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Chapter 4 Q-A

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Chapter IV
The Celestial beings (deva)




SUTRA NO. 1

Contents

Devāścaturṇikāyāh ̣

Meaning: The celestial beings (gods) are of four orders /classes.

Q.IV.1.1 Who are the celestial beings (deva)?
A.IV.1.1 The living beings born due to the rise of their celestial-body-making-karma and who roam freely in several parts of the celestial world and derive pleasure from it are called celestial beings.
 
Q.IV.1.2 How many classes of celestial beings are there?
A.IV.1.2 They are divided in four classes.

Q.IV.1.3 What are the names of the four classes?
A.IV.1.3 These classes are called residential (bhavanavāsī), peripatetic or forest (vyantara), stellar /luminous (jyotis ī) and heavenly / empyrean (vaimānika). Literally all celestial beings have either a palace or a vehicle and are free to roam around at will.

Q.IV.1.4 What is the nature of the celestial beings?
A.IV.1.4 The nature of these divine beings is to have a divine body and to possess 8 types of extraordinary body transforming powers, like transforming their body into smaller size etc and who continue to roam and indulge in various pleasures (auspicious and inauspicious) in the celestial world.

Q.IV.1.5 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform their body into smaller stature (aṇimā-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.5 It is the extraordinary power by which one can transform his body into smaller stature.

Q.IV.1.6 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform their body into bigger stature (mahimā-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.6 It is the extraordinary power by which one transforms his body into bigger stature like a mountain.

Q.IV.1.7 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform their body into lighter body (laghimā-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.7 It is the extraordinary power by which one makes his body light like air.

Q.IV.1.8 What is meant by extraordinary power to transform their body into a heavier body (garimā-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.8 It is the extraordinary power by which one transforms is body into a heavier body like a rock.




Q.IV.1.9 What is meant by extraordinary power to stretch their body (prāpti-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.9 It is the extraordinary power by which one stretches his body so that his toe can touch Meru Mountain while sitting.

Q.IV.1.10 What is meant by extraordinary power to walk on water (prākāmya-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.10 It is the extraordinary power by which one walks on the surface of water of an ocean like walking on the surface of earth.

Q.IV.1.11 What is meant by extraordinary power to acquire heavenly wealth (īśvatva-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.11 It is the extraordinary power by which one can have heavenly wealth.

Q.IV.1.12 What is meant by extraordinary power of domination (vaśitva-r ddhi)?
A.IV.1.12 It is the extraordinary power by which one dominates over human and subhuman beings.

Q.IV.1.13 What is the literal meaning of the word ‘deva’?
A.IV.1.13 The word ‘deva’ is extracted from the verb ‘div’ which means to have a desire for victory, to indulge in play etc.

Q.IV.1.14 What kind of body do celestial beings have?
A.IV.1.14 There body is transformable and without meat, skin, blood, bones, hair, sickness etc.

Q.IV.1.15 What is meant by ‘group’ (nikāya)?
A.IV.1.15 The group of living beings formed due to the common basis of the grouping capabilities and rise of previously bonded deva-name-karma’.

Q.IV.1.16 What is the literal meaning of the word nikāya?
A.IV.1.16 It means conglomeration of body forming molecules (saṃghāta).

Q.IV.1.17 What is meant by saṃghāta?
A.IV.1.17 It means inflow of particles that will get bonded with the empirical soul.



SUTRA NO. 2

Āditastrisu pītāntaleśyā

Meaning: The thought-colouration of the first three classes is up to yellow.

Q.IV.2.1 What are the thought-colourations of residential (bhavanavāsī), wild (vyantara), and stellar (jyotis ī) celestial beings?
A.IV.2.1 The first three classes i.e. the three mentioned in the question have four types of thought-colourations.


Q.IV.2.2 What is meant by thought-colouration (leśyā)?
A.IV.2.2 It is an energy by which a living being is active in meritorious and de-meritorious activities.

Q.IV.2.3 How many types of thought-colouration are there?
A.IV.2.3 The thought-colourations are of two types namely: psychic (bhāva) and physical (dravya).

Q.IV.2.4 What is psychic thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.4 The passion tainted dispositions of mind, body and speech of a living being is called psychic colouration.

Q.IV.2.5 What is physical colouration?
A.IV.2.5 The colour of the body is called physical colouration.

Q.IV.2.6 How many thought-colourations are there?
A.IV.2.6 There are six thought-colourations, namely black, blue, grey, yellow, pink and white.

Q.IV.2.7 Which thought-colourations are inauspicious?
A.IV.2.7 Black, blue and grey are said to be inauspicious.
 
Q.IV.2.8 Which thought-colourations are auspicious?
A.IV.2.8 Yellow, pink and white are said to be auspicious.

Q.IV.2.9 What is the nature of black thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.9 The living beings with black thought-colouration have a violent, revengeful and extremely cruel-some nature.
     
Q.IV.2.10 Where are the living beings with black thought-colouration born after their death?
A.IV.2.10 The living beings with black thought-colouration are born after their death from Dhūmraprabhā earth, the lowermost ‘mahatamahprobha earth’ in the lower world (infernal region).

Q.IV.2.11 What is the nature of blue thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.11 The living beings with a blue thought-colouration are full of infatuation, lack of intellect and wisdom, cowardice, laziness, deceit, greed, indulgence in robbing others, desire of earthly comforts and a longing to sleep.

Q.IV.2.12 Where are the living beings with blue thought-colouration born after their death?
A.IV.2.12 The living beings with blue colouration are born after their death down up to Dhūmraprabhā earth in the infernal region.

Q.IV.2.13 What is the nature of grey thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.13 Living beings with grey thought-colouration have the nature of dominating others, self praise, animosity towards others, insulting others, etc.

Q.IV.2.14 What is the nature of yellow thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.14 The living beings with yellow thought-colouration have the nature of being aware of their duties and abstinences, what to eat and what not to eat, observe equanimity towards others, of charitable and sweet disposition and knowledgeable.

Q.IV.2.15 What is the nature of pink thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.15 The living beings with pink have the nature of being detached, civilized and honest, performing auspicious activities, forgiving, etc.

Q.IV.2.16 What is the nature of white (or colourless) thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.16 The living beings with white colouration are full of equanimity, non discrimination towards others, free from attachment and aversion and like or dislike for others, etc.

Q.IV.2.17 Why has the word ‘pitānta’ been used in the aphorism?
A.IV.2.17 It indicates ‘up to the end of yellow’ (i.e. the first four thought-colourations) colouration. It can also be used with reference to living beings with immature state (aparyāpta state).

Q.IV.2.18 What is meant by state of completion and who is called (paryāpta) complete?
A.IV.2.18 This means the ownership of six completions of their body and sense organs by the living beings.

Q.IV.2.19 What is meant by (aparyāpta) state?
A.IV.2.19 This means the absence of one or more of six mature parts namely body, sense organs by the living beings.

Q.IV.2.20 What are the thought-colourations of a living being in the completion state?
A.IV.2.20 The living beings in completion state have yellow thought colouration.

Q.IV.2.21 Why do the living beings of (first-three classes or the residential-trio) have inauspicious thought-colouration?
A.IV.2.21 When the human beings and subhuman beings with perverted views in the region & of labour and enjoyment die with yellow colouration, they get born as residential-trio. Then due to their not having reached the completion state, they have the three inauspicious thought-colourations.





SUTRA NO. 3

Daśāst a-pañca-dvādaśavikalpāh ̣ kalpopapannaparyantāh

Meaning: They are of ten, eight, five and twelve subclasses up to the heavenly beings / empyreans (kalpavāsis).


Q.IV.3.1 How many subclasses of the four classes of celestial beings are there?
A.IV.3.1 The subclasses of the four main classes up to the kalpa are ten, eight, five and twelve respectively.

