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Chapter 6 Q-A
Influx of karmas
Kāya-vāṃ-manah ̣karma yogah
Meaning: The operation of the body, the organ of speech and the mind is called yoga (activity).
Q.VI.1.1 What is meant by activity (yoga)?
A.VI.1.1 Vibrations caused in the space-points of the soul induced by mind, body and speech is called yoga /activity.
Q.VI.1.2 How many types of yoga are there?
A.VI.1.2 There are three types of yoga differentiated according to the nature of the cause namely; manoyoga (mind activities), vacanayoga (speech activities) and kāyayoga (body activities).
Q.VI.1.3 What is the cause of the vibrations in the space-points of the soul?
A.VI.1.3 The vibrations in the space-points of the soul are caused by the actions /movements of the organs of the mind, speech and body.
Q.VI.1.4 What are the characteristics of the body activities?
A.VI.1.4 Activities of one or more of the seven kinds of molecules (vargaṇās) of the body set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.5 What are the characteristics of the speech activities?
A.VI.1.5 Activities of the molecules composing the organ of speech set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.6 What are the characteristics of the mind activities?
A.VI.1.6 Mind or thought activities are the activities of the molecules that compose mind set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.7 How many types of mind activities are there?
A.VI.1.7 They are of four types, namely right activities of the mind (satyamanoyoga), wrong activities of the mind (asatya manoyoga), activities of the bilateral mind (ubhayamanoyoga) and activities of the neutral mind (anubhayamanoyoga).
Q.VI.1.8 What is meant by right activities of the mind?
A.VI.1.8 Satyamana or right mind is the one which cognizes the right objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called right activities of the mind.
Q.VI.1.9 What is meant by wrong activities of the mind?
A.VI.1.9 Asatyamana or wrong mind is the one which cognizes the wrong objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called wrong activities of the mind.
Q.VI.1.10 What is meant by the activities of the bilateral mind?
A.VI.1.10 Both types of mind existing simultaneously i.e. right and wrong is called ubhayamana. Vibrations of the soul space-points by such a mind are called activities of the bilateral mind.
Q.VI.1.11 What is meant by the activities of the neutral mind?
A.VI.1.11 The mind which is neither correct nor false is called anubhayamana. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called activities of the neutral mind.
Q.VI.1.12 How many types of the speech activities are there?
A.VI.1.12 There are four types of speech activities, namely right activities of the speech (satyavacanayoga), wrong activities of the speech (asatya vacanayoga), activities of the bilateral speech (ubhayavacanayoga) and activities of the neutral speech (anubhayavacanayoga).
Q.VI.1.13 What is meant by right activities of the speech?
A.VI.1.13 Satyavacana or right speech is the one which says/ speaks the right objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called right activities of the speech.
Q.VI.1.14 What is meant by wrong activities of the speech?
A.VI.1.14 Asatyavacana or wrong speech is the one which speaks / says the wrong objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called wrong activities of the speech.
Q.VI.1.15 What is meant by the activities of the bilateral speech?
A.VI.1.15 Both types of speech existing simultaneously i.e. correct and incorrect is called ubhayavacana. Vibrations of the soul space-points by such a mind are called activities of the bilateral speech.
Q.VI.1.16 What is meant by the activities of the neutral speech?
A.VI.1.16 The speech which is neither correct nor false is called anubhayavacana. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called activities of the neutral speech.
Q.VI.1.17 How many types of kāyayoga or activities of the body are there?
A.VI.1.17 It is of seven types namely physical (audārika), physical-mixed (audārika miśra), celestial / protean (vaikriyaka), celestial mixed (vaikriyaka miśra), conveyance (āhāraka), conveyance-mixed (āhāraka miśra) and kārmaṇa.
Q.VI.1.18 What is meant by physical (audārika)?
A.VI.1.18 It means gross or big.
Q.VI.1.19 What is meant by audārika kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.19 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the gross body are called audārika kāyayoga or gross body activities.
Q.VI.1.20 What is meant by audārika miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.20 Before the gross body achieves completions / maturity (paryāpti), the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the gross body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called audārika miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.21 What is meant by vaikriyaka kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.21 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the protean body are called vaikriyaka kāyayoga or gross body activities.
Q.VI.1.22 What is meant by vaikriyaka miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.22 Before the celestial body achieves completions; the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the protean body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called vaikriyaka miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.23 What is meant by āhāraka kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.23 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the conveyance body are called āhāraka kāyayoga or conveyance body activities.
