Watch Live Lectures on Basic Diploma in Jainology on Paras Channel at 6 a.m.
Chapter 5 Q-A
The category of the non-living
- 1 Ajīvakāyā dharmādharmākāśa-pudgalāh
- 2 Dravyāṇi
- 3 Jīvāśca
- 4 Nityāvasthitānyarūpāṇi
- 5 Rūpiṇah ̣ pudgalāh
- 6 A ākāśādekadravyāṇi
- 7 Niskriyāṇi ca
- 8 Asaṃkhyeyāh ̣ pradeśā dharmādharṃaikajīvānām
- 9 Ākāśāsyānantāh ̣
- 10 Saṃkhyeyāsaṃkhyeyāśca pudgalānām
- 11 Nāṇoh ̣
- 12 Lokākāśe (a) vagāhah ̣
- 13 Dharmādharmayoh ̣ krisne
- 14 Ekapradeśādisu bhājyah ̣ pudgalānām
- 15 Asaṃkhyeya-bhāgādisu jīvānām
- 16 Pradeśa-saṃhāra-visarpābhyāṃ pradīpavat
- 17 Gati-sthityupagrahau dharmādharmayorupakārah
- 18 Akāśasyāvagāhah
- 19 Śarīra-vāṃ-manah ̣prāṇāpānāh ̣ pudgalānām
- 20 Sukha-duhkha-jīvita-maraṇopagrahāśca
- 21 Parasparopagraho jīvānām
- 22 Vartanā-pariṇām-akriyāh-paratvāparatve ca Kālasya
- 23 Sparśa-rasa-gandha-varṇavantah ̣ pudgalāh ̣
- 24 Śabda-bandha-sauksmya-sthaulya-saṃsthāna-bheda-tamaśchāyā ātapodyotavantaśca
- 25 Aṇavah ̣ skandhāśca
- 26 Bhedasaṃghātebhya utpadyante
- 27 Bhedādaṇuh ̣
- 28 Bheda-saṃghātābhyāṃ cāksusah
- 29 Sat dravyalaksaṇam
- 30 Utpāda-vyaya-dhrauvya-yuktaiṃ sat
- 31 Tadbhāvāvyayaṃ nityam
- 32 Arpitānarpitasiddheh ̣
- 33 Snigdha-rūksatvād bandhah ̣
- 34 Na jaghanyaguṇānām
- 35 Guṇasāmye sadrśānām
- 36 Dvyadhikādi-guṇānāṃ tu
- 37 Bandhe(a)dhikau pāriṇāmikau ca
- 38 Guṇa-paryāyavat dravyam
- 39 Kālaśca
- 40 So(a) nantasamayah ̣
- 41 Dravyāśrayā nirguṇāh ̣ guṇāh
- 42 Tadbhāvah ̣ pariṇāmah
Meaning: The non-soul substances (bodies) are the medium of motion, the medium of rest, space and matter.
Q.V.1.1 What is the meaning of kāya (body)?
A.V.1.1 It means the body.
Q.V.1.2 Which are the non living beings?
A.V.1.2 Medium of motion (dharma), the medium of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and matter (pudgala) are the non living beings.
Q.V.1.3 What is the meaning of ajīvakāya (non-living bodies)?
A.X.1.3 Those which do not have soul but have body are called non-living beings.
Q.V.1.4 What is the relationship between ajīva (non living) and kāya (body)?
A.V.1.4 Ajīva is the adjective while kāya is the noun. So they are related as adjective and noun.
Q.V.1.5 Why the word kāya is included in the aphorism?
A.V.1.5 The word kāya which literally means body implies here with many space-points (bahupradeśī). Medium of motion (dharma), the medium of rest (adharma), space ākāśa) and matter (pudgala) are all with many space-points also.
Q.V.1.6 Use of the word ajīva (non living) in the aphorism should necessitate the kāla (time) substance also. Why is it not used?
A.V.1.6 In the aphorism, the word ajīva is associated with body also (i.e. many space-points). Because kāla does not have many space-points, it is not referred here.
Q.V.1.7 What is the meaning of existent body (astikāya)?
A.V.1.7 A substance which has existence and is with many space-points is called existent body (astikāya).
Q.V.1.8 How many kinds of existent bodies are there?
A.V.1.8 There are five existent bodies namely living beings, matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, and space.
Q.V.1.9 The sub-atom (paramāṇu), being without space-points or with one space point, is included as existent body. Why? (Actually is the smallest indivisible part of a mater which is extremely smaller than sub-atom but the word sub-atom is used here for convenience only to denote paramāṇu. How many space-points does space have?
A.V.1.9 As sub-atom (paramāṇu) has dry and oily attributes and hence has potential to be with many space-points, it is included as existent body.
Q.V.1.10 How many types of substances are not with many space-points?
A.V.1.10 Time is the only substance type which is not with many space-points.
Q.V.1.11 On what peculiarities are the names of substances like medium of motion etc clubbed together as non living bodies?
A.V.1.11 All bodies which are devoid of consciousness (soul) are clubbed together as ajīva (non living beings). Thus it is the general attribute of all non living substances. The particular attributes of non living beings like support motion (for medium of motion), support rest (for medium of rest), provides space (for space) and have form (to include touch, taste, smell and colour) for matter are used.
Meaning: These (four) are substances (dravyas).
Q.V.2.1 Explain the composition of the word dravya and its meaning?
A.V.2.1 The word dravya is formed by the verb dru which means to attain or to acquire.
Q.V.2.2 What is a substance (dravya)?
A.V.2.2 An entity which attains its modes and qualities attributes without loosing its nature is called substance.
Q.V.2.3 Is there distinction or no distinction between attribute and substance?
A.V.2.3 Substance and attributes cannot be found independent of each other and so are non distinct. However by name, characteristic marks, and usefulness; they are distinct.
Meaning: The souls are also (substances).
Q.V.3.1 What is the meaning of the aphorism jīvāśca?
A.V.3.1 It means that soul /jīva is also a type of substance.
Q.V.3.2 Why the plural jīvāh ̣ used in the aphorism?
A.V.3.2 To indicate many types of jīva, its plural form is used.
Q.V.3.3 How many types of substance are there and which are they?
A.V.3.3 There are six types of substances namely living beings /souls, matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space and time.
Q.V.3.4 What are all the entities /objects in the universe called?
A.V.3.4 They are called substances.
Q.V.3.5 If all entities are called substances, then why are they called six only?
A.V.3.5 It is true that there are infinite substances in this universe by number but they can all be grouped in six groups namely living beings /souls, matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space and time.
Q.V.3.6 How many types of mind are here and which are they?
A.V.3.6 There are two types of mind namely physical and psychic.
Q.V.3.7 Why earth, water, fire and air clubbed with matter?
A.V.3.7 This is so as the attributes of touch, taste, smell and form are found in all of them.
Meaning: (The substances are) eternal, fixed in number and colourless (non-material).
Q.V.4.1 What is the peculiarity of substances?
A.V.4.1 All substances are eternal, existent and non concrete (formless) except matter.
Q.V.4.2 Is matter also formless?
A.V.4.2 No, it is not formless as taste, touch, smell and form are found in it.
Q.V.4.3 What is the meaning of eternal?
A.V.4.3 It means indestructible i.e. the generic and specific attributes of each substance are never destroyed.
Q.V.4.4 What is the meaning of existent?
A.V.4.4 It means that it never leaves its numerical existences i.e. there are only six types of substance and these can never be more or less than six.
Q.V.4.5 Why are substances eternal?
A.V.4.5 From substance view point, they are never destroyed and so are called as eternal.
Q.V.4.6 Why are the six substances existent?
A.V.4.6 The living beings never loose their characteristic of consciousness and its manifestation. Similarly matter does not leave its characteristic of form, medium of motion never leaves its characteristic of providing support to moving objects and so on for other substance types. Further the type of substances never increases nor decreases beyond six.
Q.V.4.7 Why substances are non-concrete?
A.V.4.7 Lack of touch, taste, smell and colour results in their being no-concrete and cannot be cognized by our sense organs directly.
Rūpiṇah ̣ pudgalāh
Meaning: Things which have form constitute matter (pudgalas).
Q.V.5.1 Why matter is called pudgala?
A.V.5.1 Pud means combine and gala means to separate. The main attribute of matter is its ability to combine and separate (fusion and fission) to form clusters.
Q.V.5.2 What is called with form (rūpī) or concrete?
A.V.5.2 An entity which has form is called concrete i.e. can be cognized through our sense organs. Alternatively an entity is called rūpī when it has an aggregate of touch, taste, smell and colour.