Q.IV.3.2 What are the subclasses of residential celestial beings?
A.IV.3.2 The residential celestial beings have ten subclasses, namely: Asurakumāra (fiendish youths), Nāgakumāra (serpentine youths), Vidyutakumāra (lightning youths), Suparnakumāra (vulturine youths), Agnikumāra (fiery youths), Vātakumāra (stormy youths), Udadhikumāra (oceanic youths), Dvīpakumāra (island youths) and Dikkumāra (guardians of the ten directions /compass points).

Q.IV.3.3 Which celestial beings are called residential celestial beings?
A.IV.3.3 The celestial beings that live in residences are called residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.3.4 What are the subclasses of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.3.4 The peripatetic celestial beings have ten sub classes, namely: Kinnara (music-obsessed), Kiṃpurus a, (sex-obsessed) Mahoraga (great serpent), Gaṃdharva (musician), Yaks a (treasure keeper), Rāks asa (demon), Bhūta (devil) and Piśāca (goblin).

Q.IV.3.5 What are the subclasses of stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.3.5 The stellar celestial beings have five sub classes, namely: sun (Sūrya), moon (Candra), planets (Graha), constellations (Naks atra) and scattered stars (Prakīṇaka).

Q.IV.3.6 What are the subclasses of heavenly celestial beings?
A.IV.3.6 The heavenly celestial beings have sixteen subclasses namely: Saudharma, Īśāna, Sanatkumāra, Māhendra, Br hma, Br hmottara, Lāntava, Kāpis t ha, Śukra, Mahāśukra, Satāra, Sahastrāra, Ānata, Prāṇata and Āraṇa, Acyuta.

Q.IV.3.7 What is implied by the word ‘kalpopapanna-paryanta’ in the aphorism?
A.IV.3.7 It implies up to and including the sixteenth heaven because the celestial beings are considered up to this region only.

Q.IV.3.8 What is meant by kalpopapanna?
A.IV.3.8 Those born in kalpas are called kalpopapanna.

Q.IV.3.9 What is meant by kalpa?
A.IV.3.9 The region, where the existence of Indrās or celestial beings with extraordinary powers is imagined (kalpanā), is called kalpa.

Q.IV.3.10 Why are Graiveyakas, Anudiśa and Annuttaravāsi not included here?
A.IV.3.10 They have not been mentioned here as they do not have any subclass except the main Ahamindra.




SUTRA NO. 4

Indra-sāmānika-trāyastriṃśa-pāris adātmaraks lokapālānīka-prakīrṇakābhiyogya-kilvis ikāścaikaśah

Meaning: There are ten grades in each of these classes of celestial beings, the lord / chief (Indra), his equal /co-chief, the ministers, the councilors, the bodyguards, the custodian, the army chief, the citizens, the attendants and the menials.

Q.IV.4.1 How many grades are there in each class of celestial beings?
A.IV.4.1 Each class has ten grades namely: lord /chief (indra), his equal or co-chief (sāmānika), the ministers (trāyastriṃśa), the councilors (pāris ada), the body guard (ātmaraks a), custodian (lokapāla), army chief (anīka), citizens (prakīrṇaka), attendants (ābhiyogya) and the menials (kilvis ika).

Q.IV.4.2 Who are called Indras / chief?
A.IV.4.2 Indras are powerful beings endowed with extraordinary occult powers not possessed by others. They are like kings.

Q.IV.4.3 Who are called his equal/co-chief (sāmānika)?
A.IV.4.3 The ‘equals’ are like chiefs in wealth, life, family, enjoyments etc but lack authority and spleandour.

Q.IV.4.4 Who are called ministers (trāyastriṃśa)?
A.IV.4.4 The ministers (trāyastriṃśa) are the elders like parents, teachers or preceptors. They are 33 in number.

Q.IV.4.5 Who are called councilors (pāris ada)?
A.IV.4.5 The courtiers (pāris ada) are like friends and companions in the court.

Q.IV.4.6 Who are called body-guards (ātmaraks a)?
A.IV.4.6 The body-guards (ātmaraks a) are like body guards of Indra.

Q.IV.4.7 Who are called custodians (lokapāla)?
A.IV.4.7 The ‘police’ (lokapāla) are like police who protect the citizens and their property.
Q.IV.4.8 Who are called army chiefs (anīka)?
A.IV.4.8 The ‘army chief’ is like chief of army which consists of seven divisions such as infantry, etc.

Q.IV.4.9 Who are called citizens (prakīrṇaka)?
A.IV.4.9 The citizens are like the citizens such as town folk, peasants, etc.

Q.IV.4.10 Who are called the attendant (ābhiyogya) and the menials (kilvis ika)?
A.IV.4.10 The attendants are servants engaged in serving others in several ways. The menials are the lowest who are engaged in menial tasks.


Q.IV.4.11 What is meant by kilvis ika?
A.IV.4.11 It means demerit or sin.

Q.IV.4.12 Which class of celestial beings become Airāvata elephant at the time of the birth of a fordmaker?
A.IV.4.12 The servants (ābhiyogya) grade of celestial beings becomes Airāvata elephant at the time of the birth of a ford-maker.





SUTRA NO. 5

Trāyastriṃśa-lokapāla-varjya vyantara-jyotis kāh ̣

Meaning: The Peripatetic and the stellar beings are without the ministers and the custodians.

Q.IV.5.1 Which grades do not occur in the peripatetic and stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.5.1 The ministers and the custodians do not exist in the peripatetic and stellar celestial beings classes.

Q.IV.5.2 What is meant by the word ‘varjya’ in the aphorism?
A.IV.5.2 It means ‘leaving out’.
 
Q.IV.5.3 How many grades are there in the peripatetic and stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.5.3 These classes have eight grades namely: chief, his-equal, councilors, body-guards, army-chiefs, citizens, attendants and the menials.







SUTRA NO. 6

Pūrvayordvīndrāh ̣

Meaning: In the first two orders/classes there are two lords.

Q.IV.6.1 Does each class of celestial beings have only one lord/ chief?
A.IV.6.1 No, as the first two classes have two lords each.
 
Q.IV.6.2 Which lords belong to the first two classes?
A.IV.6.2 The residential and the peripatetic lords belong to the first two classes.

Q.IV.6.3 Who are the lords amongst the Fiendish-youths (Asurakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.3 Camara and Vairocana are the two lords in the Fiendish-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.4 Who are the lords amongst the Serpentine-youths (Nāgakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.4 Dharaṇa and Bhūtānanda are the two lords in the Serpentine-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.5 Who are the lords amongst the Lightning-youths (Vidyutakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.5 Haris eṇa and Harikānta are the two chiefs in the Lightning-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.6 Who are the lords amongst the Vulturine-youths (Suparnakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.6 Veṇudeva and Veṇudhāri are the two lords in the Vulturine-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.7 Who are the lords amongst the Fiery-youths (Agnikumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.7 Agniśikha and Agnivāhana are the two lords in the Fiery-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.8 Who are the lords amongst the Stormy-youths (Vātakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.8 Vailamba and Mahāghos a are the two lords in the Stormy-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.9 Who are the lords amongst the Thundering-youths (Stanitakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.9 Sughos a and Prabhaṃjana are the two lords in the Thundering-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.10 Who are the lords amongst the Oceanic-youths (Udadhikumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.10 Jalakānta and Jalaprabha are the two lords in the Oceanic-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.11 Who are the lords amongst the Island-youths (Dvīpakumāra) residential class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.11 Pūrṇa and Vaśis t a are the two lords in the Island-youths residential celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.12 Who are the lords amongst the Directional-guardian-youths (Dikkumāra) class of residential beings?
A.IV.6.12 Amitagati and Amitavāhana are the two lords in the Directional-guardian-youths residential beings.

Q.IV.6.13 Who are the lords amongst the music obsessed (Kinnara) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.13 Kinnara and Kiṃpurus a are the two lords in the music obsessed peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.14 Who are the lords amongst the sex-obsessed (Kiṃpurus a) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.14 Satpurus a and Mahāpurus a are the two lords in the class ‘Sex-obsessed’ peripatetic celestial beings.