Q.VI.1.24 What is meant by āhāraka miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.24 Before the conveyance body achieves maturity; the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the conveyance body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called āhāraka miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.25 What is meant by kārmaṇa kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.25 Body originated due to the rise of kārmaṇa śarīra body-making karma is called kārmaṇa kāya. Activities of the space-points of the soul caused by the kārmaṇa kāya are called kārmaṇa kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.26 What is the duration of the kārmaṇa kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.26 It varies from a minimum of one to a maximum of three time-instants (samaya).
Q.VI.1.27 When does kārmaṇa kāyayoga exist?
A.VI.1.27 It occurs only during kevalī samudghāta (dispersion of the space-points of the soul all over the universe without leaving the body by the omniscient) as well as during the movement of the empirical soul from old body to the new body (at the time of death).
Q.VI.1.28 How many activities are possible in one time-instant?
A.VI.1.28 Only one type of activity is possible in any one time-instant.
Q.VI.1.29 Which living beings are without any activity?
A.VI.1.29 The omniscient in the 14th stage of spiritual purification is living being and the liberated souls (siddhas) are free from activities.
Q.VI.1.30 What is meant by kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.30 Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the body are called kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.31 What is the maximum duration of the gross body?
A.VI.1.31 The maximum period of existence for a gross body is three pit-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.32 What is the maximum duration of the celestial body?
A.VI.1.32 The maximum period of existence for a celestial body is thirty-three ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.33 What is the maximum duration of the conveyance body?
A.VI.1.33 The maximum period of existence for a conveyance body is inter-Indian-hour (antarmuhurta) i.e. less than 48 minutes.
Q.VI.1.34 What is the maximum duration of the luminous (taijasa) body?
A.VI.1.34 The maximum period of existence for a luminous body is sixty six ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.35 What is the maximum duration of the kārmaṇa body?
A.VI.1.35 The maximum period of existence for a kārmaṇa body is seventy kotā-koti (70* 1014) ocean-measured-periods. However it varies depending of the intensity of the karmas associated.
Meaning: It (vibrations caused by this threefold activity) is influx (āsrava).
Q.VI.2.1 What is meant by influx (āsrava)?
A.VI.2.1 The flow of karma particles, due to activities of mind,body and speech, towards the soul is called influx.
Q.VI.2.2 Why are the activities (yoga) called influx?
A.VI.2.2 Since activities of the mind body and speech are the cause of the inflow of kārmaṇa and nokarma (gross body building) particles to establish a relation with the soul. So activities (yoga) are called influx.
Q.VI.2.3 How does an empirical soul accept the kārmaṇa vargaṇās (matter particles capable of being transformed into karmas)?
A.VI.2.3 When a hot iron ball is thrown in a water stream, it accepts water from all sides. Similarly the empirical soul tainted with passions accepts kārmaṇa vargaṇās inflowing towards it due to the three fold activities.
Q.VI.2.4 Jain preceptors have indicated perverted views, disinterest in the vows, laziness, passions and activities as the causes for bondage of karmas with the soul. Why have we said here activities only as the cause of influx?
A.VI.2.4 All the other four causes are included in the three fold activities and so the author has mentioned here only activities.
Q.VI.2.5 How many classes of karma which get bonded to the soul are there?
A.VI.2.5 Such karmas are said to be of two classes namely merit (punya) and demerit (pāpa).
Q.VI.2.6 How do the meritorious karmas come?
A.VI.2.6 When the soul engages in virtuous activities then the inflow of meritorious karmas take place.
Q.VI.2.7 How do the de-meritorious karmas come?
A.VI.2.7 When the soul engages in evil activities, then the inflow of de-meritorious karmas take place
Śubhah ̣ puṇyasyāśubhah ̣ pāpasya
Meaning: Virtuous activity is the cause of merit (puṇya) and wicked activity is the cause of demerit (pāpā).
Q.VI.3.1 How many types of influx are there?
A.VI.3.1 There are two types of influx namely auspicious (śubha) and inauspicious (aśubha).
Q.VI.3.2 What is inauspicious influx?
A.VI.3.2 Influx which causes inflow of de-meritorious karmas is called inauspicious influx.
Q.VI.3.3 What is auspicious influx?
A.VI.3.3 Influx which causes inflow of meritorious karmas is called auspicious influx.
Q.VI.3.4 What is meant by aśubha mana-vacana kāyayoga (inauspicious activities of mind body and speech)?
A.VI.3.4 Violence and stealing are inauspicious body activities. Not speaking the truth or unpleasant or harsh words which cause misery to others are inauspicious speech activities. Thinking of violence or of jealousy against some one is the inauspicious activity of mind.
Q.VI.3.5 What is meant by merit?
A.VI.3.5 That which purifies the soul or by which the soul is purified is called merit. It also produces happy feelings.
