinary seed intellect (bīja-buddhi-riddhi)?
A.III.36.10 This is the intellect which understands the meaning of the entire scripture by reading just one of its aphorisms.

Q.III.36.11 What is meant by extraordinary store intellect (kositha-buddhi-riddhi)?
A.III.36.11 The intellect which can extract any quotes /aphorism from different scriptures when required is called super natural search-intellect. To understand this it is like the capability to take out something from the storehouse having a vast variety of goods.

Q.III.36.12 What is meant by extraordinary discriminating sounds intellect (saṃbhinnaśrotri-riddhi)?
A.III.36.12 It is the extraordinary capability by which its owner can distinctly hear and discriminate different sounds of human beings and animals in an area of 9 by 12 yojana.



Q.III.36.13 What is meant by extraordinary organized memory intellect (padānusārīriddhi)?
A.III.36.13 It is the extraordinary capability by which its owner can memorize for recitation the entire scripture just by reading the first, middle and last aphorisms.

Q.III.36.14 What is meant by extraordinary tele-touch intellect (dūrasparśīriddhi)?
A.III.36.14 This is an extraordinary capability by which its owner can cognize the eight types of touch just by the touching the air (and not of the distant object) from a distance.

Q.III.36.15 What is meant by extraordinary tele-taste intellect (dūrasvādī)?
A.III.36.15 This is an extraordinary capability by which its owner can cognize the five types of tastes just by tasting the air (and not of the distant object) from a distance.
 
Q.III.36.16 What is meant by extraordinary tele-smell intellect (dūraghrāṇasa-marthariddhi)?
A.III.36.16 This is an extraordinary capability by which its owner can cognize the two types of odours just by smelling the air (and not of the distant object) from a distance.

Q.III.36.17 What is meant by extraordinary tele-hearing intellect (dūraśravaṇasa-marthariddhi)?
A.III.36.17 This is an extraordinary capability by which its owner can cognize the seven types of notes (of sound) from a distance.

Q.III.36.18 What is meant by extraordinary tele-viewing (dūrāvalokanasa-marthariddhi)?
A.III.36.18 This is an extraordinary capability by which its owner can see distant objects clearly.

Q.III.36.19 What is meant by extraordinary knowledge of ten pūrvas (dasapūr-vīriddhi)?
A.III.36.19 This is complete knowledge of the ten pūrvas (Jain scriptures prior to Mahāvīra).

Q.III.36.20 What is meant by extraordinary (or prodigy) knowledge of fourteen pūrvas (caudahapūrvīriddhi)?
A.III.36.20 This is the complete knowledge of the fourteen pūrvas.

Q.III.36.21 What is meant by extraordinary prognostiical intellect (asitiāṃgama-hānimittajña-riddhi)?
A.III.36.21 This is the extraordinary intellect by which its owner can predict a likely event by observing stars, signs, sounds of birds and animals, drams etc.





Q.III.36.22 What is meant by extraordinary self developed intellect (pratyeka- buddhariddhi)?
A.III.36.22 It is the capability which enables its owner to observe self restraint to perform austerities and hence knowledge without any external help/assistance.

Q.III.36.23 What is meant by extraordinary intellect of debating (vādiriddhi)?
A.III.36.23 This is the capability to defeat others in debates.

Q.III.36.24 What is meant by extraordinary sagacity (prajñāśramaṇariddhi)?
A.III.36.24 To understand the meaning, differences and concept of the various entities without studying the scriptures is called extraordinary sagacity
 
Q.III.36.25 How many subtypes of extraordinary activity (kriyāriddhi) are there?
A.III.36.25 It has two primary and ten secondary subtypes. The primary subtypes are called extraordinary capability to move in the sky (cāraṇariddhi) and extraordinary power to walk above the land (ākāśagāminiriddhi).

Q.III.36.26 How many types of extraordinary capability to move in the sky (cāraṇariddhi) are there?
A.III.36.26 Cāraṇa means experts who have attained high standards in right conduct, self restraint and abstinence from sinful activities. The extraordinary capability to move in the sky (without causing obstructions or hurt others) is called cāraṇariddhi. It is of nine types namely: the extraordinary powers to walk above water (jalacāraṇa), walk over earth (jaṃghācarana), walk over flowers (pusipa), walk over fruits (fala), walking over leaves (patra), walking over mountain peaks (śreṇi), walking over creepers and spider webs (tantu), and walking over flames of fire (agniśikhā).