Q.IV.6.15 Who are the lords amongst the great serpent (Mahoraga) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.15 Atikāya and Mahākāya are the two lords in the great serpent peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.16 Who are the lords amongst the musician (Gaṃdharva) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.16 Gītarati and Gītayaśa are the two lords in the musician class of peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.17 Who are the lords amongst the treasure-keeper (Yaks a) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.17 Pūrṇabadra and Maṇibhadra are the two lords in the treasure-keeper peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.18 Who are the lords amongst the demon (Rāks asa) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.18 Bhīma and Mahābhīma are the two lords in the demon class of peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.19 Who are the lords amongst the devil (Bhūta) class of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.6.19 Pratirupa and Swarupa are the two lords in the devil class of peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.20 Who are the lords amongst the goblin (Piśāca) peripatetic class of celestial beings?
A.IV.6.20 Kāla and Mahākāla are the two lords in the goblin class of peripatetic celestial beings.

Q.IV.6.21 How many total lords amongst residential and peripatetic classes are there?
A.IV.6.21 There are 40 and 32 lords in residential and peripatetic classes respectively.





SUTRA NO. 7

Kāyapravīcārā ā aiśānāt

Meaning: Up to Aiśāna Kalpa they enjoy copulation.

Q.IV.7.1 What is the meaning of body (kāya)?
A.IV.7.1 Kāya means body i.e. the physical body we have.

Q.IV.7.2 What is meant by pravīcāra?
A.IV.7.2 It means copulation (sexual union).

Q.IV.7.3 What kind of sexual pleasure the gods have?
A.IV.7.3 They enjoy sex through the contact of their bodies, like human beings.

Q.IV.7.4 Which gods have bodily copulation?
A.IV.7.4 Celestial beings and the inhabitants of Saudharma and Aiśāna regions enjoy bodily copulation.

Q.IV.7.5 What is meant by kāya pravīcāra in the aphorism?
A.IV.7.5 Celestial beings up to Aiśāna heavens have passion tainted activities, so they enjoy sex like human beings do.





SUTRA NO. 8

Ses āh ̣ sparśa-rūpa-śabda-manah ̣pravīcārāh

Meaning: The others (empyrean gods) derive sexual pleasure by touch, sight, sound and thought.

Q.IV.8.1 What kinds of pleasure do celestial beings from Sāntakumāra to Acyuta subclasses of gods /celestial beings experience?
A.IV.8.1 The remaining subclasses i.e. from Sāntakumāra to Acyuta subclasses of gods experience sexual pleasures thourgh touch, form, sound and recollection in mind.

Q.IV.8.2 What is implied by śes āh ̣ in the aphorism?
A.IV.8.2 It implies the celestial beings (from Sāntakumāra to Acyuta subclasses) except for those mentioned in previous aphorisms.

Q.IV.8.3 What kind of copulation do gods of the Sāntakumāra and Māhendra subclasses experience?
A.IV.8.3 They enjoy happiness by the sheer touch of their female celestial beings (devi).

Q.IV.8.4 What kinds of copulation do celestial beings from Br hma-Br hmottara and Lāntava- Kāpis t ha heavens / subclasses experience?
A.IV.8.4 They enjoy happiness by seeing the charming forms and dresses of their female celestial beings (devi).

Q.IV.8.5 What kind of copulation do celestial beings from Śukra-Mahāśukra and Satāra-Sahasrāra subclasses experience?
A.IV.8.5 They enjoy happiness hearing the sweet music, soft jest and sweet stories from their female celestial beings.

Q.IV.8.6 What kinds of copulation do celestial beings from Ānata-Prāṇata and Āraṇa-Acyuta subclasses experience?
A.IV.8.6 They enjoy the highest happiness just by mentally thinking of sex with their female celestial beings (devi).




SUTRA NO. 9

Pare apravīcārāh

Meaning: The rest are devoid of sexual desire.

Q.IV.9.1 What kind of copulation exits in celestial beings beyond the Acyuta heaven experience?
A.IV.9.1 They have no desire for sexual pleasure.

Q.IV.9.2 Which heavenly beings beyond the Acyuta heaven are devoid of the desire to copulation?
A.IV.9.2 These belong to the nine Graiveyakas, nine Anudiśa and five Anuttara heavens.

Q.IV.9.3 Do these gods (Graiveyakas, nine Anudiśa and five Anuttara) have mental copulation?
A.IV.9.3 No, they are free from the desire for copulation..

Q.IV.9.4 Do these heavenly beings (Graiveyakas, nine Anudiśa and five Anuttara) without even a desire for copulation experience just misery only?
A.IV.9.4 No, as copulation is merely a palliative for misery; and in the absence of misery or uneasiness, they enjoy the highest happiness incessantly.

Q.IV.9.5 Who are the gods of the first state?
A.IV.9.5 They are called residential celestial beings.


SUTRA NO. 10

Bhavanavāsin oasura-nāga-vidyutsuparṇāgni-vāta-stanitodadhi-dvīpa-dikkumārāh

Meaning: The Residential gods comprise Asurakumāra (fiendish youths), Nāgakumāra (serpentine youths), Vidyutakumāra (lightning youths), Suparnakumāra (vulturine youths), Agnikumāra (fiery youths), Vātakumāra (stormy youths), Stantit (thndering youth), Udadhikumāra (oceanic youths), Dvīpakumāra (island youths) and Dikkumāra (guardians of the directions /compass points).

Q.IV.10.1 How many sub classes of residential celestial beings exist?
A.IV.10.1 They are grouped in ten subclasses namely: Asurakumāra (fiendish youths), Nāgakumāra (serpentine youths), Vidyutakumāra (lightning youths), Suparnakumāra (vulturine youths), Agnikumāra (fiery youths), Vātakumāra (stormy youths), Stantit (thundering youths), Udadhikumāra (oceanic youths), Dvīpakumāra (island youths) and Dikkumāra (guardians of the directions /compass points).
 
Q.IV.10.2 Why is the first sub class of residential beings called Asurakumāra?
A.IV.10.2 These celestial beings go down to the third ‘earth’ of the lower world and encourage the infernal beings there to fight amongst themselves to cause misery to them. As they enjoy and indulge in violence, they are called fiendish youths.

Q.IV.10.3 Who are called Nāgakumāra?
A.IV.10.3 Those celestial beings that live on the mountains and in sandalwood trees are called serpentine youths.

Q.IV.10.4 Who are called Vidyutakumāra?
A.IV.10.4 Those celestial beings that are luminous like an electric arc are called lightning youths.
 
Q.IV.10.5 Who are called Suparnakumāra?
A.IV.10.5 Those celestial beings that enjoy performing miraculous activities in the form of auspicious feathers are called vulturine youths.

Q.IV.10.6 Who are called Agnikumāra?
A.IV.10.6 Those celestial beings that leave the infernal world to perform miraculous activities in the middle and upper world are called fiery youths.

Q.IV.10.7 Who are called Vātakumāra?
A.IV.10.7 The celestial beings that purify the path on which the ford-makers walk are called stormy youths.

Q.IV.10.8 Who are called Stanitakumāra?
A.IV.10.8 The celestial beings that create sound are called thundering youths.

Q.IV.10.9 What do Udadhikumāra do?
A.IV.10.9 The oceanic-youths celestial beings perform miraculous activities in the oceans.

Q.IV.10.10 What is the peculiarity of Dvīpakumāras?
A.IV.10.10 The island youths gods celestial beings perform miraculous activities in the continents.

Q.IV.10.11 Why is the word kumāra used with the names of the residential celestial beings?
A.IV.10.11 Since they appear as youth due to their dresses, ornaments, weapons, conveyance, and the animals they ride on for sports etc, they are called kumāra or youth.
 
Q.IV.10.12 Where are the mansions of the fiendish-youths and other residential celestial beings?
A.IV.10.12 The mansions of fiendish-youths are in the Paṃkabahula part and the dwelling places of the other nine classes are in the Khara part of the first infernal region.


Q.IV.10.13 How many Jina temples are there in the lower world?
A.IV.10.13 There are 77.2 million Jina temples in the lower world.