Q.V.5.3 Matter is with form (mūrtika or rūpī). How do we know it?
A.V.5.3 Existence and activities of matter in the universe are perceptible by sense organs. Hence it is called with form or just concrete.
Q.V.5.4 What is the meaning of concrete (mūrtika)?
A.V.5.4 An entity which has form is called mūrtika. Alternatively an entity is called mūrtika when it has an aggregate of touch, taste, smell and colour.
Q.V.5.5 By saying the matter is with form, do we also not talk of taste in it also?
A.V.5.5 Yes, since the four attributes namely touch, taste, smell and colour co-exist in an entity, by mentioning one, the three are also included.
Meaning: The substances (mentioned in the first sutra) up to space are indivisible wholes (i.e. each is one single continuum).
Q.V.6.1 How the medium of motion, medium of rest and space are one in number each?
A.V.6.1 From substance viewpoint, these three substance types are one only as these are inseparable continuum. They are not infinite like souls and matter. From mode viewpoint, they are with innumerable and infinite space-points.
Q.V.6.2 What is the number of medium of motion, medium of rest and space?
A.V.6.2 These are all one in number each only.
Q.V.6.3 Why time having one space-point is called without space-points?
A.V.6.3 Even though time has one space-point, yet it dos not have the potential to become with many space-points.
Q.V.6.4 How many living beings /soul exist?
A.V.6.4 There are infinite living beings in this universe.
Q.V.6.5 How many pudgala are there?
A.V.6.5 These are infinite times infinite in number as sub-atoms (paramāṇus).
Q.V.6.6 How many time-elements (kālāṇus) exist?
A.V.6.6 These are innumerable in number.
Meaning: These three (the medium of motion, the medium of rest and space) are also without activity (movement).
Q.V.7.1 How many substance types are inactive?
A.V.7.1 Three types of substances namely medium of motion, medium of rest and space are inactive. (The fourth substance type ‘time’ is also inactive but as it is not being discusses in these aphorisms so far & so it is not included here).
Q.V.7.2 What is called as inactive?
A.V.7.2 Inability in not being able to move from one space-point to another is called inactive.
Q.V.7.3 What is the meaning of activity?
A.V.7.3 The mode of substance arising out of internal and external causes, which is the cause of its motion, is called activity. Non existence of activity in a substance is called its being inactive.
Q.V.7.4 What is the meaning of inactive (niskrīya)?
A.V.7.4 It means primarily without motion. Here transformation is excluded as transformation is the inherent nature of all substances.
Q.V.7.5 What is the difference between mode (paryāya) and activity (krīyā)?
A.V.7.5 Origination and Destruction is the mode while movement from one space-point to another is the activity.
Q.V.7.6 What types of substances have origination, destruction and permanence?
A.V.7.6 These are the essential characteristics of a substance and so exist in all six types of substances.
Q.V.7.7 Which substance types are active?
A.V.7.7 Empirical souls and matter are active.
Q.V.7.8 If medium of motion/rest and space are inactive, then how can they support living beings and matter?
A.V.7.8 All these three substance types are efficient causes to support the respective activity (like motion of a moving object) of the living beings and matter. They neither encourage nor cause motion etc to the living beings or matter.
Q.V.7.9 What is the meaning of origination (utpāda)?
A.V.7.9 Acquisition of a new state /mode (due to external and internal causes) every time instant, by living and non-living beings without losing their generic and specific attributes is called origination.
Q.V.7.10 What is the meaning of destruction (vyaya)?
A.V.7.10 leaving the old state at every time instant is called destruction.
Q.V.7.11 What is the meaning of permanence (dhrauvya)?
A.V.7.11 The inherent nature existing from beginningless time of a substance is neither destroyed nor originated. It stays as it is forever. Therefore it is called permanent and its state is called permanence.
Q.V.7.12 How many types of origination are there?
A.V.7.12 It is of two types namely self-cause and caused by others.
Asaṃkhyeyāh ̣ pradeśā dharmādharṃaikajīvānām
Meaning: There are innumerable space-points of the medium of motion, the medium of rest and in each individual soul.
Q.V.8.1 How many space-points a soul has?
A.V.8.1 A soul has innumerable space-points.
Q.V.8.2 How many space-points medium of motion has?
A.V.8.2 It has innumerable space-points.
Q.V.8.3 How many space-points medium of rest has?
A.V.8.3 It also has innumerable space-points.
Q.V.8.4 What is the meaning of innumerable?
A.V.8.4 It means a number which cannot be counted.
Q.V.8.5 Which knowledge type has innumerable as its subject?
A.V.8.5 Clairvoyance and telepathy have innumerable as their subjects.
Q.V.8.6 How many types are there of innumerable?
A.V.8.6 Maximum, minimum and which is neither maximum nor minimum i.e. average.
Q.V.8.7 What is the meaning of space-point (pradeśa)?
A.V.8.7 The space occupied by one sub-atom of matter under normal circumstances is called space-point.
Q.V.8.8 Which type of innumerable is implied here for the three substance types?
A.V.8.8 Innumerable average is implied here.
Q.V.8.9 Medium of motion, medium of rest and one soul all have innumerable space-points. Why then one soul does not become co-extensive with them?
A.V.8.9 The soul as an attribute called extension and contraction. Therefore according to the karmas active with it, it acquires a specific body and occupies the space accordingly. However at the time of last death (liberation), it starts pervading the entire space, a process called kevalī-samudghāta before attaining liberation from transmigration.
Q.V.8.10 At the time of samudghāta, where are the central eight space-points of the soul are located?
A.V.8.10 The central eight space-points of the soul at that time occupy the centre of the place called citra vajra patala which is underneath Mount Meru.
Q.V.8.11 Why is only soul referred in the aphorism?
A.V.8.11 The infinite living beings collectively have infinite space-points. Hence the reference of innumerable space-points is referred to one soul only.
Meaning: The units of space are infinite.
Q.V.9.1 How many space-points are occupied by substance ‘space’ / Ākāśa?
A.V.9.1 Space occupies infinite space-points.
Q.V.9.2 What is space?
A.V.9.2 Space is a substance which provides space to all substances to exist.
Q.V.9.3 How many sub divisions of space are there and which are they?
A.V.9.3 There are two sub divisions of space namely cosmos (lokākāśa) and trans-cosmos (alokākāśa).
Q.V.9.4 What is cosmos?
A.V.9.4 The space where all the six types of substances exist is called cosmos.
Q.V.9.5 Alokākāśa or trans-cosmos does not have time existent in it. How can it be called substance as it cannot have origination, destruction and permanence then?
A.V.9.5 The substance ‘space’ is one indivisible continuum. Therefore the transformation going on in cosmos due to the existence of time there should be considered as that in trans-cosmos also.
Q.V.9.6 What is trans-cosmos?
A.V.9.6 The part of space which surrounds cosmos and where no other substance type exists except just space itself.
Q.V.9.7 What is the meaning of infinite and which is the entity which cognizes it?
A.V.9.7 An entity which is without an end is called infinite. It is the subject of omniscience.
Meaning: (The space-points) of forms of matter are numerable, innumerable and infinite also.
Q.V.10.1 How many space-points does matter (pudgala) have?
A.V.10.1 Matter has numerable, innumerable and infinite space-points.
Q.V.10.2 What is matter?
A.V.10.2 An entity which has fusion and fission (combining and separating) as its primary attributes and which is concrete is called matter.
Q.V.10.3 What are the popular attributes of matter?
A.V.10.3 Touch, taste, smell and colour are the popular attributes of mater.
Q.V.10.4 What is substance?
A.V.10.4 The entity which has modes or which acquires modes is called substance.
Q.V.10.5 Even though matter as one sub-atom has one space-point, how it is called with numerable, innumerable and infinite space-points?
A.V.10.5 Matter as a cluster has numerable, innumerable and infinite sub-atoms depending on is size and is therefore is said to have similar number of space-points.
Q.V.10.6 Which knowledge type cognizes infinite number?
A.V.10.6 Infinite number can be cognized by omniscience.
Q.V.10.7 Which energy is present in one sub-atom?
A.V.10.7 Fusion and fission is present in one sub-atom.
Q.V.10.8 What is the end result of fusion of sub-atoms?
A.V.10.8 Cluster or aggregate is formed by fusion quality.
Q.V.10.9 How many space-points does an aggregate (skandha) have?
A.V.10.9 Some aggregates are formed by two, three or four sub-atoms. Some are formed by numerable, innumerable or infinite sub-atoms. So the aggregate has different number of space point accordingly.
Q.V.10.10 What is the meaning of an aggregate?