Q.III.36.27 How many types of extraordinary power to move in the sky (ākāśagāminiriddhi) are there?
A.III.36.27 The difference between this and cāraṇariddhi is the lack of consideration in relation to creating obstacles or hurt other living beings. Also in ākāśagāminiriddhi, emphasis is on the meditation activity and moving in the space in that state undisturbed. It is of two types namely: lotus-posture (padmāsana) and relaxation (kāyotsarga) extraordinary powers.

Q.III.36.28 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk above the water (jalacāraṇa)?
A.III.36.28 It is the extraordinary power by which its owner walks over earth and water at same ease.

Q.III.36.29 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over earth (jaṃghācārana)?
A.III.36.29 It is the extraordinary power which its owner can move 4 fingers above the earth surface.



Q.III.36.30 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over flowers (pusipa)?
A.III.36.30 It is the extraordinary power by which when its owner can walk over flowers, the flowers do not get damaged.

Q.III.36.31 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over fruits (fala)?
A.III.36.31 It is the extraordinary power by which when its owner can walk over fruits on the trees or plants, so that the fruits do not get damaged.

Q.III.36.32 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over the leaves (patra)?
A.III.36.32 It is the extraordinary power by which when it owner can walk over the leaves of the trees or plants, so that the leaves do not get damaged.

Q.III.36.33 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over mountain peaks (śrenicārana)?
A.III.36.33 It is the extraordinary power by which when its owner can walk over the mountain peaks without hurting any creatures.

Q.III.36.34 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over tender creepers (tantu)?
A.III.36.34 It is the extraordinary power by which when its owner can walk tender creepers etc without damaging them.

Q.III.36.35 What is meant by extraordinary power to walking over the flame of fire (agniśikhā)?
A.III.36.35 It is the extraordinary power by which when its owner can walk over the flames of the fire, so that the neither the fire nor the feet of the walker get damaged.

Q.III.36.36 What is meant by extraordinary power to moving in the sky in lotus posture (padmāsana-riddhi)?
A.III.36.36 It is the extraordinary power by which its owner moves in the space even though he is meditating in lotus posture.

Q.III.36.37 What is meant by extraordinary power to move in the sky while meditating in relaxation posture (kāyotsarga- riddhi)?
A.III.36.37 It is the extraordinary power by which its owner moves in the space even though he is meditating in a relaxed standing posture.

Q.III.36.38 How many types of extraordinary power to change of form (vikriyā- riddhi) are there?
A.III.36.38 Extraordinary power to transform the body into different shapes is called vikriyā- riddhi. It is of eleven types namely: transforming the body into smaller stature (aṇimā), transforming the body into bigger stature (mahimā), transforming the body into very light body (ladhimā), transforming the body into a heavier body (garimā), stretching the the body (prāpti), (prākāmya), heavenly wealth (īśvaratva), domination (vaśitva), stretching the the body (apratighāta), disguising as invisible (antardhyāna) and transform the body as of other living beings (kāmarupitva).


Q.III.36.39 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform into smaller stature (aṇimā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.39 It is the extraordinary power by which one can transform his body into smaller stature.

Q.III.36.40 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform body into bigger stature (mahimā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.40 It is the extraordinary power by which one transforms his body into bigger stature like a hill.

Q.III.36.41 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform body into lighter body (ladhimā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.41 It is the extraordinary power by which one makes his body light like a flower.

Q.III.36.42 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform body into a heavier body (garimā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.42 It is the extraordinary power by which one transforms is body into a heavier body like a rock.

Q.III.36.43 What is meant by extraordinary power to stretch the body (prāpti-riddhi)?
A.III.36.43 It is the extraordinary power by which one stretches his body so that his toe can touch the Meru Mountain while sitting.

Q.III.36.44 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk over water (prākāmya-riddhi)?
A.III.36.44 It is the extraordinary power by which one walks over the surface of water of the ocean like walking on the surface of earth.

Q.III.36.45 What is meant by extraordinary power to heavenly wealth (īśvaratva-riddhi)?
A.III.36.45 It is the extraordinary power by which one can have heavenly wealth.