Q.IV.10.14 How many Jina temples are there in the region of residential celestial beings?
A.IV.10.14 There are 6.4 million Jina temples of fiendish-youths, 8.4 million of serpentine-youths, 7.2 million of vulturine-youths, 7.6 million each of oceanic-youths, lightning-youths, fiery-youths, thundering-youths, island-youths and guardians of the cardinal direction points and 9.6 million of stormy-youths.

Q.IV.10.15 What is the name of the second class of gods?
A.IV.10.15 They are called peripatetic celestial beings.





SUTRA NO. 11

Vyantarāh ̣kinnara-kimpurus a-mahoraga-gandharva-yaks arāks asa-bhūta-piśācāh

Meaning: The Peripatetic devas comprise music-obsessed, sex-obsessed, great-serpents, musicians, treasure-keepers, demons, devils and goblins. .

Q.IV.11.1 How many sub classes of the peripatetic celestial beings are there?
A.IV.11.1 The peripatetic gods have eight subclasses namely: music-obsessed, sex-obsessed, great-serpents, musicians, treasure-keepers, demons, devils and goblins.

Q.IV.11.2 Who are called peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.11.2 These celestial beings have transformable bodies. They generally live in the deserted places of the middle world. They normally intrude the bodies of human and subhuman beings to make them enjoy or suffer. They have large families and wealth.

Q.IV.11.3 Where do peripatetic celestial beings live?
A.IV.11.3 The dwelling places of the seven subclasses are in the upper hard khara part and demons reside in Paṃkabahula part of the first infernal region.





SUTRA NO. 12

Jyotis kāh ̣ sūryācandramasaugraha maks atraprakīrṇakatārakāśca

Meaning: The Stellar (luminary) gods comprise the suns, the moons, the planets, the constellations and the scattered stars.

Q.IV.12.1 How many subclasses of stellar celestial beings are there?
A.IV.12.1 They are of five subclasses: suns (Sūrya), moons (Candra), planets (Graha), constellations (Naks atra) and scattered stars (Prakrīṇakas).

Q.IV.12.2 How do stellar celestial beings derive their name?
A.IV.12.2 They are named after their vehicle which is endowed with shining light. These are called by the significant general name luminaries or stellar.

Q.IV.12.3 Who are the lord and the co-lord/pratīndra (but equal to the lord) this class?
A.IV.12.3 Moon is the lord and sun is the co-lord.

Q.IV.12.4 The rise of which karma is the cause of the classification of celestial beings such as the sun, the moon etc?
A.IV.12.4 These classifications are based on the rise of specific name karma.

Q.IV.12.5 Which karmas are the causes for the jewels in the vehicles (vimāna) of the sun and the moon?
A.IV.12.5 Rise of the warm light (ātapa) name karma of the beings is the cause of the jewels in the sun vehicle and the rise of the lustre (udyota) name karma of the beings for the moon vehicle.

Q.IV.12.6 What is warm light (ātapa) name karma?
A.IV.12.6 The karma whose attribute is to give light and warmth is called ātapa name karma.

Q.IV.12.7 What is lustre (udyota) name karma?
A.IV.12.7 The karma whose attribute is to give light and coolness is called lustre (udyota) name karma.

Q.IV.12.8 Where do stellar celestial beings revolve?
A.IV.12.8 They revolve in a zone between 790 and 900 yojana above the citra earth.

Q.IV.12.9 Where are the scattered stars situated?
A.IV.12.9 The lowest stars amongst the stellar celestial revolve 790 yojana above the citra earth level.

Q.IV.12.10 Where does the sun revolve?
A.IV.12.10 The sun revolves ten yojana above the lowest stars.

Q.IV.12.11 Where does the moon revolve?
A.IV.12.11 The moon revolves 880 yojana above the earth (Citrā) level.

Q.IV.12.12 Where do constellations reside?
A.IV.12.12 They reside four yojana above moon.

Q.IV.12.13 Where does Mercury rotate?
A.IV.12.13 Mercury revolves 888 yojana above the earth (Citrā) level. It resides three yojana above Venus.




Q.IV.12.14 Where is Venus situated?
A.IV.12.14 Venus is situated three yojana above Mercury.

Q.IV.12.15 Where does Jupiter rotate?
A.IV.12.15 Jupiter revolves three yojana above Venus.

Q.IV.12.16 Where is Mars situated?
A.IV.12.16 Mars revolves three yojana above Jupiter.

Q.IV.12.17 Where does Saturn reside?
A.IV.12.17 Saturn revolves three yojana above Mars.

Q.IV.12.18 What is the form of the vehicle of the stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.12.18 The vehicle i.e. means of conveyance, called vimāna are in the shape of semicircle facing upwards.

Q.IV.12.19 Do the stellar celestial beings roam?
A.IV.12.19 They roam only in the region of human beings (Manus yaloka) and not beyond.




SUTRA NO. 13

Merupradaksiṇā nityagatayo nr loke

Meaning: In the human region they are characterized by incessant motion around Mount Meru.

Q.IV.13.1 Around what do the stellar celestial beings move?
A.IV.13.1 They move around (pradaks iṇā) the Mount Meru incessantly.

Q.IV.13.2 Why is the word ‘nityagatayah ̣’ used in the aphorism?
A.IV.13.2 It means uninterruptible motion in the human world.

Q.IV.13.3 What is the expanse of the region of human beings?
A.IV.13.3 The human world has an area of four and half million yojana. It is within the two-and-half continents (Dhāi Dvīpa) and two oceans.

Q.IV.13.4 What is the cause of the motion of the vehicles of stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.13.4 The vehicles of the stellar celestial beings are in motion as they are impelled by the Ābhiyogya class of celestial beings who take pleasure in motion.

Q.IV.13.5 Why do Ābhiyogya classes of celestial beings move incessantly?
A.IV.13.5 This is the peculiarity of the rise of their karma which rises only when the being is in motion.



Q.IV.13.6 What is the distance maintained by stellar celestial vehicles when they move around Meru?
A.IV.13.6 They maintain a distance of eleven hundred and twenty one yojana from Meru.

Q.IV.13.7 What is the number of suns, moons, and planets in Jambūdvīpa?
A.IV.13.7 There are two suns, two moons, one hundred seventy six planets and fifty six constellations in Jambūdvīpa.

Q.IV.13.8 What is the number of suns, moons, and planets in Lavaṇa Ocean?
A.IV.13.8 There are four suns, four moons, three hundred fifty two planets and one hundred twelve constellations in the Lavaṇa Ocean.

Q.IV.13.9 What is the number of suns, moons, and planets in the Dhātakī khaṇda?
A.IV.13.9 There are twelve suns, twelve moons, one thousand fifty six planets and three hundred thirty six constellations in Dhātakī khaṇda.

Q.IV.13.10 What is the number of suns, moons, and planets in the Kālodadhi Ocean?
A.IV.13.10 There are forty-two suns, forty two moons, three thousand six hundred ninety six planets and one thousand one hundred seventy six constellations in the Kālodadhi Ocean.

Q.IV.13.11 What is the number of suns, moons, and planets in the Pus karārdha dvīpa?
A.IV.13.11 There are seventy-two suns, seventy two moons, six thousand three hundred thirty six planets and two thousand and sixteen constellations in the Pus karārdha dvīpa.

Q.IV.13.12 What is the family size of the moon?
A.IV.13.12 One moon has one sun, twenty eight constellations, eighty eight planets, and sixty thousand nine hundred (kot ā-kot ī) scattered stars.

Q.IV.13.13 Who makes the vehicles of the stellar celestial beings move constantly?
A.IV.13.13 It is the nature of the stellar celestial beings to roam /move. However the celestial beings of Ābhiyogya sub class do support the movement of their vehicles.

Q.IV.13.14 How much time the sun takes to complete one circle of Jambūdvīpa?
A.IV.13.14 The sun completes one circle of Jambūdvīpa in two days and nights.