Q.VI.3.6 What is meant by demerit?
A.VI.3.6 That which keeps the soul away from good activities is called demerit. It also produces unhappy feelings.
Q.VI.3.7 How do the activities become auspicious or inauspicious?
A.VI.3.7 Intentions behind activities determine whether an activity is auspicious or inauspicious.
Q.VI.3.8 The cause of influx for the merit karmas (punya) is auspicious /good activities. The cause of influx for the demerit karmas (pāpa) is inauspicious /wicked activities. What is the harm in accepting these statements?
A.VI.3.8 If this is accepted in totality then we will find non-existence of auspicious activities. Scriptures say ‘except the lifespan-determining karma all the seven types of karmas have continuous influx towards the soul. Further the auspicious activities are also the cause of the bondage of knowledge obscuring karma etc at times’. Therefore the above hypothesis cannot be sustained.
Q.VI.3.9 If auspicious activities also cause bondage of obscuring karmas, then why are they called to be the cause of merit karmas?
A.VI.3.9 This statement is in the context of non-obscuring karmas. Merit and demerit are the two types of non- obscuring karmas. The cause of influx for the merit karmas (punya) is auspicious /good activities. The cause of influx for the demerit karmas (pāpa) is inauspicious /wicked activities. Non-obscuring karmas maintain their existence while the influx of merit karmas continues. The obscuring karmas even rise during this period and hence are bonded as well.
Sakasāyākasāyayoh ̣ sāṃparāyikeryāpathayoh ̣
Meaning: (There are two kinds of influx, namely) that of persons with passions, which extends transmigration, and that of persons free from passions, which prevents or shortens it.
Q.VI.4.1 What are the kinds of influx from other viewpoint?
A.VI.4.1 From the viewpoint of the state of the soul; the influx is classified as transmigression-extending or sāmparāyika (in living beings tainted with passions) and transmigression-reduction or īryāpatha (in living beings free from passions).
Q.VI.4.2 What is meant by transmigression- extending / sāmparāyika influx?
A.VI.4.2 The influx which results in transmigression only is called transmigression- extending influx.
Q.VI.4.3 Who acquires transmigression-extending influx?
A.VI.4.3 Living beings tainted with passions and performing activities accrue transmigression- extending influx.
Q.VI.4.4 In which stages of spiritual purity, transmigression- extend influx possible?
A.VI.4.4 It can occur during 1st to 10th stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VI.4.5 What is meant by transmigression-reducing (īryāpatha) influx?
A.VI.4.5 Influx of karmas which are free of their duration (sthiti) and potency (anubhāga) is called transmigression-reducing influx.
Q.VI.4.6 Who acquires transmigression-reducing influx?
A.VI.4.6 Living beings without passions can acquire transmigression-reducing influx.
Q.VI.4.7 In which stages of spiritual purification, transmigression-reducing influx can be acquired?
A.VI.4.7 It can during occur during 11th till 13th stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VI.4.8 What is meant by passion (kasāya)?
A.VI.4.8 Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers is imparted to the cloth; similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.
Q.VI.4.9 What is meant by ‘with passions’ (sakasāya)?
A.VI.4.9 Empirical souls tainted with passions are called sakasāya.
Q.VI.4.10 What is meant by devoid of passion (akasāya)?
A.VI.4.10 Souls in 11th and upwards stages of spiritual purification are called akasāya i.e. souls devoid of don’t removl passions.
Q.VI.4.11 What is the function of passions?
A.VI.4.11 The function of passions is ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul.
Q.VI.4.12 What are the functions of activities (yoga) and passions?
A.VI.4.12 The function of yoga is to invite or initiate the influx of the kārma particles (matter particles capable of becoming karmas) towards the soul. The functions of passions are ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul and it’s ensure the same.
Q.VI.4.13 What is meant by wicked activities?
A.VI.4.13 The strong intentions /desires of enjoying the sensual pleasures are called wicked activities.
Q.VI.4.14 What is meant by meritorious activities resulting in demerit (pāpānubandhi punyakriyā)?
A.VI.4.14 To undertake meritorious activities with the intention of enjoying sensual pleasures in the heaven are the meritorious activities resulting in demerit.
Q.VI.4.15 What is meant by meritorious activities resulting in merit (punyānubandhi punya kriyā)?
A.VI.4.15 To undertake meritorious activities without the intention of enjoying sensual pleasures in the heaven are the meritorious activities resulting in merit. Here all activities are performed only with the intention of achieving liberation.
Q.VI.4.16 What is meant by pure or just activities?
A.VI.4.16 To undertake meritorious activities just for the activities and without any intention (even of liberation) are called pure activities.