Q.III.36.46 What is meant by extraordinary power to domination (vaśitva-riddhi)?
A.III.36.46 It is the extraordinary power by which one dominates over human and subhuman beings.

Q.III.36.47 What is meant by extraordinary power to move by penetrating (apratighāta-riddhi)?
A.III.36.47 It is the extraordinary power by which one keeps on moving by penetrating the obstacles.

Q.III.36.48 What is meant by extraordinary power to disguise as invisible (antardhyāna-riddhi)?
A.III.36.48 It is the extraordinary power by which one becomes invisible to others but he can see everything.




Q.III.36.49 What is meant by body transformation to other beings (kāmarupitva-riddhi) extraordinary power?
A.III.36.49 It is the extraordinary power by which one can transform his body in that of an animal, bird or insect etc.

Q.III.36.50 How many types of extraordinary power to observe austerity (tapa- riddhi) are there?
A.III.36.50 Austerity (tapa- riddhi) extraordinary power is the capability to observe hard and difficult penances. It is of seven types namely: conquering afflictions (ghora-riddhi), observing long fasts (mahat-riddhi), severe penance (ugratapa-riddhi), retaining aura (dīptī-riddhi), digestive (tapa-riddhi), extreme penance (ghoraguṇa-riddhi) and severe celibacy (ghorabrihamacarya- riddhi).

Q.III.36.51 What is meant by extraordinary power to conquer afflictions (ghora-riddhi)?
A.III.36.51 It is the extraordinary power to conquer afflictions while meditating in solitary places like cremation grounds etc.

Q.III.36.52 What is meant by observing long fasts (mahat-riddhi) extraordinary power?
A.III.36.52 It is the extraordinary power to observe 108 sequential fasts without any obstacles.

Q.III.36.53 What is meant by extraordinary power to perform severe penance (ugratapa-riddhi)?
A.III.36.53 It is the extraordinary power of not getting affected by observing fasts of one or two days and continuing them for a week, a month and further till death.

Q.III.36.54 What is meant by extraordinary power to retain aura (dīptī - riddhi)?
A.III.36.54 It is the extraordinary power by which one retains the aura of his body even after conquering afflictions.

Q.III.36.55 What is meant by extraordinary power to digest (atapa- riddhi)?
A.III.36.55 It is the extraordinary power by which one converts all foods into energy and does not generate any excreta (like all objects thrown in fire are destroyed completely).

Q.III.36.56 What is meant by extraordinary power to observe extreme penance (ghoraguṇa-riddhi)?
A.III.36.56 It is the extraordinary power by which one observes all the vows and austerities flawlessly even though he becomes sick.

Q.III.36.57 What is meant by extraordinary power to observe severe celibacy (ghorabrihamacarya-riddhi)?
A.III.36.57 It is the extraordinary power by which one observes the vow of celibacy such that one remains flawless in his observance of celibacy even during dreams.


Q.III.36.58 How many types of extraordinary strength are there?
A.III.36.58 The extraordinary strength of mind, body and speech to achieve the desired objectives is called extraordinary strength (bala-riddhi). It is of three types, namely: mind, body and speech. .

Q.III.36.59 What is meant by extraordinary strength of the mind?
A.III.36.58 It is the extraordinary power of the mind by which one can read the entire twelve canons of Jainism within 48 minutes.

Q.III.36.60 What is meant by extraordinary vocal strength?
A.III.36.60 It is the extraordinary vocal power by which one can recite the entire twelve canons Jainism in 48 minutes.

Q.III.36.61 What is meant by extraordinary strength of the body?
A.III.36.61 It is the extraordinary power of the body by which the ascetics do not feel the fatigue in performing penance over longer periods. It can also be defined as the extraordinary physical strength by which one can lift the entire universe on his small finger to place it elsewhere.

Q.III.36.62 How many types of extraordinary healing power (ausiadhi-riddhi) are there?
A.III.36.62 Extraordinary healing power is the power by which can heal any type of disease of the patient by just touching or being close to the patient. It is of eight types namely: healing by excreta (visitiā- riddhi), excretion’s (mala- riddhi), touch / proximity (āmra-riddhi), sweat (ujjavala-riddhi), cough etc (ksivela-riddhi), penecea (sarvausiadhi- riddhi), removal of poison (drsitiivisia- riddhi) and poison antidote (visianāśana riddhi).