Q.IV.13.15 How many lanes are there for the sun to move?
A.IV.13.15 There are one hundred eighty four lanes for the sun to move around.

Q.IV.13.16 How much time the moon takes to make one complete circle. Why is there more and less light in the moon?
A.IV.13.16 The moon takes slightly more than two days to make one complete circle. This time taken is the cause of more and less light in the moon.

Q.IV.13.17 What do we learn from the movement of stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.13.17 We derive the practical time (vyavahāra kāla) from their movement.






SUTRA NO. 14

Tatkrtah ̣ kālavibhāgah ̣

Meaning: The divisions of time are caused by these.

Q.IV.14.1 Which are the units of measurement of time (vyavahāra kāla)?
A.IV.14.1 Samaya (time instant), āvali etc are the units of measurement of time.

Q.IV.14.2 How many kinds of kāla are their?
A.IV.14.2 Kāla is of two kinds namely primary and practical.

Q.IV.14.3 What is meant by practical kāla or time as normally used?
A.IV.14.3 The periods originating from the primary kāla like samaya, āvali, nādi, etc are the indicators of the practical kāla or time.

Q.IV.14.4 What is primary kāla?
A.IV.14.4 There is one jewel like particle called kālāṇu existing in each space point of the entire cosmos (loka). These kālāṇu are called primarykāla.

Q.IV.14.5 Which kāla is divided into various units of measurement by the stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.14.5 The practical kāla with samaya, āvali, nādi etc as its divisions are defined by the movement of the stellar celestial beings.







SUTRA NO. 15

Bahiravasthitāh ̣

Meaning: The space vehicles of luminous gods are stationary outside the human region.

Q.IV.15.1 Which celestial beings is stationery?
A.IV.15.1 The stellar celestial beings outside the human region are stationery (i.e. do not move).

Q.IV.15.2 How is the time divided into different units outside the human region?
A.IV.15.2 The time stays the same outside the human region and hence has no subdivisions.

Q.IV.15.3 How many vehicles of stellar celestial beings exist outside the human region?
A.IV.15.3 There are innumerable vehicles of stellar celestial beings outside the human region.

SUTRA NO. 16

Vaīmānikāh ̣

Meaning: The empyrean (Vaimānika) gods are the fourth class.

Q.IV.16.1 Who are the empyrean gods (vaimānika)?
A.IV.16.1 The abodes, which make the beings residing in them feel as possessing merit are called vimāna. The living beings residing in them are called the empyrean gods.

Q.IV.16.2 What are the peculiarities of the heavenly beings?
A.IV.16.2 The most significant peculiarity of heavenly beings is they attain liberation minimum in two births (dvicarama), the first as heavenly and the second as human beings.

Q.IV.16.3 How many types of heavenly abodes (vimāna) are there?
A.IV.16.3 They are of three types namely: Indra, Śreṇībaddha and Prakīrṇaka.

Q.IV.16.4 Where are heavenly abodes of lords located?
A.IV.16.4 They are located in the middle and are like the lords.

Q.IV.16.5 What are Śreṇībaddha heavenly abodes?
A.IV.16.5 These are the heavenly abodes which exist around heavenly abode of the lords’ type, like series of space points in the four directions.

Q.IV.16.6 What are Prakīrṇaka heavenly abodes?
A.IV.16.6 These are the heavenly abodes which are scattered like flowers in the intermediate points of the compass.

Q.IV.16.7 How many Jina temples are there in the heavenly abodes? Are they natural or created by someone?
A.IV.16.7 All Jina temples in the heavenly abodes are natural and they number eighty four lakhs ninety seven thousand and twenty three.




SUTRA NO. 17

Kalpopapannāh ̣ kalpātītāśca

Meaning: They are born in the kalpas and beyond the kalpas.

Q.IV.17.1 How many kinds of heavenly beings are there?
A.IV.17.1 There are two kinds, namely: those born in the heavens (kalpopapanna) and those born beyond heavens (kalpātīta).

Q.IV.17.2 Who are the heavenly beings born in the heavens?
A.IV.17.2 The heavenly beings born in the sixteen heavens / kalpas are called kalpopapanna.



Q.IV.17.3 Who are called ‘born beyond the heavens’?
A.IV.17.3 The living beings born in the space above (or beyond) the sixteen heavens /kalpas are called kalpātīta.

Q.IV.17.4 Who are the kalpātīta heavenly beings?
A.IV.17.4 Those born in nine Greiveyaka, the nine Anudiśa and the five Anuttaras heavenly abodes are called kalpātīta.

Q.IV.17.5 There are lords in the residential celestial beings also. Why they are not called kalpotpapanna?
A.IV.17.5 Traditionally only heavenly beings are called kalpotpapanna.





SUTRA NO. 18

Uparyupari

Meaning: They are one above the other.

Q.IV.18.1 Who are the heavenly beings who live one above the other?
A.IV.18.1 The heavenly beings (vaimānika) live one above the other.

Q.IV.18.2 Why is spoken of as ‘one above the other’?
A.IV.18.2 Since they live neither like stellar beings in scattered places, nor like peripatetic beings in all directions but in an ordered manner of one subclass living above the other subclass of heavenly beings.
 
Q.IV.18.3 What can be the other meaning of ‘one above the other’?
A.IV.18.3 It can also mean proximity as two heavens exist in the same layer.




SUTRA NO. 19

Saudharmaiśāna-sānatkumār-māhendra-brahma-brahmottara-lāntava-kāpis tha-śukra-mahāśūkra-śatāra-sahasrāres vānata-prāṇatayorāraṇācyutayornavasu-graiveyakes u vijaya-vaijayanta-jayantāparājites u sarvārthasiddhau ca

Meaning: They are in Saudharma, Aiśāna, Sānatkumāra, Māhendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lāntava, Kāpis t ha, Sukra, Mahāśukra, Satāra, Sahasrāra, in Ānata, Prāṇata, Āraṇa, Acyuta, in Navagriveyakas, and in Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparājita and in Sarvārthasiddhi.

Q.IV.19.1 Why the first heaven is called Saudharma?
A.IV.19.1 There is a council chamber named Sudharma in the first heaven. The place that has this chamber in it is called Saudharma kalpa.

Q.IV.19.2 Why the first lord of this heaven is called Saudharma Indra?
A.IV.19.2 Because of his association with Saudharma kalpa, he is called Indra.

Q.IV.19.3 Why the second heaven is called Āiśāna?
A.IV.19.3 There is a council chamber named Īśāna in the second heaven. The place that has this chamber in it is called Āiśāna kalpa

Q.IV.19.4 Why is the lord of Āiśāna kalpa called Āiśāna indra?
A.IV.19.4 Because of his association with Āiśāna kalpa, he is called Āiśāna indra.

Q.IV.19.5 How are Saudharma etc heavens are one above the other?
A.IV.19.5 The Pairs of Saudharma and Āiśāna, Sānatkumāra-Māhendra, Br hma-Br hmottara, Lāntava- Kāpis t ha, Śukra – Mahāśukra, Satāra-Sahasrāra, Ānata- Prāṇata and Āraṇa- Acyuta heavens are one above the other (in that order).

Q.IV.19.6 What is the distance between the middle world and the first heaven?
A.IV.19.6 Just one hair breadth above the crest of Sumeru Mountain in the middle world (traverse world) stays Ŗ juvimāna which is the Indraka vimāna of Saudharma indra.

Q.IV.19.7 Who are the twelve lords of the heavenly (kalpavāsi) beings?
A.IV.19.7 Saudharma, Āiśāna, Sānatkumāra-Māhendra, Br hma, Lāntava, Śukra, Satāra, Ānata- Prāṇata and Āraṇa- Acyuta are the twelve lords of the heavenly beings.

Q.IV.19.8 What is the number of layers in Saudharma and Āiśāna heavens?
A.IV.19.8 There are thirty one layers there.

Q.IV.19.9 What is the number of layers in Sanatkumāra and Māhendra heavens?
A.IV.19.9 There are seven layers there.