Indriya-kasāyāvrata-kriyāh pañca-catuh ̣pañca-pañcaviṃśati-saṃkhyāh ̣ pūrvasya bhedāh ̣
Meaning: The subdivisions of the former (transmigression-extending influx) are the five senses, the four passions, the non-observance of five vows and the twenty-five activities.
Q.VI.5.1 How many types of the transmigression-extending (sāmparāyika) influx are there?
A.VI.5.1 Transmigression extending influx is caused by activities of five sense organs, four passions, five vow-less-nesses and twenty five transmigression-extending activities.
Q.VI.5.2 Which are the five sense organs?
A.VI.5.2 Body (touch), tongue (taste), nose (smell), eyes (see) and ears (hear) is the five sense organs.
Q.VI.5.3 Which are the four passions?
A.VI.5.3 These are anger, pride, deceit and greed.
Q.VI.5.4 Which are the five-vow?
A.VI.5.4 These are violence, falsehood, stealing, non-chastity and possessions which are the opposite of five vows (vratas).
Q.VI.5.5 Which are the twenty five transmigression-extending activities(kriyā)?
A.VI.5.5 There are twenty five transmigression-extending activities, namely: right faith (samyaktva), urges that lead to deluded / wrong faith (mithyātva), evil urges of body (prayoga), neglect of vows (samādāna), walking carefully (īryāpatha), acting in anger (prādosikī), act in an evil way (kāyikī), taking weapons (ādhikaraṇikī), extending misery (pāritāpikī), injuring life-forces (prāṇātipātikī), to see beautiful things (darśana), to have pleasurable touch (sparśana), to explore new sense of enjoyments (prātyayikī), excreting on places frequented by others (samantānupāta), carelessness while lying down (anābhoga), undertaking others’ duties (svahasta), approval of de-meritorious (nisarga), proclaiming other’s sins (vidāraṇa), misinterpretation of scriptures (ajñāvyāpādikī), indifference to observe scriptural commandments (anākāṃksa), indulgence (prārambha), to maintain attachment to worldly objects (pārigrāhikī), deceitful practice (māyā), to promote deluded views beliefs (mithyādarśana), not renounce renounce-able things (apratyākhyāna).
Q.VI.5.6 What is samyaktva kriyā?
A.VI.5.6 Activities like worshipping the true omniscient, scriptures and teachers to strengthen the right faith are called samyaktva kriyā.
Q.VI.5.7 What is mithyātva kriyā?
A.VI.5.7 Activities like worshipping the false omniscient, scriptures and teachers which weaken the right faith are called mithyātva kriyā.
Q.VI.5.8 What is prayoga kriyā?
A.VI.5.8 Body-activities like wandering, movements are called prayoga kriyā.
Q.VI.5.9 What is samādāna kriyā?
A.VI.5.9 Activities which involve developing closeness with non-voters even though observing self-control vows are called samādāna kriyā.
Q.VI.5.10 What is īryāpatha kriyā?
A.VI.5.10 Activities which involve careful walking from one place to another only for an objective are called īryāpatha kriyā.
Q.VI.5.11 What is prādosikī kriyā?
A.VI.5.11 Activities of violence etc performed in anger are called prādosikī kriyā.
Meaning: Influx is differentiated on the basis of intenseness and feebleness of thought-activity, intentional or unintentional nature of action, the substratum (instrument used) and its peculiar potency.
Q.VI.6.1 What is the cause of increase or decrease in the influx?
A.VI.6.1 Influx increases or decreases on the basis of intensity or feebleness of thought activity, intentional or unintentional nature of the activity, substratum and its peculiar potency (vīrya).
Q.VI.6.2 What is meant by intense thoughts?
A.VI.6.2 Intense thoughts are caused by intense anger, pride, etc.
Q.VI.6.3 What is meant by feeble thoughts?
A.VI.6.3 Feeble thoughts are caused by mild anger, pride, etc.
Q.VI.6.4 What is meant by intentional thoughts?
A.VI.6.4 Intentional thoughts are caused by intense intentions (like to kill someone) or done knowingly.
Q.VI.6.5 What is meant by unintentional thoughts?
A.VI.6.5 Unintentional thoughts are caused by activities performed without laziness or pride etc. or done unknowingly.
Q.VI.6.6 What is meant by substratum thoughts?
A.VI.6.6 Substratum thoughts are caused by based on the nature of the subject /substance itself.
Q.VI.6.7 What is meant by peculiar potency thoughts?
A.VI.6.7 Specific potency/ energy level of the subject is called peculiar potency. For example a person with superior most body has more influx than the person with less superior bodies.