Q.III.36.63 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by excreta (visitiā)?
A.III.36.63 It is the extraordinary power by which the air which touches the excreta of an ascetic cures a patient when it touches his body.

Q.III.36.64 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by excretion’s (mala- riddhi)?
A.III.36.64 It is the extraordinary power by which the air which touches the excretions from teeth, ears, nose and eyes of an ascetic cures a patient when it touches his body

Q.III.36.65 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by touch or proximity (āmra-riddhi)?
A.III.36.65 It is the extraordinary power of the ascetic so that his proximity or just the words cure the patient of all his sickness.

Q.III.36.66 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by sweat (ujjavala-riddhi)?
A.III.36.66 It is the extraordinary power of the sweat from the body of the ascetic which cures a patient when it comes in contact with the patient’s body.



Q.III.36.67 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by cough etc (ksivela-riddhi)?
A.III.36.67 It is the extraordinary power of the excretion from the nose, ears and cough of an ascetic which cure a patient when it comes in ontact with the body of the patient.

Q.III.36.68 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by panecea (sarvausiadhi-riddhi)?
A.III.36.68 It is the extraordinary power of the air which touches the body of an ascetic which cures a patient when it comes in contact with the body of the patient.

Q.III.36.69 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by removing poison (drsitiivisia-riddhi)?
A.III.36.69 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic’s sight which neutralizes the poison (inflicted by a snake or other poisonous creatures) in the body of the patient.

Q.III.36.70 What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by poison antidote (visianāśana-riddhi)?
A.III.36.70 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which makes the poison (given to him in food) to him as inactive.

Q.III.36.71 How many types of occult power to change food (rasa-riddhi) are there?
A.III.36.71 It is the extraordinary power by which an ascetic can change any type of un-palatable food into palatable food. It is of six types namely: change food in the palm (payastravā-riddhi), change dry to buttered food (ghriastravā-riddhi), creating sweets (misitāstravā-riddhi), creating food with nectar (amritastravā-riddhi), removing poison from a poisonous bite (āsyavisia-riddhi) and poisonous (drsitiivisia-riddhi).
  
Q.III.36.72 What is meant by extraordinary power to change food in the palm (payastravā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.72 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which makes the dry and tasteless food in his palm as tasty and smooth.

Q.III.36.73 What is meant by extraordinary power to change dry to buttered food (ghriastravā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.73 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which makes the entire dry (without butter) and tasteless food in the kitchen of the householder serving food to the acetic as tasty and with butter.

Q.III.36.74 What is the meant by extraordinary power to create sweets (misitāstravā-riddhi)?
A.III.36.74 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which produces sweets in the kitchen (without sweets) where he takes food.

Q.III.36.75 What is the meant by extraordinary power to create with nectar (amritastravā-riddhi)?

A.III.36.75 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic, which makes the dry and tasteless food in the kitchen where he is taking food, as nectar.

Q.III.36.76 What is meant by extraordinary power to remove poison from a poisonous bite (āsyavisia-riddhi)?
A.III.36.76 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which makes poison produced by a bite of a poisonous being as inactive.

Q.III.36.77 How many types of extraordinary power of enhancing space (ksietra-riddhi) are there?
A.III.36.77 The extraordinary power to enhance a space of small capacity to a space with extraordinarily large space is called ksietra-riddhi. It is of two types namely: space enhancing (achinna-riddhi) and avacchinna-riddhi).

Q.III.36.78 What is meant by extraordinary power to enhance-space (achinna-riddhi)?
A.III.36.78 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic which makes a small space where he is halting into a large space to accommodate even a large army of an emperor.

Q.III.36.79 What is meant by extraordinary power to enhance space cum food (achinna-riddhi)?
A.III.36.79 It is the extraordinary power of an ascetic that makes a small kitchen and food for him (where he is halting to take his food) into a large space to accommodate even a large army of an emperor along with food for them.

Q.III.36.80 How many types of civilized people (Ārya) without extraordinary powers are there?
A.III.36.80 They are of five types namely: with right faith (samyaktva-ārya), with right conduct (cāritra-ārya), with activities (karma-ārya), family-lineage (jāti- ārya) and place-lineage (ksietra- ārya) civilized people.