Q.IV.19.10 What is the number of layers in Br hma and Br hmottara heaven pairs?
A.IV.19.10 There are four layers there.
 
Q.IV.19.11 What is the number of layers in Lāntava and Kāpis t ha heaven pairs?
A.IV.19.11 There are two layers there.

Q.IV.19.12 What is the number of layers in Śukra and Mahāśukra heaven pairs?
A.IV.19.12 There is one layer there.

Q.IV.19.13 What is the number of layers in Satāra and Sahasrāra heavenpair s?
A.IV.19.13 There is one layer there.

Q.IV.19.14 What is the number of layers in Ānata and Prāṇata heaven pairs?
A.IV.19.14 There are three layers there.
 
Q.IV.19.15 What is the number of layers in Āraṇa and Acyuta heaven pairs?
A.IV.19.15 There are three layers there.

Q.IV.19.16 How many layers are there in Graiveyaka heavens?
A.IV.19.16 There are three layers namely lower, middle and upper

Q.IV.19.17 How many Graiveyaka are there?
A.IV.19.17 There are nine, namely: Sudarśana, Amogha, Suprabuddha, Yaśod hara, Subhadra, Suviśāla, Sumanasa, Saumanasa and Prītīṃkara.

Q.IV.19.18 What are names of Nava (nine) anudiśa?
A.IV.19.18 Their names are: Āditya, Arci, Arcimālini, Vajradivya, Vairocana, Saumya, Saumyarupaka, Aṃka and Sfat ikaprabhāsa.

Q.IV.19.19 Why Nava Anudiśa heavens are called so?
A.IV.19.19 As they have nine heavenly abodes one in each of the eight directions, they are called Nava Anudiśoṃ.

Q.IV.19.20 Which are the five Anuttara heavens?
A.IV.19.20 These are Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparājita and Sarvārtha siddhi.

Q.IV.19.21 What is the peculiarity of heavenly beings in Sarvārtha siddhi?
A.IV.19.21 They attain liberation in their next birth as human beings.

Q.IV.19.22 Why Sarvārtha siddhi is so called?
A.IV.19.22 Since the heavenly beings born here have all their wishes satisfied already.
 
Q.IV.19.23 What is the minimum life span of Sarvārtha siddhi heavenly beings?
A.IV.19.23 The life span of these heavenly beings is thirty three ocean-measured-periods as both minimum and maximum.

Q.IV.19.24 What is the minimum and maximum life span in Vijaya and other three Anuttara heavenly abodes?
A.IV.19.24 The minimum life span is a little more than thirty two ocean-measured-periods and maximum is thirty three ocean-measured-periods.

Q.IV.19.25 How many births do heavenly beings in Vijay and other three heavenly abodes take before attaining liberation?
A.IV.19.25 As they have right faith, they have a maximum of two to three births before they attain liberation.






SUTRA NO. 20

Sthiti-prabhāva-sukha-dyuti-leśyā-viśuddhīndriyāvadhi-vis ayato adhikāh ̣

Meaning: There is increase with regard to the lifetime, power, happiness, brilliance, and purity in thought-colouration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance.


Q.IV.20.1 What are the peculiarities of the heavenly beings in the upper locations compared to those in the lower locations?
A.IV.20.1 The heavenly beings in the upper locations are superior to the ones in the lower locations with respect to lifespan, power, happiness, brilliance, and purity in thought colouration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance.

Q.IV.20.2 What is meant by lifespan?
A.IV.20.2 Owing to the fruition of life karma acquired by one, the soul’s association with the body in a particular birth is called lifespan.

Q.IV.20.3 What is meant by power?
A.IV.20.3 Capacity to confer benefits or inflict miserys on others is called power.
 
Q.IV.20.4 What is meant by happiness?
A.IV.20.4 To experience sensual pleasures is called happiness.

Q.IV.20.5 What is meant by brilliance?
A.IV.20.5 The splendour of body, dresses and the ornaments is called brilliance.

Q.IV.20.6 What is meant by purity of thought colouration?
A.IV.20.6 It is the purity level of thoughts.

Q.IV.20.7 What are the subjects of senses and the clairvoyance?
A.IV.20.7 The subjects of the senses (touch, taste, colour, smell) and the subject of clairvoyance knowledge (concrete objects) are the subjects of senses and clairvoyance.





SUTRA NO. 21

Gati-śarīra-parigrahābhimānato hīnāh

Meaning: (But) there is decrease with regard to motion (visit to different regions), height or stature, attachment or possessions and pride or ego.

Q.IV.21.1 What are the attributes which keep on decreasing in the higher locations of the heavenly beings?
A.IV.21.1 Motion, stature, attachment and pride decrease in the higher locations of the heavenly beings.

Q.IV.21.2 What is meant by motion?
A.IV.21.2 Motion is the cause of the movement from one place to another.

Q.IV.21.3 What is the meaning of ‘śarīra’ in the aphorism?
A.IV.21.3 It means ‘the protean or transformable body’.

Q.IV.21.4 What is the discriminating feature of protean body?
A.IV.21.4 A protean body can be easily transformed in various sizes and shapes by its owner.

Q.IV.21.5 What is meant by attachment?
A.IV.21.5 It is the fondness for worldly objects due to the fruition of greed.

Q.IV.21.6 What is the meant by pride / egotism?
A.IV.21.6 It is the self conceit arising out of the passion of pride.

Q.IV.21.7 What is the cause of the decrease in motion in the gods of higher locations?
A.IV.21.7 The celestial beings in the higher grades have more power for motion than the lower one but they do not use it e.g. the gods can go up to the seventh earth of the infernal region but they do not use it.

Q.IV.21.8 How is it that the empyreans have smaller stature than that of lower beings?
A.IV.21.8 The height keeps on decreasing from the first heaven as we keep going up to 16th and beyond. The heights of gods in the 1st and 2nd heaven is seven cubits (hātha), in the 3rd and 4th is six cubits, in the 5th to 6th is five cubits, in 9th to 12t is four cubits, in the 13th and 14th is three and half cubits, in 15th and 16th is three cubits, in lower Graiveyka is two and half cubits, in the middle Graiveyaka is two cubits and in the upper Graiveyaka is one and half cubit and in the rest above is one cubit only.

Q.IV.21.9 How the heavenly beings in the higher locations have less attachment?
A.IV.21.9 The number and size of the abodes in the higher grades of heavens keep on decreasing and so the attachment also keeps on decreasing.


Q.IV.21.10 How the heavenly beings in the higher grades have less pride?
A.IV.21.10 Life span, motion and power are the causes of pride. Since the gods in the higher grades have lesser passions, so the pride also keeps on decreasing as we go higher.





SUTRA NO. 22

Pīta-padma-śukla-leśyā dvitriśes es u

Meaning: In two, three and rest (subclasses of empyreans), the thought-colourations are yellow, pink and white respectively.

Q.IV.22.1 Which types of thought-colourations are there in the gods?
A.IV.22.1 In the first two pairs of kalpas, the thought colouration is yellow; in the next two pairs of kalpas it is pink while the thought-coloration is white in the rest.

Q.IV.22.2 Which thought-colourations are there in Saudharma and Āiśāna gods?
A.IV.22.2 They have yellow thought-colouration.



Q.IV.22.3 Which thought-colourations are there in Sānatkumāra-Māhendra gods?
A.IV.22.3 They have yellow and pink thought-colourations.

Q.IV.22.4 Which thought-colourations are there in Br hma and Br hmottara and Lāntava-Kāpis t ha gods?
A.IV.22.4 They have pink thought-colouration.

Q.IV.22.5 Which thought-colourations are there in Śukra-Mahāśukra and Satāra-Sahasrāra gods?
A.IV.22.5 They have pink and white thought-colouration.

Q.IV.22.6 Which thought-colourations are there in Ānata- Prāṇata and Āraṇa- Acyuta gods?
A.IV.22.6 They have white thought colouration.

Q.IV.22.7 Which thought-colourations are there in Grevaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods?
A.IV.22.7 They have pure white thought-colouration.