Q.VI.6.8 Which are the intense thoughts which cause intense influx?
A.VI.6.8 Anger, attachment, aversion, company of civil and uncivil persons, objects of sense organs caused by external causes such as place, time, etc, passion, vow-less-ness and activities cause intense influx.
Q.VI.6.9 Which are the mild thoughts which cause mild influx?
A.VI.6.9 Mildness in the feelings of attachment and aversion, etc (please see A.VI.6.8) cause mild influx.
Q.VI.6.10 Which are the intentional and unintentional thoughts which increase or decrease influx?
A.VI.6.10 Some persons develop intense thoughts when they know about certain external objects while others develop milder thoughts under similar situations. Unintentional activities develop very mild influx.
Meaning: The living and the non-living constitute the substrata (instruments).
Q.VI.7.1 What is meant by substratum (plural is substrata) (adhikaraṇa)?
A.VI.7.1 The foundation or the basis of an entity is called substratum. It is of two types namely living beings (jīva) and non living beings (ajīva).
Q.VI.7.2 What is meant by living beings substratum?
A.VI.7.2 The influx caused by the living beings or in which the living-beings are the primary cause are called living beings substratum.
Q.VI.7.3 What is meant by non living beings substratum?
A.VI.7.3 The influx in which the non living beings are the primary cause of influx is called non living beings substratum.
Q.VI.7.4 How both living and non living beings can be the cause of influx?
A.VI.7.4 Transmigression is the result of interaction between living and non living beings. Merit and demerit karma are also bonded due to these only. Therefore both living and non living beings are the substrata of influx.
Q.VI.7.5 How many types of living and non living instruments are there?
A.VI.7.5 These are of ten types namely poison, salty, sour, bitter, and acidic, affection, fire, mind / body and speech tainted with wickedness.
Q.VI.7.6 How the living and non-living instruments can be classified?
A.VI.7.6 They can be classed as substance-substrata and mode-substrata.
Q.VI.7.7 What is meant by mode-substrata?
A.VI.7.7 Passions and other thoughts of the living beings and the potency of non-living beings like the sharpness of a sword are mode-substrata.
Meaning: The substratum (instruments of inflow) of the living is of 108 kinds.
Q.VI.8.1 How many types of living beings instruments of inflow are there?
A.VI.8.1 The instruments of influx of the living are of 108 kinds. These are:
• Planning to commit (saṃrambha), preparation for it (samārambha) and commencement (ārambha) of activities:- 3
• Done by self, (krata), extending it done by others (kārita) and approval to other (anumodana) doeis. - 3
• By activities of mind, body and speech. - 3
• Passion (anger, pride, deceit and greed) - 4
Total: 3*3*3*4 - 108
Q.VI.8.2 How many types of non-living beings instruments of influx are there?
A.VI.8.2 The instruments of influx of non-living beings are eleven namely:
• Production (nivartanā) - 2
• Placing /representation (niksepa) - 4
• Combining (saṃyoga) - 2
• Urging (nisarga) - 3
Total : 2*4*2*3 - 48
Q.VI.8.3 What is meant by planning to commit / intention (saṃrambha)?
A.VI.8.3 To firm up the intentions of undertaking an activity is called planning to commit.
Q.VI.8.4 What is meant by preparation for it (samārambha)?
A.VI.8.4 To start collecting appliances and implements to undertake the intended activity is called preparation for it.
Q.VI.8.5 What is meant by commencement (ārambha) of activities?
A.VI.8.5 To start performing the activity intended is called commencement of activity.
Q.VI.8.6 What is meant by ‘doing’ (krata)?
A.VI.8.6 To perform the activity is called “doing’.
Q.VI.8.7 What is meant by extending it done (kārita)?
A.VI.8.7 To get the activity done / performed by others is called extending it done.
Q.VI.8.8 What is meant by approval (anumodana)?
A.VI.8.8 To approve or appreciate the activity performed by others is called approval.
Q.VI.8.9 What is meant by yoga?
A.VI.8.9 Vibrations of the space-points of the soul are called yoga. It is of three types based on the type of causes namely mind, speech and body yoga.
Q.VI.8.10 What is meant by passions? How many types of passion are there?
A.VI.8.10 Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers imparted to the cloth, similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.
Q.VI.8.11 What is meant by viśesa or specific in the aphorism?
A.VI.8.11 Specific here implies the specificity of an object, e.g. specific commitment, specific commencement etc is added to each type of substrata.
Q.VI.8.12 Why are there 108 beads in the rosary (mālā)?