A.V.10.10 The sub-atoms which get bonded each other are called an aggregate.
Q.V.10.11 How can infinite space-points of matter exist in the universe with innumerable space-points only?
A.V.10.11 The space-points of the universe have a unique quality of providing space called Avagāhanā. Matter has two types of paramāṇus called subtle and gross. Infinite number of subtle paramāṇus can co-exist in one space point of the universe due to its quality of Avagāhanā. Therefore infinite living beings and mater can co-exist in one space point of the universe.
Meaning: (There are) no space-points for the sub-atom (indivisible unit of matter).
Q.V.11.1 What is the difference between space point and sub-atom?
A.V.11.1 Space point is the smallest unit of space while sub-atom is the smallest unit of matter. A sub-atom can be separated from its aggregate but a space point cannot be separated from its space. Separation of space point can only be imagined.
Q.V.11.2 Why there are no space-points of a sub-atom?
A.V.11.2 A sub-atom has only one space-point and so it is said to have no space-points.
Q.V.11.3 What are the biggest and smallest entities in the cosmos?
A.V.11.3 Cosmos and sub-atom are the biggest and smallest entities respectively.
Q.V.11.4 What is the meaning of space point?
A.V.11.4 The space occupied by one sub-atom of matter under normal circumstances is called space point.
Lokākāśe (a) vagāhah ̣
Meaning: (These substances – the principles of motion and rest, the souls and the forms of matter are located in the space of the universe (loka) or cosmos.
Q.V.12.1 Where do all the substances exist?
A.V.12.1 All the substances exist in the cosmos.
Q.V.12.2 What is the meaning of avagāha (place)?
A.V.12.2 It means the place to stay /exist.
Q.V.12.3 If cosmos is the support of substances like medium of motion etc, then what is the support for universe itself?
A.V.12.3 There is no support for the cosmos as it is self-supported.
Q.V.12.4 From which stand point is the cosmos support of all substances?
A.V.12.4 It is said so from the practical standpoint (vyavāharanaya) only.
Q.V.12.5 What is the support of all substances from the transcendental standpoint (niścayanaya)?
A.V.12.5 All substances are self supported from transcendental standpoint.
Q.V.12.6 What is cosmos (loka)?
A.V.12.6 The continuous part of space where all the substance types like souls, matter etc are found is called the loka or the cosmos.
Q.V.12.7 Which substances cause the differentiation between cosmos (lokākāśa) and trans-cosmos (alokākāśa)?
A.V.12.7 Medium of motion and medium of rest are the two substances which cause this distinction between cosmos and trans-cosmos as the absence of these two substances cause the existence or non existence of other substances like souls and matter.
Q.V.12.8 How are medium of motion and medium of rest all pervading in the cosmos?
A.V.12.8 They pervade the cosmos like the oil in the oilseeds.
Dharmādharmayoh ̣ krisne
Meaning: The media of motion and rest pervade the entire cosmos-space.
Q.V.13.1 How do medium of motion and medium of rest exist in the cosmos?
A.V.13.1 They exist in the cosmos like the oil in oil seeds.
Q.V.13.2 Why is the word krtsane (entire) used in the aphorism?
A.V.13.2 The word krtsane is used to indicate that the medium of motion and medium of rest pervade the entire cosmos.
Q.V.13.3 Do the six substances, which co-exist at the same space point/s, become one?
A.V.13.3 Even though all the six substances inter penetrate each other, yet due to the quality of avagāhana (nature of accommodation), they do not become one or loose their identity.
Ekapradeśādisu bhājyah ̣ pudgalānām
Meaning: The forms of matter occupy (inhabit) from one unit of space onwards.
Q.V.14.1 How much place does one sub-atom occupy in space?
A.V.14.1 One sub-atom occupies place equal to one space point.
Q.V.14.2 What is the range of place that matter can occupy in universe?
A.V.14.2 Matter can occupy from one to numerable and innumerable space-points.
Q.V.14.3 How many space-points can two or three sub-atoms, bonded or separate can occupy in space?
A.V.14.3 They can occupy from one, two or three space-points.
Q.V.14.4 How many space-points are occupied by numerable, innumerable and infinite sub-atoms?
A.V.14.4 They can occupy from one to numerable or innumerable space-points.
Q.V.14.5 Medium of motion and medium of rest are non concrete and so they can co-exist at one place. But how can concrete matter of one space point along with matter with many space-points co-exist in one space point?
A.V.14.5 Light is concrete. Like the light from many source coexist in one room, similarly due to subtle transformation of sub-atom they can co-exist in one space point.
Q.V.14.6 Is there any space point in cosmos where the matter does not exist?
A.V.14.6 No, the entire universe is pervaded all over by infinite matter sub-atoms (paramāṇus).
Meaning: The souls inhabit from one to all of innumerable parts of the universe-space.
Q.V.15.1 What is the range of space-points pervaded by the souls / living beings?
A.V.15.1 The souls occupy from one to innumerable space point of cosmos and can extend even to the entire cosmos itself.
Q.V.15.2 When does the soul pervade the entire universe?
A.V.15.2 The soul pervades the entire space at the time of last death (kevalī-samudghāta) i.e. just prior to achieving (liberation).
Q.V.15.3 If one soul exists in one of the innumerable space point of the universe, then how can infinite times infinite souls exist in the universe?
A.V.15.3 Empirical souls are of two types namely gross and subtle. Gross souls cannot occupy same space. However subtle souls can exist as infinite souls with one body in one space point only like nigoda beings.
Q.V.15.4 What type of bodies do gross living beings have?
A.V.15.4 They have bodies which cannot be penetrated by other bodies.
Q.V.15.5 What is the peculiarity of the bodies of subtle living beings?
A.V.15.5 Even though the subtle living beings are with body, yet infinite subtle beings can exist in the same space as one nigoda being. They neither obstruct their own category of living beings nor the gross living beings.
Q.V.15.6 What is minimum and maximum space that one empirical soul can occupy?
A.V.15.6 One empirical soul can occupy one space point to innumerable space-points (maximum) i.e. the entire universe.
Q.V.15.7 Why do living beings have forms different from each other?
A.V.15.7 Every empirical soul has karmas bonded to it. Therefore it acquires a body according to its karma and is hence different from other living beings.
Meaning: (It is possible) by the contraction and expansion of the space-points (of a soul) as in the case of the light of a lamp.
Q.V.16.1 How does the empirical soul with innumerable space point exist in one of the innumerable space-points of space?
A.V.16.1 It is possible due to the capacity of expansion and contraction of the soul, like light.
Q.V.16.2 What is the size of the empirical soul due to the capacity of expansion and contraction?
A.V.16.2 The empirical soul is of the size of the body it owns according to this capacity of expansion and contraction.
Q.V.16.3 What is the meaning of saṃhāra?
A.V.16.3 It means contraction.
Q.V.16.4 What is the meaning of visarpa?
A.V.16.4 It means expansion.
Q.V.16.5 Where does contraction and expansion take place?
A.V.16.5 It takes place in the space-points.
Q.V.16.6 What is meant by jīva-space point?
A.V.16.6 The space point which expands and contracts is called jīva-space point or space point with consciousness.
Q.V.16.7 Due to the inter mingling/penetration of space-points of substances like medium of motion etc, why don’t they become one i.e. non distinguishable?
A.V.16.7 The special characteristic of the substances called permanence which implies that the substances never leave their nature make them separate even though they inter penetrate each other closely and hence don’t become non-distinguishable.
Q.V.16.8 Is contraction and expansion nature of the soul or is it an attribute of kārmika bondage?
A.V.16.8 Contraction expansion is not the nature of the sol. It is an attribute of the name karma associated with the soul.
Q.V.16.9 Do siddhas have expansion and contraction? If not, why not?
A.V.16.9 No, as they (siddhas) is free from body-making karma. Contraction and expansion is an attribute of karma and not of the soul.
Meaning: The functions of the media of motion and rest are to assist motion and rest respectively.
Q.V.17.1 What is the function or benefit of medium of motion (dharma)?
A.V.17.1 The function of the medium of motion is to support / assist in the motion of moving objects (living beings and matter).
Q.V.17.2 What is the function of the medium of rest (adharma)?
A.V.17.2 The function of the medium of rest is to support the state of rest of objects (living beings and matter).
Q.V.17.3 What is the meaning of the word motion (gati)?
A.V.17.3 Cause of the movement of an object from space point to another is called motion.
Q.V.17.4 What is the meaning of support (upagraha)?
A.V.17.4 It means to support or to assist.
Q.V.17.5 Why upagraha and upakāra both are given separately in the aphorism when just saying upakāra would be sufficient?