Q.III.36.81 Who are called with right faith (samyaktva-ārya), with right conduct (cāritra-ārya)?
A.III.36.81 The persons with right faith and who are not observing the vows are called civilized persons with right faith (samyaktva-ārya). The persons who practice the right conduct are called civilized persons with right conduct (cāritra-ārya).

Q.III.36.82 How many subtypes of civilized people with right belief are there?
A.III.36.82 They are of six types namely with right belief: in the orders of omniscient (ājñā), in the path of emancipation (mārga), in the sermons of omniscient (upadeśa), develops right belief from aphorism (sutra),
subtle meanings of aphorism (bīja), from brief descriptions of aphorism (saṃksiepa), from detailed explanations of the aphorism (vistāra), without detailed explanations (artha), omniscient firmly (avagātiha) and firm belief and have attained special spiritual purification (paramavagātiha).

Q.III.36.83 How many types of civilized people with activities (karma-ārya) are there?
A.III.36.83 They are of three types who indulge in activities namely: with attachment (sāvadhyakarma-ārya), with small attachment (alpasāvadh yakarma-ārya), and without attachment (asāvadhyakarma-ārya).

Q.III.36.84 How many types of civilized people with attachments and activities (sāvadhyakarma-ārya) are there?
A.III.36.84 They are of six types namely defense (asi), professional and accounting (masi), agriculture (krisii), education (vidhyā), trade (vāṇijya) and crafts (śilpa).

Q.III.36.85 What is meant by defense (asi) activities?
A.III.36.85 To develop expertise in using swords, bows and other weapons for defense and fighting is called defense (asi) activities.

Q.III.36.86 What is meant by professional and accounting (masi) activities?
A.III.36.86 To develop expertise in accounting of exchange of goods for trade is called accounting / professional (masi) activities.

Q.III.36.87 What is meant by agricultural (krisii) activities?
A.III.36.87 To develop expertise in plough and other instruments for agriculture to produce food and other useful material is called agricultural (krisii) activities.

Q.III.36.88 What is meant by educational (vidhyā) activities?
A.III.36.88 To develop expertise and the use of 72 arts for men and 64 for women is called educational (vidhyā) activities.

Q.III.36.89 What is meant by trade (vāṇijya) activities?
A.III.36.89 To develop expertise and perform activities like buying, storing and selling commodities such as food-grain, metals and other commodities are called trade (vāṇijya) activities.

Q.III.36.90 What is meant by craft (śilpa) activities?
A.III.36.90 To develop expertise in manual activities such as performed by a goldsmith, silversmith, ironsmith, barber etc is called crafts (śilpa) activities.

Q.III.36.91 Who are called civilized people who perform activities with attachment ‘sāvadhyakarma-ārya’?
A.III.36.91 Those who perform the six occupations: defense (asi), professional and accounting (masi), agriculture (krisii), education (vidhyā), trade (vāṇijya) and crafts (śilpa) activities and do not observe vows completely and become non observers of vows (avirati). They are called sāvadhyakarma-ārya.





Q.III.36.92 Who are called civilized persons with small attachment (alpasāvadhyakarma-ārya)?
A.III.36.92 They are the persons who perform the six activities but partially at the same time also observe the vows (5th stage of spiritual purification).

Q.III.36.93 Who are the civilized persons without attachment (asāvadhyakarma-ārya)?
A.III.36.93 The ascetics who are totally involved in annihilation of the kārmika bondage are called asāvadhyakarma-ārya.

Q.III.36.94 What is meant by civilized persons with family-lineage (jāti- ārya)?
A.III.36.94 The human beings born in families like Iksivāku, Sūrya, Soma, Kuru, Hari, Nātha, and Ugra etc are called civilized persons with family-lineage (jāti- ārya).

Q.III.36.95 Who are called civilized persons with place-lineage (ksietra- ārya)?
A.III.36.95 The persons born in auspicious places like Kashi, Kaushal etc are called civilized persons with place-lineage (ksietra- ārya).

Q.III.36.96 How many types of barbarians (mlecha) are there?
A.III.36.96 They are of two types namely: from Antaradvīpa and from Karmabhūmi.

Q.III.36.97 Who are the barbarians from Karmabhūmi?
A.III.36.97 These are the human beings from areas like Pulinda, Śabara, Yavana, Śaka, Khasa, Barbara etc of Karmabhūmi (area /region of labour).