A.VI.8.12 Multiplying the different types of passions (A.VI.8.1) gives 108 subtypes. Empirical souls while living and involved in auspicious or inauspicious activities are invariably associated with one of these passions. To purify from each of these passions and so there are 108 beads in the rosary.
Nirvartanāniksepasaṃyoganisargā dvicaturdvitribhedah ̣ param
Meaning: Production, placing, combining and urging are the substratum of the non-living or non-living instruments of inflow, with two, four, two and three subtypes respectively.
Q.VI.9.1 What is meant by production (nivartanā)?
A.VI.9.1 It means to create, to produce or to make.
Q.VI.9.2 How many types of production are there?
A.VI.9.2 It is mainly of two types namely of primary attributes and of secondary attributes.
Q.VI.9.3 What is meant by production of primary attributes?
A.VI.9.3 Creating or making of body, speech, mind; beathing (inhalation and exhalation) are production of primary attributes.
Q.VI.9.4 What is meant by production of secondary attributes?
A.VI.9.4 Creating or making of articles of wood, stone, clay or pictures etc. is called production of secondary attributes.
Q.VI.9.5 What is meant by placing (niksepa)?
A.VI.9.5 To place /keep articles on floor etc is called placing.
Q.VI.9.6 How many types of placing are there?
A.VI.9.6 Placing is of four types namely quick (sahasā), carelessly (anābhoga), without inspection (apratyveksita) and disinterested (duh ̣pramrsta).
Q.VI.9.7 What is meant placing quickly (sahasā niksepa)?
A.VI.9.7 To place an object quickly on the floor due to fear or urgency to undertake another activity is called quick placing.
Q.VI.9.8 What is meant by placing carelessly (anābhoga niksepa)?
A.VI.9.8 To place an object at any place carelessly (without cleaning the place properly) instead of its proper place, is called careless placing.
Q.VI.9.9 What is meant by placing without inspection /seeing (apratyveksita niksepa)?
A.VI.9.9 To place an object on the floor or at other place without ensuring that the place is clean and free from living beings placing without inspection.
Q.VI.9.10 What is meant by disinterested placing (duh ̣pramrsta niksepa)?
A.VI.9.10 To place an object at its proper place carelessly (without cleaning the place despite seeing its dirtyness) even though there is no urgency to complete the task is called duh ̣pramrsta niksepa.
Q.VI.9.11 What is meant by anābhoga?
A.VI.9.11 To place implements of carefulness (like whisk, water pot, etc) on floor etc without inspecting and re-inspection the place properly is anābhoga.
Q.VI.9.12 What is meant by combining (saṃyoga)?
A.VI.9.12 To combine many objects / materials is called combining (saṃyoga).
Q.VI.9.13 How many types of combining (saṃyoga) are there?
A.VI.9.13 It is of two types, namely combining edible items (bhaktapāna) and combining implements (upakaraṇa).
Q.VI.9.14 What is meant by combining edible items (bhaktapānāsamyoga)?
A.VI.9.14 It is mixing living and non living items as food (e.g. mixing un-boiled and unstrained water with boiled milk or flour etc as food for the ascetics).
Q.VI.9.15 What is meant by combining implements (upakaraṇāsamyoga)?
A.VI.9.15 To wipe cold books /body, water pot etc by warm whisk or to combine hot and cold implements is combining implements. It can also be defined as assembling things together for any act or effect.
Q.VI.9.16 What is meant by ‘urging’ (nisarga)?
A.VI.9.16 Inclination, to act is called ‘urging’ (nisarga).
Q.VI.9.17 How many types of ‘urging’ (nisarga) are there?
A.VI.9.17 It is of three types, namely intention of mind, speech and body.
Q.VI.9.18 What is mental urge (behaviour of mind)?
A.VI.9.18 Wicked behaviour of the mental faculty is called mental urge.
Q.VI.9.19 What is meant by speech urge?
A.VI.9.19 Wicked behaviour of the speech faculty is called speech urge.
Q.VI.9.20 What is meant by body urge?
A.VI.9.20 Wicked behaviour of the body is called body urge.
Q.VI.9.21 Why production (nivartanā) and placing etc are called non-living substrata?
A.VI.9.21 As non-living beings (ajīva) is the basis of creation, of production, placing, combining and urge are the types of influx; these are called as non-living beings substrata.
Meaning: Slander (Spite againt faith and knowledge), concealment, non-imparting of knowledge out of envy, extending impediment to acquisition of knowledge, disregard and disparagement (disregard to the keepers and instruments) of true knowledge lead to the influx of karmas which obscure knowledge and perception.