A.V.17.5 To avoid misinterpretation of the word, they are repeated even though both mean the same, otherwise the aphorism would mean the medium of motion is to support motion of living beings and matter, and the medium of rest assists the rest of the matter.
Q.V.17.6 Space substance is omnipresent. Therefore it should be considered as the cause of motion and rest?
A.V.17.6 No as the function of space is to provide place to living beings, matters and other substances.
Q.V.17.7 Can we consider either the medium of motion or the medium of rest as the function of both motion and rest?
A.V.17.7 Motion and rest are two opposing activities and so their efficient causes have to be separate also. Thus they are considered separately and as independent substances.
Q.V.17.8 Medium of motion and medium of rest are both of equal potency and co-existent. Therefore they should oppose and obstruct each others function?
A.V.17.8 No, as they are not the active forces but passive media only.
Q.V.17.9 Earth and water are generally seen as supporting motion and rest, then why consider the medium of motion and medium of rest as supporting motion and rest respectively?
A.V.17.9 Both water and earth support motion and rest of only a few of objects and not all of them. Medium of motion and medium of rest support these activities respectively of all living beings and matter.
Q.V.17.10 How do we cognize /establish the existence of the medium of motion and the medium of rest?
A.V.17.10 Both these substances are non concrete and so they cannot be cognized by sense organs. However a person with right belief even though not perfect, can cognize these by inferential knowledge.
Meaning: (The function) of space (is to) provide accommodation.
Q.V.18.1 What is the function of space substance?
A.V.18.1 The function of space substance is to provide place to exist (avagāha) to all substances.
Q.V.18.2 Define space substance?
A.V.18.2 An entity which provides place to exist to all substances is space. It is one continuum spread throughout the cosmos (for existence of all substances) and beyond (where only it exists).
Q.V.18.3 What is the meaning of avagāha?
A.V.18.3 To provide place to living beings and matter for existence (or activity) is called avagāha.
Q.V.18.4 The attribute avagāha is existent in all substances, then why it refers primarily to space only?
A.V.18.4 As it is the nature of space only to provide place to exist to all substances, so it refers to space substance primarily.
Q.V.18.5 Does trans-cosmos also has the attribute avagāha?
A.V.18.5 Yes, trans-cosmos also has the attribute avagāha.
Q.V.18.6 The supportive function to provide place to exist as nature is not found in alokākāśa as no other substances exist there?
A.V.18.6 The nature of both trans-cosmos (alokākāśa) and cosmos (lokākāśa)is same i.e. avagāha. Absence of other substances in trans-cosmos cannot change its nature as no substance ever leaves its nature.
Śarīra-vāṃ-manah ̣prāṇāpānāh ̣ pudgalānām
Meaning: (The function) of matter (is to form the basis) of the body, the organs of speech, the mind and the respiration.
Q.V.19.1 What are the benefits of matter (pudgala) to living beings?
A.V.19.1 The benefit of matter to living beings is to form basis of its body, organs of speech and mind and respiration.
Q.V.19.2 What are the other benefits of matter to living beings?
A.V.19.2 Miserys and pleasures caused by sense organs, birth and death are the other benefits of matter to living beings.
Q.V.19.3 What is the meaning of body (śarīra)?
A.V.19.3 The entity which is created by the rise of name karmas and undergo the transformation i.e. decays of old parts / constituents and origin of new ones.
Q.V.19.4 What is mind?
A.V.19.4 The entity which has the capacity to comprehend i.e. examine good and evil, and remembering is called mind.
Q.V.19.5 What is meant by speech?
A.V.19.5 Whatever is spoken in the form of speech particles (bhāsāvargaṇā) is called speech.
Q.V.19.6 What is the meaning of life force (prāṇa)?
A.V.19.6 The cause of the life or to exist in a particular realm is called prāṇa (breathe or respiration).
Q.V.19.7 What is the meaning apāna or exhale?
A.V.19.7 The air inside the body which the living being throws out is called exhale.
Q.V.19.8 What is the meaning of prāṇāpāna?
A.V.19.8 It means to include both breathing in and out the air i.e. inhale and exhale.
Q.V.19.9 What is meant by matter?
A.V.19.9 The entity which goes through fusion and fission continuously as its nature is called matter / pudgala.
Q.V.19.10 How many types of speech are there?
A.V.19.10 It is of two types namely physical and psychic.
Q.V.19.11 What is psychic speech?
A.V.19.11 The capacity to speak due to the rise of āṃgopāṃga (major and minor limbs making) karma and the subsidence cum destruction of energy obscuring karma and knowledge (mind based and scriptural knowledge) obscuring karmas is called psychic speech.
Q.V.19.12 What is the meaning of physical speech?
A.V.19.12 The matter particles which are transformed as sounds due (the efficient cause) to the state of psychic speech of the soul are called physical speech.
Q.V.19.13 Is psychic speech matter?
A.V.19.13 Psychic speech is a state/mode of soul; however due to its association with the matter and it being not the nature of soul it (psychic speech) separates from the soul and becomes matter. This is from transcendental viewpoint.
Q.V.19.14 Is speech concrete or non concrete?
A.V.19.14 It is concrete as only concrete entities are the subjects of the sense organs.
Q.V.19.16 What is psychic mind?
A.V.19.16 Power to discriminate between good and evil or the attainment of the manifestation of consciousness is called psychic mind.
Q.V.19.17 What is physical mind?
A.V.19.17 The transformation of matter particles due to the rise of āṃgopāṃga karma and the subsidence cum destruction of energy obscuring karma and knowledge obscuring karmas, is called physical mind.
Q.V.19.18 Are mid, breathe and exhale concrete or non concrete?
A.V.19.18 They are all concrete as these are all seen to be obstructed by other concrete entities.
Q.V.19.19 How do we know that mind, breathe and exhale is concrete?
A.V.19.19 Electric shocks do cause disturbances in the mind. Similarly covering the nose with a cloth tightly obstructs both breathe and exhale. These show that matter obstructs mind, breathe and exhale and hence are concrete.
Q.V.19.20 How many types of body are there?
A.V.19.20 Body can be of five types, namely: gross, protean, conveyance, and luminous and kārmika.
Meaning: (The function of matter is) also to contribute to pleasure, suffering life and death of living brings.
Q.V.20.1 What is pleasure (sukha)?
A.V.20.1 Owing to the rise of the sātā vedanīya (experience of pleasure) karma and due to the external efficient causes like place, time, substance or modes, the disposition of agreeableness of the soul is called pleasure.
Q.V.20.2 What is misery?
A.V.20.2 Owing to the rise of the asātā vedanīya (experience of misery) karma and due to the external efficient causes like place, time, substance or modes, the disposition of affliction of the soul is called misery.
Q.V.20.3 What is meant by life?
A.V.20.3 Due to the rise of life determining (āyusya) karma, the continuation of the respiration of a living being in the same realm (bhava) is called life.
Q.V.20.4 What is death?
A.V.20.4 Due to the destruction of the life determining (āyusya) karma, the stoppage of the respiration of a living being and the leaving of the body subsequently is in the same realm is called death.
Q.V.20.5 How many benefits of matter are there for the empirical soul?
A.V.20.5 Body, speech, mind, respiration, pleasure, misery, life and death are the benefits of the matter for the living beings.
Q.V.20.6 What is the meaning of the word upagraha in the aphorism?
A.V.20.6 Here the meaning of the word upagraha is the material benefits of the matter.
Q.V.20.7 What are the material benefits of matter?
A.V.20.7 One type of matter benefits the other types of matter, e.g. ash cleans the utensils and the soap cleans the clothes.
Q.V.20.8 What is the meaning of upakāra in this aphorism?
A.V.20.8 Here the meaning is not just the benefit rendered but is generic as being the efficient cause in the well being or benefit of others.
Meaning: (The function) of souls is to help one another.
Q.V.21.1 What is the mutual benefit of living beings to each other?
A.V.21.1 Living beings help each other, e.g. the teacher helps the disciple and the disciple serves the teacher, the servant serves the owner and the owner pays the servant for his services rendered, the monk teaches the disciples and the disciples serve the monks by behaving in an appropriate manner towards the monks.
Q.V.21.2 Even though the word upakāra is being used in this chapter, then why is the word upgraha used in this aphorism?
A.V.21.2 It is so as the mutual benefits rendered by living beings to each other can cause life and death or pleasure and misery to other living beings, therefore the word upagraha is used here.
Q.V.21.3 Can a substance be of benefit to other types of substances also?