Q.III.36.98 Who are called inhabitants of Antaradvīpa?
A.III.36.98 The hinter region between Lavaṇa Ocean and Himavāna and Vijayārdha Mountains is called Antaradvīpa. Those born in this region are called Antaradvīpaja.

Q.III.36.99 What is the characteristic of the inhabitants of Antaradvīpa?
A.III.36.99 This are is called inauspicious and therefore the human beings born from this area are considered to be inauspicious also.




SUTRA NO. 37

Bharatairāvatavidehāh ̣ karmabhūmayo anyatradevakurūttarakurubhyah

Meaning: Bharata, Airāvata, and Videha excluding Devakuru and Uttarakuru, are the regions of labour.

Q.III.37.1 Which are the regions of labour (Karmabhūmi)?
A.III.37.1 Bharata, Airāvata and Videha except Uttarakuru and Devakuru are the regions of labour i.e. where spiritual effort is possible also.



Q.III.37.2 What is meant by regions of labour?
A.III.37.2 The region where the inhabitants engage themselves in the six activities /occupations are called region of labour.

Q.III.37.3 How did the region of labour get its name?
A.III.37.3 The inhabitants in this region only can perform the six occupations for worldly activities as well as perform severe austerities even to attain liberation (moksia). Because of this the region is called region of labour.

Q.III.37.4 How many regions of labour are there?
A.III.37.4 There are 15 regions of labour in the Two-and-half continents (Dhāidvīpa) namely; five in Bharata, five in Airāvata and five in Videha regions.

Q.III.37.5 What is meant by the region of enjoyment /paradise (Bhogabhūmi)?
A.III.37.5 The region where ten types of wish-fulfilling trees (kalpavriksia) abound and the inhabitants do not engage themselves in any occupation.

Q.III.37.6 What is meant by inhabitants of the region of labour?
A.III.37.6 The Human beings living in the regions of labour are called inhabitants of the region of labour (karmabhūmija).

Q.III.37.7 How many regions of enjoyment are there?
A.III.37.7 There are thirty regions of enjoyment: six regions called Devakuru, Uttarakuru, Haimvata, Hari, Ramyak and Hairaṇyavata respectively, each associated with five mountains (Himavan, Mahāhimavan, Nisiadha, Nīla, and Rukmī).

Q.III.37.8 How did the region of enjoyment get its name?
A.III.37.8 In this region, the people are busy in enjoyment only as all their worldly desires are fulfilled by the wish-fulfilling trees there. They have or can acquire right belief and right knowledge but are unable to practice right conduct. Therefore they invariably go to heavens in their next birth but are not able to achieve liberation. Therefore the region where such people live is called region of enjoyment.

Q.III.37.9 Which are the other regions of labour apart from Bharata etc mentioned earlier?
A.III.37.9 Half of the Svayaṃbhūramaṇa continent,the whole Svayaṃbhūramaṇa Ocean and the four corners of the Svayaṃbhūramaṇa Ocean are the other regions of labour.




SUTRA NO. 38

Nristhitī parāpare tripalyopamāntarmuhūrte

Meaning: The maximum and the minimum periods of lifetime of human beings are three pit-measured-periods (Palyas)and indian-hour antarmuhūrta.

Q.III.38.1 What is the maximum and minimum lifespan of human beings in the regions of enjoyment?
A.III.38.1 The people in the regions of enjoyment have a maximum life span of three pit-measured-periods and a minimum lifespan of indian-hour (48 minutes).
   
Q.III.38.2 What is the average lifespan of people in the region of enjoyment?
A.III.38.2 The average lifespan of human beings in the regions of enjoyment is one pit-measured-period but the lives of people vary between the maximum and minimum periods.

Q.III.38.3 How many different categories of pit-measured-periods are there?
A.III.38.3 pit-measured-period is of three types namely: vyavahāra, uddhāra and addhā.

Q.III.38.4 What is meant by vyavahāra palya?
A.III.38.4 The first pit-measure is called vyavahāra palya as it the basis for the usage of the other two pit-measured-periods. There is nothing which is measured by this.

Q.III.38.5 What is meant by uddhāra palya?
A.III.38.5 Continents and oceans are measured by drawing out the bits of wool and this is called uddhāra palya.