SUTRA NO. 23

Prāggraiveyakebhyah ̣ kalpāh

Meaning: Prior to Graiveyakas are the kalpas.

Q.IV.23.1 What are the regions before Graiveyakas known as?
A.IV.23.1 There are knowns as kalpas / heavens.

Q.IV.23.2 How many kalpas are there?
A.IV.23.2 There are sixteen heavens from Saudharma-Acyuta heavens or twelve heavens are called kalpas.

Q.IV.23.3 What is a kalpa?
A.IV.23.3 The places where lords, his equals /co-chiefs, the councilors etc are imagined to exist are called kalpa.
 
Q.IV.23.4 What is meant by kalpātīta?
A.IV.23.4 Nava Graiveyaka, Nava Anudis and five Anuttara are called beyond kalpas or kalpātīta.

Q.IV.23.5 What is the difference between kalpa and kalpātīta?
A.IV.23.5 The places where lords, his equal, the counselors etc are imagined to exist are called kalpa. The places where only Ahmindras exist are called kalpātīta.



SUTRA NO. 24

Brahmalokālayā laukāntikāh ̣

Meaning: Brahmaloka is the abode of terminal-gods (laukāntikas).

Q.IV.24.1 Where do terminal-gods beings exist?
A.IV.24.1 Br hmaloka is the abode of terminal-gods heavenly beings.

Q.IV.24.2 What are general names of terminal-gods heavenly beings?
A.IV.24.2 These are: Sarāswata, Āditya, Vahni, Aruṇa, Gardatoya, Tus ita, Avyābādha and Aris t a.

Q.IV.24.3 What are the peculiarities of terminal-gods?
A.IV.24.3 Lokānta means an end to the world /transmigration i.e. birth, old age and death. Those who are at the end of the transmigration are called terminal-gods. Coming down from there, they take only birth and attain liberation. They are celibate and knower of the twelve-fold canons of Jainism.

Q.IV.24.4 Why terminal-gods are called Devars i?
A.IV.24.4 Since they are free from sensual inclinations, they are called Devars i.

Q.IV.24.5 What is the meaning of loka in the aphorism?
A.IV.24.5 It means saṃsāra or transmigration.





SUTRA NO. 25

Sārasvatāditya-vahnyaruṇa-gardatoya-tus itāvyābādhārist āśca

Meaning: They (terminal-gods) are Sārasvata, Aditya, Vahni, Aruṇa, Gardatoya, Tus ita, Avyābādha and Aris ta (groups).

Q.IV.25.1 Who are the terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.1 Sarāswata, Āditya, Vahni, Aruṇa, Gardatoya, Tus ita, Avyābādha and Aris t a are the terminal-gods.

Q.IV.25.2 What is the peculiarity of Sarāswata terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.2 They have the knowledge of fourteen pūrva.

Q.IV.25.3 What is the peculiarity of Āditya terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.3 The son of Mother Aditi is called Āditya.

Q.IV.25.4 What is the peculiarity of Vahni terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.4 The gods who are gleaming like flame are Vahnis.




Q.IV.25.5 In which directions do these terminal-gods live?
A.IV.25.5 The abode of the Sarāswata group is north east direction; that of Āditya in the east; that of Vahni in south-east; that of Aruṇa in south, that of Gardotya in the south-west; that of Tus ita in the west; that of Avyābādha in the north-west; and that of Aris t a in the north..

Q.IV.25.6 What is the peculiarity of Aruṇa terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.6 They have the lustre like a rising sun.

Q.IV.25.7 What is the peculiarity of Gardatoya terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.7 The word ‘garda’ means sound and the word ‘toya’ means water i.e. who has the sound from the mouth like water are Gardotya.

Q.IV.25.8 What is the peculiarity of Tus ita terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.8 They are contented and indifferent to sensual pleasures.

Q.IV.25.9 What is the peculiarity of Avyābādha terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.9 They are not hindered by lust or sensual pleasures.

Q.IV.25.10 What is the peculiarity of Aris t a terminal-gods?
A.IV.25.10 They do not indulge in superficial activities.

Q.IV.25.11 How many terminal-gods are there?
A.IV.25.11 There are four hundred seven thousand eight hundred and twenty (407820) terminal-gods.




SUTRA NO. 26

Vijayādiśu dvicaramāh

Meaning: In Vijaya and the others the gods are of two final births.

Q.IV.26.1 Which other gods (devatā) are capable of achieving liberation?
A.IV.26.1 The heavenly beings in Vijaya and other heavens with two births to achieve liberations (carama) and having right belief are capable of achieving liberation.

Q.IV.26.2 Which heavenly beings are with carama?
A.IV.26.2 The Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparājita and nine Anudiśa heavens (vimānas) called Ahamindra have are with two carama.

Q.IV.26.3 What is meant by dvi- carama?
A.IV.26.3 Twp births as human beings i.e. those living beings who are born twice as human beings (and have right belief) to achieve liberation are called dvi-carama or with two births to achieve liberation.

Q.IV.26.4 How many births are required for Ahmindra god from Sarvārtha Siddhi to achieve liberation?
A.IV.26.4 They achieve liberation in one birth as human beings only.





SUTRA NO. 27

Aupapādika-manus yebhya śes āstiryagyonayah

Meaning: The beings other then celestial, infernal and human beings are animals.

Q.IV.27.1 Who are called human beings?
A.IV.27.1 The living beings with superior mind are called human beings.

Q.IV.27.2 Who are called sub-human beings / animals or tiryaṃca?
A.IV.27.2 Those living beings that have wicked mind body and speech, have desire or food, are ignorant and have more sinful dispositions are called sub-human /animals.

Q.IV.27.3 In which regions are sub-humans found?
A.IV.27.3 They pervade the entire cosmos/ loka.

Q.IV.27.4 How many types of subhuman beings are there?
A.IV.27.4 They are of two types namely: gross and subtle.

Q.IV.27.5 Who are subhuman beings?
A.IV.27.5 All living beings, except the celestial and infernal beings with birth by descent in special beds and human beings, are termed as subhuman beings.


SUTRA NO. 28

Sthitirasura-nāga-suparṇa-dvīpa-śes āṇāṃ sāgaropama-tripalyopamārddha-hīnamitāh

Meaning: The maximum lifespan of fiendish, serpentine, vulturine, island and the rest of the residential gods are one ocean-measured-period (sāgara), three pit-measured-periods (palya), two and a half pit-measured-periods, two pit-measured-periods, and one and a half pit-measured-periods.

Q.IV.28.1 What is the maximum lifespan of fiendish residential gods?
A.IV.28.1 It is one ocean-measured-period.

Q.IV.28.2 What is the implication of more in the aphorism and how much is it?
A.IV.28.2 It implies that the lifespan of degraded (ghātāyus ka) celestial beings is half ocean-measured-period more than other celestial beings.




Q.IV.28.3 Who are degraded (ghātāyus ka) celestial beings?
A.IV.28.3 Those living beings with right belief that because of their observing severe austerities have earned a longer lifespan as celestial beings but due to their increased passions later have reduced this lifespan by half ocean-measured-period are called ghātāyus ka celestial beings.

Q.IV.28.4 Up to what level of heaven is the implication of more (adhikatā) applicable?
A.IV.28.4 It is applicable up to Sahasrāra Kalpa.






SUTRA NO. 29

Saudharmaiśānayoh ̣ sāgaropame adhike

Meaning: In Saudharma and Aiśāna Kalpas the maximum lifetime is a little over two ocean-measured-period.

Q.IV.29.1 Why has the word ‘sāgaropame’ been used in the aphorism?
A.IV.29.1 This means two ocean-measured-periods.

Q.IV.29.2 What is the implication of more (adhike) in the aphorism?
A.IV.29.2 This implies up to higher Kalpa.

Q.IV.29.3 What is the implication of this aphorism?
A.IV.29.3 This aphorism indicates that the lifespan of deities in Saudharma and Aiśāna kalpas till Sahasrana kalpa is slightly more then two oceans measured periods.