A.V.21.3 The modes and attributes of one type of substance cannot leave it to enter the other type of substance. Therefore one type of substance can be the efficient cause of the benefit to other types of substances.
Vartanā-pariṇām-akriyāh-paratvāparatve ca Kālasya
Meaning: Assisting substances in their continuity of being (through gradual changes), in their modifications, in their movements and in their priority and non-priority in time, are the functions of time.
Q.V.22.1 What is the benefit of time substance?
A.V.22.1 Assisting all substances in their continuity of existence through gradual changes without leaving their nature (vartanā), in their modifications (pariṇāma), in their movement (kriyā), and in their priority (paratva) and non-priority (aparatva) in time is the benefits of time.
Q.V.22.2 What is vartanā?
A.V.22.2 Assisting all substances in their continuity of existence through gradual changes without leaving their nature is vartanā.
Q.V.22.3 What is the meaning of pariṇāma?
A.V.22.3 Continuity of existence through gradual changes (without leaving their nature) in their modifications is pariṇāma.
Q.V.22.4 What is the meaning of kriyā?
A.V.22.4 Movement of an entity from one place to another is called activity (kriyā).
Q.V.22.5 What is the meaning of paratva and aparatva?
A.V.22.5 Old / older with reference to time is paratva. New /young with reference to time is aparatva.
Q.V.22.6 Now many types of time are there?
A.V.22.6 There are two types of time, namely transcendental and practical time.
Q.V.22.7 What are the characteristics of the transcendental and practical types of time?
A.V.22.7 The characteristic of transcendental time is vartanā. The haracteristics of practical time are pariṇāma, kriyā, paratva and aparatva.
Q.V.22.8 How many types of practical time are there?
A.V.22.8 It is of three types namely past, present and future.
Sparśa-rasa-gandha-varṇavantah ̣ pudgalāh ̣
Meaning: The forms of matter are characterized by touch, taste, smell and colour.
Q.V.23.1 What is the meaning of matter (pudgala) substance?
A.V.23.1 An entity which has touch, taste, smell and form /colour as its attributes is called matter.
Q.V.23.2 What is the meaning of touch?
A.V.23.2 What is touched or just touching alone is touch.
Q.V.23.3 How many types of touch are there?
A.V.23.3 There are eight types of touch namely light and heavy, rough and smooth, hard and soft, cold and hot.
Q.V.23.4 What is the meaning of taste?
A.V.23.4 What is tasted or just tasting alone is taste.
Q.V.23.5 How many types of taste are there?
A.V.23.5 There are five types of taste namely bitter (kasailā), sour (kadavā), acidic (khattā), sweet (mīthā) and astringent (caraparā).
Q.V.23.6 What is the meaning of smell?
A.V.23.6 what is smelt or just smelling is smell.
Q.V.23.7 How many types of smell are there?
A.V.23.7 There are two types of smell namely pleasant and unpleasant.
Q.V.23.8 What is the meaning of colour?
A.V.23.8 What is seen by the eyes as different is colour.
Q.V.23.9 How many types of colour are there?
A.V.23.9 There are five types of colour namely blue, black, yellow, red and white.
Q.V.23.10 In the aphorism matter is said to be concrete (rūpiṇah ̣ pudgalah ̣). Does it imply that matter is with touch, taste etc?
A.V.23.10 Colour, form, taste, touch etc are co-existent in matter. Hence by just saying with form implies existence of touch, taste etc also.
Meaning: Sound, union, fineness, grossness, shape, division, darkness, image, warm light (sunshine) and cool light (moonlight) also (are forms of matter).
Q.V.24.1 What are the modes of the matter?
A.V.24.1 Sound (śabda), union (baṃdha), fineness (suksmapanā), grossness (sthūlapanā), shape (saṃsthāna), divisions (bheda), darkness (tamah ̣ or andhakāra), shadow (chāyā), warm light (ātapa), cool light (udyota) are the modes of matter.
Q.V.24.2 What is meant by sound (śabda)?
A.V.24.2 The transformation of bhāsāvargaṇās (matter particles capable of transforming into sound) as a result of colliding with matter, into sound is called sound.
Q.V.24.3 How many types of sound are there?
A.V.24.3 Sound is of two types namely; one which partakes of the nature of languages (bhāsātmaka) and the other type which does not.
Q.V.24.4 How many types of bhāsātmaka sound are there?
A.V.24.4 It is of two types namely; expressed (aksara) and not expressed (anaksara).
Q.V.24.5 What is expressed sound?
A.V.24.5 The language used to write the scriptures or the medium of communication between both civilized and novice persons to understand each other and interact are called expressed sound, e.g. Prākŗta, Saṃskŗta etc.
Q.V.24.6 What is unexpressed sound?
A.V.24.6 The sound created by living beings with two or more senses without alphabets /language to understand each other is called unexpressed sound.
Q.V.24.7 How many types of unexpressed sound are there?
A.V.24.7 There are two types namely contrived (prāyogika) and natural (vaisrasika).
Q.V.24.8 What is natural sound? What is the meaning of vaistrasika?
A.V.24.8 The sound created by clouds and so on is called natural sounds. The meaning of vaisrasika is natural.
Q.V.24.9 How many types of contrived (prāyogika) sound are there?
A.V.24.9 It is of four types namely tata, vitata, ghana and susira.
Q.V.24.10 What is the meaning of tata sound?
A.V.24.10 It is the sound produced from musical instruments covered with a diaphram, namely the tabalā, the drum (dholaka), the kettle drum, etc.
Q.V.24.11 What is the meaning of vitata sound?
A.V.24.11 It is the sound produced by stringed musical instruments e.g. violin, vīṇā etc.
Q.V.24.12 What is ghana sound?
A.V.24.12 Sound produced by metallic musical instruments e.g. bell in the temples, cymbals etc.
Q.V.24.13 What is susira sound?
A.V.24.13 The sound produced by wind musical instruments e.g. flute, the conch etc.
Q.V.24.14 How many types of union (baṃdha) are there?
A.V.24.14 There are two types of union namely contrived (prāyogika) and natural (vaistrasika).
Q.V.24.15 What is natural (vaisrasika) union?
A.V.24.15 The union caused without the involvement/effort of living beings is called natural union.
Q.V.24.16 How many sub types of natural union are there?
A.V.24.16 There are two subtypes of natural union namely with a beginning and without a beginning.
Q.V.24.17 What is union with a beginning (ādimāna)?
A.V.24.17 Due to the existence of attributes like dry and oil, the union of entities like lightening, clouds, fire, rainbow etc are unions with a beginning.
Q.V.24.18 What is union without a beginning?
A.V.24.18 It is the major aggregate (mahāskaṃdha) of matter etc.
Q.V.24.19 What is the characteristic of contrived (prāyogika) union?
A.V.24.19 Necessity of human effort is the characteristic of contrived union.
Q.V.24.20 How many sub types of contrive union are there?
A.V.24.20 There are two sub types namely union of non-living things and union of living and non-living things.
Q.V.24.21 What is contrived union of non-living things?
A.V.24.21 Union consisting of bondage of matter like resin and wood etc is contrived union of non-living things.
Q.V.24.22 What is contrived union of living and non-living things?
A.V.24.22 Bondage of karmas and nokarma (matter particles which are capable of transforming into gross body is contrived union of this type.
Q.V.24.23 How many types of fineness (suksmapanā) there?
A.V.24.23 There are two types of fineness namely extreme and relative.
Q.V.24.24 What has extreme fineness?
A.V.24.24 Paramāṇu is extremely fine.
Q.v.24.25 What is relative fineness?
A.V.24.25 Instances of relative fines are ‘olive is relatively finer than apple’.
Q.V.24.26 How many types of grossness (sthūlapanā), are there?
A.V.24.26 It is of two types again namely extreme and relative.
Q.V.24.27 What has extreme grossness?
A.V.24.27 Major Aggregate (major aggregate that pervades the entire universe) is an example of extreme grossness.
Q.V.24.28 What is relative grossness?
A.V.24.28 For example, apple is grosser than olive.
Q.V.24.29 What is the meaning of shape (saṃsthāna)?
A.V.24.29 The form of an entity is called its shape.
Q.V.24.30 How many types of shape are there?
A.V.24.30 It is of two types namely that which can be defined (iatthaṃlaksaṇa) and the other which cannot be defined (an-iatthaṃlaksaṇa).
Q.V.24.31 What is meant by shape that can be defined?
A.V.24.31 Shapes like triangle, circular, rectangular etc which can be defined.
Q.V.24.32 What is meant by shapes which cannot be defined?
A.V.24.32 Shapes, like those of clouds, which keep on changing and impossible to be described /defined.