Q.VI.10.1 What are the causes of influx of knowledge and perception /intuition obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.1 Slander (pradosa), Concealment (nihnava), non-imparting out of jealousy (mātsarya), extending impediments to acquisition (antarāya), disregard (āsādana), disregard to the keepers and instruments (upaghāta) lead to the influx of knowledge and perception obscuring karma.
Q.VI.10.2 What is meant by spite (pradosa) against knowledge?
A.VI.10.2 When someone is giving an exposition of true knowledge for attaining liberation, another is spiteful or resentment in his attitude towards it (him and his exposition) is spite against knowledge (pradosa).
Q.VI.10.3 What is meant by concealment (nihnava) of knowledge?
A.VI.10.3 Not responding to a query i.e. does not reply saying I dont know by a learned person despite knowing fully the answer is concealment of knowledge (nihnava).
Q.VI.10.4 What is meant by non-imparting knowledge out of jealousy (mātsarya)?
A.VI.10.4 Not responding to a query by a learned person i.e. does not reply thinking that the person seeking knowledge will become equal or more than him, is non-imparting knowledge out of jealousy / envy (mātsarya).
Q.VI.10.5 What is meant by extending impediments to acquisition of knowledge (antarāya)?
A.VI.10.5 To cause obstacles in the learning or acquisition of knowledge, to others is ‘extending impediments to acquisition of knowledge’ (antarāya).
Q.VI.10.6 What is meant by disregard of knowledge (āsādana)?
A.VI.10.6 To cause obstacles or to stop the exposition of true knowledge by a learned person (due to disrespect for true knowledge) is ‘disregard of knowledge (āsādana).’
Q.VI.10.7 What is meant by disparagement of true knowledge (upaghāta)?
A.VI.10.7 Blaming or calling false the true knowledge is disparagement of true knowledge (upaghāta)’.
Q.VI.10.8 What is the implication of ‘tat’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.10.8 Knowledge and perception are indicated by the word ‘tat’.
Q.VI.10.9 What are the other causes of the influx of knowledge obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.9 To present knowledge on reality/ basic elements contrary to the meaning implied, disinterest in their exposition, to be lazy in understating the meaning in the aphorism (sutra); to sell religious texts with the intention of making money, to give (thinking himself as all knowing) false exposition of true knowledge, to read the holy texts at improper time, to be in contradiction with true preceptor /teacher and ascetic, not to believe in the true nature of reality, not to contemplate on reality, to cause obstacles in the expositions of the sermons of omniscient, to insult learned persons and to change the texts or methods of the meaning and practice of learning are some other causes for the influx of knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VI.10.10 What are the other causes of influx of perception obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.10 To cause injury to the eyes of other, to sleep for abnormal periods, to sleep during day time, to pick faults /short comings of others, to admire or support false teachers, to develop a feeling of hatred on seeing sky-clad ascetics and to develop atheist feelings are some other causes of influx of perception obscuring karmas.
Duh ̣kha-śoka-tāpākrandana-vadha-paridevanānyātmaparo bhaya-sthānānyasadvedyasya
Meaning: Extending misery, grief, agony, moaning, injury and lamentation in ownself, in others or in both, lead to the influx of karmas which cause unpleasant feeling i.e. attract misery producing karmas.
Q.VI.11.1 What is the cause of unpleasant feeling (asātā vedaniya) karmas?
A.VI.11.1 Misery (duh ̣kha), grief (śoka), agony (tāpa), moaning (ākraṇdana), injury (vadha) lamentation (paridevana), in ownself or in others or in both, lead to the influx of karma extending unpleasant feelings.
Q.VI.11.2 What is meant by suffering (duh ̣kha)?
A.VI.11.2 Feeling of misery is suffering.
Q.VI.11.3 What is meant by sorrow (śoka)?
A.VI.11.3 The feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful objects is sorrow.
Q.VI.11.4 What is meant by agony (tāpa)?
A.VI.11.4 The feeling of distress owing to disgrace is called agony.
Q.VI.11.5 What is meant by crying (ākraṇdana)?
A.VI.11.5 Weeping out loudly out of agony is crying.
Q.VI.11.6 What is meant by injury (vadha)?
A.VI.11.6 Depriving one or many of the life forces (senses, strength or vigour, respiration or lifespan) is called injury.
Q.VI.11.7 What is meant by lamentation (paridevana)?
A.VI.11.7 Crying /weeping out loudly to arouse sympathy /attention or help from others for self or others is called lamentation.
Q.VI.11.8 Who accrues the influx of unpleasant feeling karma?
A.VI.11.8 The one, who becomes unhappy / feeling of misery or makes others so, accrues unpleasant feeling karma.
Q.VI.11.9 How can we justify the activities; like pulling out hair, fasting and standing in the sun and so on and preach others also to do the same; of Jain ascetics?