Q.III.38.6 What is meant by addhā palya?
A.III.38.6 It is used to measure the duration and state of the lifespan, body and karma in the four realms namely human, sub-human, hell and heaven is measured by addhā palya. Literal meaning of it is duration of time.

Q.III.38.7 What is meant by vyavahāra palyopama?
A.III.38.7 One large pit with an extant of one yojana (one yojana long, one yojana broad and one yojana deep) is dug out. It is filled with the smallest bits of hair of a lamb, one to seven days old. This is called vyavahāra palya. The time elapsed in emptying this pit by taking by taking one bit of hair out every hundred years is called pit-measured-periods (vyavahāra palyopama).

Q.III.38.8 What is meant by uddhāra palya and uddhāra palyopama?
A.III.38.8 One large pit with an extant of one yojana (one yojana long, one yojana broad and one yojana deep) is dug out. The smallest bit of hair of a lamb, one to seven days old, is again cut into smallest pieces equal to time-instants in innumerable crores of years. Such bits are then filled in the pit. This is called uddhāra palya. The time taken to empty this pit by taking one by one the smallest bit of hair from this pit every time-instant is called uddhāra palyopama.

Q.III.38.9 What is meant by uddhāra sāgara?
A.III.38.9 10 * 1014 (ten kotā-kotī ) uddhāra palya is one uddhāra sāgara.

Q.III.38.10 How many continents and oceans are there?
A.III.38.10 There are as many continents and oceans as there are bits of hair in 25*1014 uddhāra palya.

Q.III.38.11 What is meant by addhā palya and addhā palyopama?
A.III.38.11 The hair bits acquired from uddhāra palya cut into even smaller bit of the size equal to time instants in hundred years are filled in the pit of one yojana extant; this is called addhā palya. The time taken to empty this pit by taking one by one the smallest bit of hair from this pit every time-instant is called half-pit-measured-period ( addhā palyopama).

Q.III.38.12 What is meant by addhā sāgara?
A.III.38.12 10*1014 addhā palya is one addhā sāgara.

Q.III.38.13 What is the extant of avasarpiṇī?
A.III.38.13 10*1014 addhā sāgara is the extant of avasarpiṇī.

Q.III.38.14 What is the extant of kalpakāla?
A.III.38.14 20*1014 addhā sāgara is the extant of kalpakāla.

Q.III.38.15 What is meant by kotā-kotī?
A.III.38.15 One crore (107) multiplied by one crore is one kotā-kotī i.e. 1014 .
 
Q.III.38.16 What is meant by sāgara?
A.III.38.16 Ten kotā-kotī addhā palya is one sāgara.`

Q.III.38.17 What is the measure used to measure the extant of the living beings in the four destinies?
A.III.38.17 The duration and state of the lifespan, body and karma in the four destinies namely human, sub-human, hell and heaven is measured by addhā playa.





SUTRA NO. 39

Tiryagyonijānān ca

Meaning: These are the same for the animals.

Q.III.39.1 What is the maximum and minimum lifespan of subhuman beings (tiryaṃca)?
A.III.39.1 They have a lifespan similar to human beings; that is, a maximum lifespan of three palya and a minimum lifespan of less than forty eight minutes.

Q.III.39.2 Who are called born out of the womb of sub human beings?
A.III.39.2 The living beings born out of the womb of the subhuman beings are called tiryagyonija or subhuman beings.

Q.III.39.3 How many types of state (sthiti) are there?
A.III.39.3 Sthiti is of two types namely that of existence (bhava) and of body (kāya).

Q.III.39.4 What is meant by state of existence?
A.III.39.4 It is the time taken to exist in one mode (paryāya).

Q.III.39.5 What is meant by state of the body?
A.III.39.5 To be born again and again in the same body from (one mode to another) is called state (sthiti) of the body.

Q.III.39.6 What is the minimum span of time for the state of the body of human and subhuman beings?
A.III.39.6 It is the same as the state of existence for both of them.
 
Q.III.39.7 What is the maximum span of time for the state of body of human beings?
A.III.39.7 The maximum life span for the state of the human body is purva-kotiī less three palyas.

Q.III.39.8 What is the maximum span of time for state of body of sub human beings?
A.III.39.8 It is infinite time which is equal to innumerable matter whirling around (pudgala parāvartana).

Q.III.39.9 Why the word ca has been used in the aphorism?
A.III.39.9 It is used to tell about life and its state (bhava).