Q.V.24.33 How many types of divisions (bheda) are there?
A.V.24.33 There are six types of division namely utkara, cūrṇa, khaṃda, cūrṇika, pratara, aṇucatana.
Q.V.24.34 What is the meaning of utkara?
A.V.24.34 Sawdust created by sawing a piece of wood is called utkara.
Q.V.24.35 What is the meaning of cūrṇa?
A.V.24.35 Flour of wheat etc is called cūrṇa.
Q.V.24.36 What is the meaning of khaṃda?
A.V.24.36 Fragments of a pitcher when broken is called khaṃda.
Q.V.24.37 What is the meaning of cūrṇika?
A.V.24.37 Skin of black gram or green gram etc which results by thrashing them is called cūrṇika.
Q.V.24.38 What is the meaning of pratara?
A.V.24.38 Layers of mica, earth etc is called pratara.
Q.V.24.39 What is the meaning of aṇucatana?
A.V.24.39 Sparks emitted by emitting from a red hot iron are called aṇucatana.
Q.V.24.40 What is the meaning of darkness (andhakāara)?
A.V.24.40 It is the opposite of light or absence of light.
Q.V.24.41 What is the meaning of shadow (chāyā)?
A.V.24.41 Image caused by obstruction of light is called shadow.
Q.V.24.42 How many types of shadow are there?
A.V.24.42 It is of two kinds namely; the images exactly like of the object as seen in a mirror and second which is just a shadow as by standing in the sunlight.
Q.V.24.43 What is the meaning of warm light (ātapa)?
A.V.24.43 It is the combination of heat and light as produced by the sun.
Q.V.24.44 What is the meaning of cool light (udyota)?
A.V.24.44 It is the combination of light and cold as produced by the moon.
Aṇavah ̣ skandhāśca
Meaning: Sub-atoms and molecules (are the two main divisions of matter).
Q.V.25.1 How many types of matter (pudgala) are there?
A.V.25.1 They are of two types namely sub-atom (paramāṇu) and aggregate /molecule (skandha).
Q.V.25.2 What is the meaning of a sub-atom?
A.V.25.2 The smallest indivisible part with one space point is its volume is called sub-atom.
Q.V.25.3 What is the meaning of aggregate /molecule (skandha)?
A.V.25.3 An entity formed by combining two, three or more sub-atoms is called an aggregate.
Q.V.25.4 What are the beginning, middle and end of a sub-atom?
A.V.25.4 A sub-atom is so minute that it is the beginning, middle and end of itself.
Q.V.25.5 How many types of matter as aggregate are there?
A.V.25.5 These are of six types namely gross-gross, gross, gross-subtle, subtle-gross, subtle and subtle-subtle.
Q.V.25.6 What is meant by gross-gross?
A.V.25.6 Solid matter whose shape, size and density etc does not change e.g. wood, iron etc.
Q.V.25.7 What is meant by gross?
A.V.25.7 Matter whose shape and size can change but not the density e.g. water, oil etc.
Q.V.25.8 What is meant by gross-subtle?
A.V.25.8 Matter which can be cognized by eyes only and have form e.g. shadow etc.
Q.V.25.9 What is meant by subtle-gross?
A.V.25.9 Matter which can be cognized by sense organs other than eyes e.g. heat, light, sound etc.
Q.V.25.10 What is meant by subtle?
A.V.25.10 Those aggregates which cannot be cognized by sense organs are call subtle.
Q.V.25.11 What is meant by subtle-subtle?
A.V.25.11 Matter that exists as sub-atom and not as aggregate is called subtle-subtle.
Q.V.25.12 What are the characteristics of a sub-atom?
A.V.25.12 The peculiarities of an sub-atom is its round shape, two touches, one taste, one smell and one colour and cognized by its activity only.
Q.V.25.13 Is a sub-atom eternal or temporary?
A.V.25.13 It is eternal from substance viewpoint and temporary from modal viewpoint.
Q.V.25.14 What is the difference between a sub-atom and an aggregate?
A.V.25.14 They are both matter. Sub-atoms are characterized by touch, taste, smell and colour. Molecules on the other hand are characterized by modes of matter such as sound (śabda), union (baṃdha), fineness (suksmapanā), grossness (sthūlapanā), shape (saṃsthāna), divisions (bheda), darkness (andhakāara), shadow (chāyā), warm light (ātapa), cool light (udyota).
Meaning: (Molecules) are formed by division (fission), union (fusion) and division-cum-union.
Q.V.26.1 What is meant by fission (bheda)?
A.V.26.1 Splitting of an aggregate is called fission.
Q.V.26.2 What is meant by fusion (saṃghāta)?
A.V.26.2 Collection together of joining / combining of two separate sub-atoms or aggregates are called fusion.
Q.V.26.3 How is an aggregate created?
A.V.26.3 An aggregate is created by fusion, fission or fusion-fission.
Q.V.26.4 How many sub-atoms are needed to form an aggregate by fusion?
A.V.26.4 Two or more sub-atoms are needed to form an aggregate.
Q.V.26.5 How does fusion and fission together create an aggregate?
A.V.26.5 When one aggregate separates or is divided into sub aggregate and one of such divisions combine with another aggregate, then we get a new aggregate by fusion and fission.
Meaning: The sub-atom (is produced only) by division (fission).
Q.V.27.1 How is a sub-atom created?
A.V.27.1 A sub-atom is created by fission only.
Q.V.27.2 Can fusion, fission and fusion and fission together create a sub-atom?
A.V.27.2 No, a sub-atom can be created by fission only.
Q.V.27.3 What is the difference between a āṇu and paramāṇu in Jain philosophy?
A.V.27.3 Literally there are same but philosophically we can say it is similar to sub-atom and its smallest constituent (quark identified till now).
Meaning: (Molecules produced) by the combined action of division (fission) and union (fusion) can be perceived by the eyes.
Q.V.28.1 An aggregate which is invisible, how then can it become visible?
A.V.28.1 It becomes visible by the combined process of fusion and fission and not just by fission alone.
Q.V.28.2 What causes the creation of an aggregate which becomes visible by the eyes?
A.V.28.2 Fusion and fission together or fusion alone cause the creation of an aggregate which is visible by the eyes.
Q.V.28.3 How the transformations from invisible to visible take place?
A.V.28.3 Fission of a subtle-gross aggregate separates it into two parts which are still minute. Therefore it stays invisible. However when this invisible minute part fuses with another visible aggregate, then it transforms its form as gross by leaving its state of subtleness and becomes visible.
Meaning: Existence (bring or sat) is the different of substance.
Q.V.29.1 What is the differentia or distinguishing characteristic of a substance (dravya)?
A.V.29.1 Existence /or being (sat) is the distinguishing characteristic of a substance.
Q.V.29.2 How many attributes are there of every substance?
A.V.29.2 There are six generic attribute of every substance.
Q.V.29.3 How is existence the characteristic of all substances?
A.V.29.3 Even tough there are infinite different substances and these differences are due to some causes; yet from existence viewpoint, they are all of one type. Therefore existence is the main characteristic of all substances.
Meaning:Existence is characterized by origination, disappearance (destruction) and permanence.
Q.V.30.1 What is existence?
A.V.30.1 An entity which is accompanied by origination, destruction and permanence simultaneously is called existent or having existence.
Q.V.30.2 What is meant by origination (Utpāda)?
A.V.30.2 To acquire a new mode (state or paryāya) by a substance without leaving its own nature is called origination.
Q.V.30.3 What is meant by destruction (vyaya)?
A.V.30.3 The disappearance of the old mode is called destruction.
Q.V.30.4 What is meant by permanence (dhrauvya)?
A.V.30.4 To retain its own nature even when the destruction of old and origination of new mode take place in an entity is called permanence.
Q.V.30.5 Does an entity with consciousness become without consciousness?
A.V.30.5 No, it never looses its own nature which in this case is consciousness.
Q.V.30.6 Is the difference in origination, destruction and permanence due to time or the state?
A.V.30.6 All these three activities take place at the same time and hence the difference between these three is the state difference only.
Q.V.30.7 How do the three states exist simultaneously?
A.V.30.7 At any time instant, the old mode is being destroyed and the new mode is originating while the entity /substance retains (or does not change or leave) its own nature which is permanence. Hence all three states co-exist.
Q.V.30.8 Are the trio of origination, destruction and permanence different or same from different viewpoints?
A.V.30.8 From the mode viewpoint, substance keep on originating and destroying continuously wile from substance viewpoint, they always stay the same. Hence they are both different and same.
Meaning: Permanence is indestructibility of the essential nature (quality) of the substance.