SUTRA NO. 30

Sānatkumāra-māhendrayoh ̣ sapta

Meaning: In Sānatkumāra and Māhendra seven ocean-measured-periods.

Q.IV.30.1 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Sānatkumāra and Māhendra kalpa?
A.IV.30.1 It is seven ocean-measured-periods for both.



SUTRA NO. 31

Tri-sapta-navaikādaśa-trayodaśa-pañcadaśabhiradhikāni tu

Meaning: But more by three, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen and fifteen ocean-measured-periods.

Q.IV.31.1 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Br hma and Br hmottara kalpas?
A.IV.31.1 It is slightly more than ten ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.2 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Lāntava-Kāpis t ha kalpas?
A.IV.31.2 It is slightly more than fourteen ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.3 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Śukra-Mahāśukra kalpas?
A.IV.31.3 It is slightly more than sixteen ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.4 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Śatāra-Sahasrāra kalpas?
A.IV.31.4 It is slightly more than eighteen ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.5 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Ānata-Prāṇata kalpas?
A.IV.31.5 It is slightly more then twenty ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.6 What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Āraṇa-Acyuta kalpas?
A.IV.31.6 It is twenty two ocean-measured-periods for both.

Q.IV.31.7 What is the implication of the word ‘tu’ in the aphorism?
A.IV.31.7 It implies the use of the word ‘more than’ for deities up to twelfth heaven only as degraded deities are born only up to twelfth heaven.




SUTRA NO. 32

Āraṇācyutādūrddhvamekaikena navasu graiveyakes u vijayādis u-sarvārthasiddhau ca

Meaning: Above Āraṇa (Deep) and Acyuta (unswerving), in Navagraiveyakas (nine neck-dwellings), Vijaya (victory), etc. and Sarvārthasiddhi (fully accomplished), it is more and more by one ocean-measured-period.

Q.IV.32.1 What is the life span of deities in the (nine neck-dwellings) Nava-Graiveyakas?
A.IV.32.1 Nava-Graiveyakas are the three layered residences above the sixteenth heaven where Ahamindra deities reside. The life span in the first layer is twenty three ocean-measured-periods and increases by one ocean-measured-period in each subsequent higher layer till it is 31 ocean-measured-periods in the ninth Graiveyaka (layer).

Q.IV.32.2 What is the life span of deities in the Nava-Anudiśā?
A.IV.32.2 Nava-Anudiśā is the one layered heavens above kalpas where deities reside. The life span in these heavens is thirty two ocean-measured-periods.


Q.IV.32.3 What is the life span of deities in the five-Anuttara?
A.IV.32.3 The five-anuttara heavens (Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparājita and Sarvārtha siddhi) are layered heavens above Nava-Anudiśā where deities reside. The life span in these heavens is thirty three sāgaropama.

Q.IV.32.4 How many years are there in one pit-measured-period (palya)?
A.IV.32.4 One palya consists of innumerable years.





SUTRA NO. 33

Aparā-palyopamamadhikam

Meaning: The minimum is a little over one palyopama.

Q.IV.33.1 What is the minimum lifespan of deities in Saudharma and Aiśāna kalpas?
A.IV.33.1 It is slightly more than one pit-measured-period in both.

Q.IV.33.2 What is the meaning of the word ‘aparā’ in the aphorism?
A.IV.33.2 Here it implies minimum which is slightly more than one pit-measured-period.
 
Q.IV.33.3 Who are the living beings for whom the minimum lifespan is implied?
A.IV.33.3 The minimum lifespan is of deities in Saudharma and Aiśāna kalpas.





SUTRA NO. 34

Paratah ̣ paratah ̣ pūrvāpūrvānantarā

Meaning: The maximum of the immediately preceding is the minimum of the next one (kalpa).

Q.IV.34.1 What is the minimum lifespan of deities in subsequent heavens?
A.IV.34.1 The maximum lifespan in one heaven becomes the minimum lifespan in the subsequent higher heaven.

Q.IV.34.2 What is the minimum lifespan of the deities in Sarvārtha Siddhi?
A.IV.34.2 The maximum and minimum lifespans of the deities in Sarvārtha Siddhi is same and is 33 ocean-measured-periods.
 
Q.IV.34.3 How does the maximum lifespan of one heaven become the minimum lifespan of its subsequent higher heaven?
A.IV.34.3 By adding one time instant of lifespan to the maximum lifespan of one heaven becomes the minimum lifespan of the subsequent higher heaven e.g. the maximum lifespan of 13-14 kalpa is 20 ocean-measured-periods and the minimum lifespan of 15-16 kalpa becomes also 20 ocean-measured-periods (plus one time instant).




SUTRA NO. 35

Nārakāṇāṃ ca dvitīyādis u

Meaning: The same with regard to infernal beings from the second infernal region onwards.

Q.IV.35.1 What is the minimum lifespan of infernal beings?
A.IV.35.1 The maximum lifespan of infernal beings in one earth of lower world becomes the minimum lifespan in the subsequent lower earth of the lower world.





SUTRA NO. 36

Daśavars asahasrāṇi prathamāyām

Meaning: Ten thousand years in the first.

Q.IV.36.1 What is the minimum lifespan of infernal beings in the first land of the lower world?
A.IV.36.1 It is ten thousand years.





SUTRA NO. 37

Bhavanes u ca

Meaning: In the Residential regions also.

Q.IV.37.1 What is the minimum lifespan of residential celestial beings?
A.IV.37.1 It also is ten thousand years.




SUTRA NO. 38

Vyantarāṇāṃ ca

Meaning:Of the peripatetic also.

Q.IV.38.1 What is the minimum lifespan of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.38.1 It also is ten thousand years



SUTRA NO. 39

Parā palyopamamadhikam

Meaning: The maximum is a little over one pit-measured-period.

Q.IV.39.1 What is the maximum lifespan of peripatetic celestial beings?
A.IV.39.1 It is slightly more than one pit-measured-period.





SUTRA NO. 40

Jyotis kāṇāṃ ca

Meaning:Of the Stellar devas1 also.

Q.IV.40.1 What is the maximum lifespan of stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.40.1 It is slightly more than one pit-measured-period.

Q.IV.40.2 How many types of stellar celestial beings are there?
A.IV.40.2 The stellar celestial beings have five sub classes namely: sun (Sūrya), moon (Candra), planets (Graha), constellations (Naks atra) and scattered stars (Prakīṇarka).

Q.IV.40.3 What is the duration of existence of moon?
A.IV.40.3 It is one pit-measured-period plus one hundred thousand years.

Q.IV.40.4 What is the duration of existence of sun?
A.IV.40.3 It is one pit-measured-period plus one hundred thousand years.

Q.IV.40.5 What is the duration of existence of planet Jupiter (guru)?
A.IV.40.5 It is one pit-measured-period.

Q.IV.40.6 What is the duration of existence of planets Mars (Mangala), Mercury (Buddha), Saturn etc?
A.IV.40.6 It is half pit-measured-period.

Q.IV.40.7 What is the maximum span of time of constellations and scattered stars?
A.IV.40.7 It is one quarter of pit-measured-period.




SUTRA NO. 41

Tadast abhāgo aparā

Meaning: The minimum is one-eighth of it.

Q.IV.41.1 What is the minimum lifespan of stellar celestial beings?
A.IV.41.1 It is one eighth of their maximum lifespan.




SUTRA NO. 42

Laukāntikānāmast au sāgaropamāṇi sarvesām

Meaning: Eight ocean-measured-periods for all terminal-gods (Laukantikas).

Q.IV.42.1 What is the duration of existence of terminal-gods?
A.IV.42.1 It is (both minimum and maximum) eight sāgaropama.

Q.IV.42.2 What is the colouration of terminal-deities?
A.IV.42.2 The colouration of terminal-gods is white.

Q.IV.42.3 What is the height of the body of terminal-gods?
A.IV.42.3 It is equal to five hands.