Q.V.31.1 What is the meaning of ‘tadbhāvavyayaṃ nityam’ in the aphorism?
A.V.31.1 An entity whose intrinsic nature (tadbhāva) is indestructible (avyayaṃ) is eternal (nityam).
Q.V.31.2 What is the meaning of eternal?
A.V.31.2 Eternal means not to leave its intrinsic nature.
Q.V.31.3 What is the implication of eternal here?
A.V.31.3 Here eternal does not mean that an entity stays same (same state / mode) always or is not transforming continuously. But it implies that even while going through transformation it does not leave its intrinsic nature, else the entire universe will come to a standstill being eternal. Transformation is cognized by remembrance e.g. when we see a person after a long time, we still recollect him to be he same person whom we met a long time ago.
Q.V.31.4 What flaws can arise if consider an entity just eternal?
A.V.31.4 By accepting a substance as without transformation and just eternal, we face the situation of no change which will make even liberation of empirical souls impossible.
Q.V.31.5 Is an entity eternal or momentary /temporary?
A.V.31.5 All entities in this universe are both eternal and momentary. This is as from substance viewpoint, they are eternal and from mode viewpoint, they are momentary.
Meaning: (The contradictory characteristics are established) from different points of view.
Q.V.32.1 What is the meaning of arpita?
A.V.32.1 Primary importance is of the literal meaning of arpita. It signifies the immediate importance which the speaker wishes to express at any time even though other secondary things also exist.
Q.V.32.2 What are the synonyms of arpita?
A.V.32.2 These are intended (apeksita), primary (mukhya) and expected (vivaksita).
Q.V.32.3 What is the meaning of anarpita?
A.V.32.3 Literally it means of secondary importance. Thus these are attributes which even those existing in an entity and yet the speaker does not want to express them at a particular point of time.
Q.V.32.4 How can arpita and anarpita occur at the same time?
A.V.32.4 Like a substance is being expressed as eternal from substance viewpoint but the substance is also non eternal from modal viewpoint.
Q.V.32.5 How many attributes are there of an entity?
A.V.32.5 Every entity has many attributes like eternal-non eternal, different and same etc.
Snigdha-rūksatvād bandhah ̣
Meaning: Combination of sub-atoms takes place by virtue of smoothness and dryness (rough) properties associated with them.
Q.V.33.1 What causes union /combinations?
A.V.33.1 The two attributes of matter namely oily and roughness are the causes of unison /bondage.
Q.V.33.2 What is meant by smoothness?
A.V.33.2 The greasiness to stick caused by internal and external causes is called smoothness.
Q.V.33.3 What is meant by dryness?
A.V.33.3 The roughness to repel or separate caused by the external and internal causes in an entity is called dryness.
Q.V.33.4 What is meant by union (baṃdha)?
A.V.33.4 Combining of two oily and dry sub-atoms together is called union.
Q.V.33.5 How many types of dry and smooth entities are there?
A.V.33.5 There are numerable, innumerable and infinite sub types of these two attributes.
Q.V.33.6 Do the oily and dry attribute in a sub-atom exist in equal or unequal degrees?
A.V.33.6 These two attributes i.e. oily and dry exist in more or less degrees in different sub-atoms.
Meaning: (There is) no combination between the lowest levels / degrees of the two properties.
Q.V.34.1 What types of sub-atoms do not combine or form union?
A.V.34.1 The sub-atoms which have the lowest or minimal degrees of attributes do not combine or form aggregates.
Q.V.34.2 What is meant by guṇa?
A.V.34.2 The lowest inseparable part of an attribute which cannot be further divided is called guṇa. However degree / times /number is also implied here.
Q.V.34.3 What type of sub-atom has the lowest (jaghanya) degree?
A.V.34.3 A sub-atom which has the indivisible degree / number of one attribute is called to have the lowest degree.
Q.V.34.4 What are the different meanings of the word guṇa?
A.V.34.4 Benefit /support / substance / inseparable and all pervading part, secondary and avayava are the other meanings of guṇa used at times.
Q.V.34.5 What is meant by guṇa in this aphorism?
A.V.34.5 The generic meaning of guṇa is attribute or property. However degree / times /number is implied here.
Q.V.34.6 What types of sub-atoms do not combine with a sub-atom having the lowest degree of the attributes oily or dryness?
A.V.34.6 Other sub-atoms or aggregates which have the lowest degree of the attribute oily or dryness do not combine with a sub-atom having the lowest degree of the attributes oily or dryness.
Meaning: (There is no combination)between equal degrees of the same property.
Q.V.35.1 What types of entities do not form a union with equal degree of the one of the attributes of oily and dryness?
A.V.35.1 The union of entities of same or different types having equal degree of an attribute does not take place.
Q.V.35.2 What is the meaning of guṇasāmya?
A.V.35.2 It means the same degree (or numerical quantity) of an attribute.
Q.v.35.3 What is meaning of sadrśa?
A.V.35.3 It means of the same kind or same class / type.
Q.V.35.4 What type of sub-atoms and aggregates do not form a union with equal degree of an attribute?
A.V.35.4 Entities of same or of different kind do not form a union with others having same degree of an attribute.
Meaning: But (There is combination) between degrees different by two units.
Q.V.36.1 Which types of matter form a union?
A.V.36.1 There is a union between two entities when the degrees of an attribute in each differ by at least two degrees.
Q.V.36.2 What is the meaning of dvydhika?
A.V.36.2 It means two more (degrees).
Q.V.36.3 What is said to be dvydhika?
A.V.36.3 An entity having more than two degrees (of an attribute) is also called dvydhika.
Q.V.36.4 What types of union take place in the sub-atoms?
A.V.36.4 The union of four types namely dry-oily, oily-oily, oily-dry and dry-dry takes place between sub-atoms.
Q.V.36.5 What types of sub-atoms and aggregates do not form union with a sub-atom having one oily attribute?
A.V.36.5 None i.e. It does not form a union with none of the sub-atoms having one, two, numerable, innumerable, infinite degrees of oily attributes or on degree of dry attribute.
Q.V.36.6 With who does a sub-atom having two degrees of smooth form union?
A.V.36.6 A sub-atom having two degrees of smoothness attribute can form union with other having four degrees of smoothness attribute.
Q.V.36.7 With who does n sub-atom having three degrees of oily form?
A.V.36.7 A sub-atom having three degrees of oily /dry attribute can form union with other having five degrees of oily attributes.
Q.V.36.8 With what does a sub-atom having one degree of dry attribute not form a union?
A.V.36.8 This sub-atom does not form a union with any other sub-atom regardless of the degrees of dryness.
Q.V.36.9 With who does a sub-atom having two degrees of dryness not form a union?
A.V.36.9 It does not form a union with sub-atoms having more or less than four degrees of dryness.
Q.V.36.10 With which sub-atoms does a sub-atom having four degrees of dry attribute not possible?
A.V.36.10 It does not form a union with sub-atoms not having six degrees of dryness.
Q.V.36.11 With who does one sub-atom having lowest degree of an attribute not possible?
A.V.36.11 Such a sub-atom will not form a union with another sub-atom having lowest degree of an attribute.
Q.V.36.12 With what does a sub-atom having two degrees of oily possible?
A.V.36.12 It can form a union with another sub-atom having four degrees of oily.
Bandhe(a)dhikau pāriṇāmikau ca
Meaning: In the process of combination the higher degrees transform the lower ones.
Q.V.37.1 Is it possible for a union between two sub-atoms having same degrees of an attribute?
A.V.37.1 The transformation between two sub-atoms takes palces having two more degrees (between the two sub-atoms). Thus no union is possible between sub-atoms having same degree of attribute.
Q.V.37.2 What is meant by ‘nature of transformation’ (pāriṇāmika)?
A.V.37.2 An entity which goes through transformation continuously is called pāriṇāmika.
Q.V.37.3 Which are the pāriṇāmika sub-atoms?
A.V.37.3 Sub-atoms having two degrees of oily are transformable with another sub-atom having four degrees of oily. For others please refer to aphorism 36 above.
Q.V.37.4 What happens if sub-atom having two more degrees of an attribute?
A.V.37.4 It will not form a union like the threads will stay as threads and not become cloth.
Meaning: That which has qualities and modes is a substance.
Q.V.38.1 What is the characteristic of a substance?
A.V.38.1 The characteristic of a substance is that it is with attributes/ qualities (guṇa) and modes (paryāya).
Q.V.38.2 What is meant by an attribute?
A.V.38.2 That which distinguishes one substance from all others is called attribute /quality.
Q.V.38.3 How many attributes and modes does the substance have?
A.V.38.3 Every substance has infinite attributes and infinite modes.
Q.V.38.4 How do the attributes differentiate one substance from another?
A.V.38.4 Every substance has one distinguishing and unique/ primary attribute which distinguishes it from others e.g. consciousness is the attribute of living beings and this attribute does not exist in the other five types of substances.
Q.V.38.5 What is another characteristic of attribute?
A.V.38.5 An entity which is the cause of similarity between different entities belongs to the same class /substance type. For example consciousness in all living beings; touch, taste, smell and colour in all types of matter etc. Another definition of attribute is an entity which is coexistent in all parts, forms and states of a substance.
Q.V.38.6 What is meant by mode?
A.V.38.6 Modification or special activity of attributes and substances are called modes. Modes are different and separate from each other.
Q.V.38.7 What is another characteristic of modes?
A.V.38.7 The state which remains same in a substance always is called attribute and the state which keep on changing continually and helps it to create its identity is called mode.
Q.V.38.8 What happens if the substances are accepted as without attributes?
A.V.38.8 It will result in saṃkara-vyatikara.
Q.V.38.9 What is the meaning of saṃkara-vyatikara?
A.V.38.9 Intermixing is called saṃkara and becoming one after intermixing is called vyatikara.
Q.V.38.10 Why is substance said to be with modes and attributes?
A.V.38.10 An entity with attributes and modes is said to substance and so the substance is said to with attributes and modes.
Q.V.38.11 Which is the primary attribute which results in its modes of jīva and matter respectively?
A.V.38.11 For jīva, it is consciousness and for matter are the touch, taste, smell and colour.
Q.V.38.12 Which is the primary attribute which results in its modes of medium of motion and medium or rest respectively?
A.V.38.12 For medium of motion it is to support motion and for medium of rest it is to support to rest.
Q.V.38.13 Which is the primary attribute which results in its modes of space and time?
A.V.38.13 For space it is provide pale to exist and for time it is transformation /change.
Q.V.38.14 Mind based and scriptural knowledge etc for living beings and pitcher, cloths etc for matter; Are these modes or attributes?
A.V.38.14 These are the modes only.
Q.V.38.15 Is the substance only different from mode and attributes or non-different?
A.V.38.15 Substance is slightly different and slightly similar than modes and attributes. Substance is however not totally different from attributes and modes.
Meaning: Time also (is a substance).
Q.V.39.1 What is duration of the substance time (kāla)?
A.V.39.1 It is of infinite period duration.
Q.V.39.2 Why is time also said to be substance?
A.V.39.2 Time is called a substance because all the characteristics of a substance are found in it.
Q.V.39.3 What are the characteristics of substance and existence?
A.V.39.3 Origination, destruction and permanence are the characteristics of existence and substance. Also substance is an entity which is with attributes and modes.
Q.V.39.4 What is the peculiar characteristic of time?
A.V.39.4 Hour, minutes etc are the characteristics of practical time while its ability to support change /transformation of all other substances is the characteristic from transcendental viewpoint.
Q.V.39.5 What are the distinguishing and generic attributes of time?
A.V.39.5 Ability to support change /transformation of all other substances is its distinguishing attribute while absence of consciousness, taste, touch etc are its generic attributes long with all the generic attributes of a substance.
Q.V.39.6 How is time non concrete?
A.V.39.6 As touch taste, smell and form are found in it, it is called non concrete.
Q.V.39.7 Why time is not with many space-points? Why it is not considered as an existent with body?
A.V.39.7 According to scriptures, one sub-atom of time occupies one space point of space and it fills the entire universe with such time-sub-atoms. These time sub-atoms do not join each other and hence are of independent existence. Therefore time is said to be without body (having more than one space-point). Each time sub-atom is a substance.
Q.V.39.8 If time is also a substance, then why is mentioned separately so?
A.V.39.8 If it was included in the first aphorism itself, then time would also become an existent with body which is not the case even from the practical viewpoint.
Q.V.39.9 Is time one substance or many?
A.V.39.9 Time is many substances and not one.
Q.V.39.10 Is time active or passive?
A.V.39.10 Time is a passive substance only. It supports change.
So(a) nantasamayah ̣
Meaning: It (conventional time) consists of infinite instants.
Q.V.40.1 What is the meaning of time-instant (samaya)?
A.V.40.1 The smallest mode of time is called time-instant.
Q.V.40.2 How is practical time said to of infinite time-instants?
A.V.40.2 Time consists of infinite time-instants. Present is one time instant. Infinite is with respect to the past and future also and to figuratively prove or establish continuity.
Q.V.40.3 What is the meaning of one time-instant?
A.V.40.3 The normal time taken to move by one matter sub-atom from one space point to another adjacent space point is called time-instant.
Q.V.40.4 Are time instants to an omniscient also visible /cognizable?
A.V.40.4 Yes by the omniscient only and not by any imperfect living beings.
Q.V.40.5 What is the duration of one āvali?
A.V.40.5 It consists of innumerable time-instants.
Q.V.40.6 What is the duration of one breathe (inhale and exhale)?
A.V.40.6 It consists of numerable āvalis.
Q.V.40.7 What is the duration of one stoka?
A.V.40.7 Seven breathes constitute one stoka.
Q.V.40.8 What is the duration of lava?
A.V.40.8 It is seven stokas.
Q.V.40.9 What is the duration of one nādi?
A.V.40.9 It consists of 38.5 lava.
Q.V.40.10 What is an Indian-hour (muhūrta)?
A.V.40.10 It consists of two nādis.
Q.V.40.11 What is the meaning of different durations of intra-Indian-hour (antara-muhūrta).
A.V.40.11 Reducing muhūrta by one time-instant or more time-instants results in antara-muhūrta.
Q.V.40.12 What is the meaning of bhinna- muhūrta.
A.V.40.12 Reducing muhūrta by two time-instants results in bhinna-muhūrta.
Q.V.40.13 What is cognized by time?
A.V.40.13 Day, night, fortnight, month, year, season, era, palyopama, sāgaropama etc are cognized by time.
Dravyāśrayā nirguṇāh ̣ guṇāh
Meaning: Those, which have substance as their substratum and which are not themselves the substratum of other attributes, are qualities/attributes.
Q.V.41.1 What is meant by attribute /quality (guṇa)?
A.V.41.1 Entities which exist in the substances only and not dependent on anything else are called attributes.
Q.V.41.2 What is the difference between substance and attribute?
A.V.41.2 Attributes exist in the substance. So substance is the base /foundation and attributes are what resides on it.
Q.V.41.3 Is this characteristic of attribute found in mode also?
A.V.41.3 No as the attribute exists in the substance all the time while modes keep on leaving and originating in the substance.
Q.V.41.4 Are substance and attribute different or non-different?
A.V.41.4 They are different on the basis of substance being the base and attribute being the permanent occupant of the base. They can be said to be same as attribute is the cause of identity of the substance. So they are both said to be slightly different and slightly non-different also.
Q.V.41.5 How many attribute a substance has?
A.V.41.5 Each substance has infinite attributes.
Q.V.41.6 How many types of attributes are there?
A.V.41.6 There are two types namely generic (sāmanya) and specific (viśesa).
Q.V.41.7 What is meant by generic attributes?
A.V.41.7 The attributes found generally in all substances e.g. existence, substantiality (vastutva), ability to be cognized (cognizability), spatiality (agurulaghutva).
Q.V.41.8 What is meant by specific attribute?
A.V.41.8 The attribute which distinguishes one type of substance from substance types e.g. consciousness; touch /taste/ smell and colour; support motion; support rest; provide place to exist and support change for living beings, matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space and time respectively.
Q.V.41.9 What is the meaning nirguṇā guṇā ̣?
A.V.41.9 Those which have substance as their base and which are not the base of other attributes themselves is the attribute. Thus attribute is said to be without attributes of its own.
Tadbhāvah ̣ pariṇāmah
Meaning: The condition (change) of a substance is ‘mode’.
Q.V.42.1 What is meant by mode (pariṇāma)?
A.V.42.1 A state / condition of the substance (which is continuously changing) at any time time-instant is called mode. Its other name is paryāya.
Q.V.42.2 What is meant by tadbhāva?
A.V.42.2 The existence of a substance to be in its own intrinsic nature is called tadbhāva.
Q.V.42.3 What is meant by mode (pariṇāma)?
A.V.42.3 A specific state / condition of the substance at a time instant is called mode.
Q.V.42.4 How many types of mode are there?
A.V.42.4 It is of two types namely without a beginning and with a beginning. Mode of substance is with a beginning and modes of the generic attributes are without a beginning.