A.VI.11.9 Since these activities of Jain ascetics are devoid of anger and other passions, therefore these activities do not cause influx of unpleasant feeling karmas. They preach these for the welfare of the others suffering from the miserys of transmigration
Bhūta-vratyanukampā-dāna-sarāgasaṃyamādi-yogah ̣ ksāntih ̣ -śaucamiti sadvedyasya
Meaning: Compassion towards living beings in general and the devout in particular, charity, self-restraint with attachment etc, contemplation of mind, equanimity, purity etc are comes of influx of pleasant feeling karma.
Q.VI.12.1 What are the causes of the influx of pleasant feeling (sātā vedaniya) karmas?
A.VI.12.1 Compassion (anukampā), charity (dāna) towards living beings in general (bhūta) and the devout (vrati) in particular, self-restraint with attachment (sārāgasaṃyama), application / contemplation of mind (yoga), equanimity (ksānti), purity (śauca) are the causes of the influx of the pleasant feeling karmas.
Q.VI.12.2 What is meant by compassion (anukampā) towards living beings in general (bhūta)?
A.VI.12.2 Developing fellow feelings or distress at the sufferings of all other living beings and to consider their suffering as your own is general-compassion.
Q.VI.12.3 What is meant by compassion towards the devout (vrati) in particular?
A.VI.12.3 Developing special feelings or distress at the sufferings of householders practising minor vows (aṇuvratas) and the ascetics practising major vows (mahāvratas) and observing self control and to consider their suffering as own is devout-compassion in particular.
Q.VI.12.4 What is meant by charity (dāna)?
A.VI.12.4 Bestowing gifts or things owned by one self for the benefit of others (living beings in general and the devout in particular) is called charity.
Q.VI.12.5 What is meant by self-restraint with attachment (sārāgasaṃyama)?
A.VI.12.5 To restraint ownself from undesirable activities towards living beings and control own sensual inclinations and refraining from the killing of the six types of living beings though with attachment is called self-restraint with attachment.
Q.VI.12.6 What is meant by application/ contemplation of mind (yoga)?
A.VI.12.6 To observe the above activities i.e. (compassions for both general and devout), charity and self-control with attachment, with full application of mind and completely is yoga. Also yoga is said to be as performing flawless activities, meditation and samādhi with auspicious objectives.
Q.VI.12.7 What is meant by saṃyamāsaṃyama?
A.VI.12.7 Observance of minor vows by a householder with right belief (samyagdrsti) is saṃyamāsaṃyama. It is observation of vows in small measure.
Q.VI.12.8 What is meant by akāmanirjarā?
A.VI.12.8 To tolerate inflictions peacefully and with equanimity under the influence of others even though one is not willing is akāmanirjarā or dissociation with effort. Like sārāgasaṃyama, it is also a cause of pleasant feeling influx.
Q.VI.12.9 What is meant by false austerities (bālatapa)?
A.VI.12.9 To observe austerities without knowledge of spiritual purification (or by one with perverted views) is called false austerities?
Q.VI.12.10 What is meant by equanimity (ksānti)?
A.VI.12.10 Renunciation of anger and other passions and maintaining an attitude of forgiveness is equanimity.
Q.VI.12.11 What is meant by purity (śauca)?
A.VI.12.11 To give up greed is purity.
Q.VI.12.12 What is the implication of the word ‘ādi’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.12.12 It implies restraint cum non-restraint (saṃyamāsaṃyama), involuntary dissociation (akāmanirjarā) and observing austerities with perverted views (bālatapa) also as the causes of pleasant feeling influx.
Q.VI.12.13 What is the implication of the word ‘iti’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.12.13 It implies devotion to the omniscient and reverence to the ascetics.
Q.VI.12.14 What is the difference between compassion and pity (dayā)?
A.VI.12.14 Compassion is observed for the well being of others while pity is observed for self well being.
Meaning: Attributing faults to the omniscient, the scriptures, the congregation of ascetics, the true religion and the celestial beings leads to the influx of faith-deluding karmas.
Q.VI.13.1 What are the causes of faith deluding karmas influx?
A.VI.13.1 Attributing faults to the omniscient (kevalī), the scriptures (śruta), the congregation of ascetics (saṃgha), the true religion (dharma), and the celestial beings (devatā) leads to the influx of faith deluding (darśana mohanīya) karmas.
Q.VI.13.2 What is meant by the omniscient?
A.VI.13.2 The one who has attained perfect / infinite perception and perfect / infinite knowledge is called an omniscient.
Q.VI.13.3 What is meant by the scriptures?
A.VI.13.3 The sermons propounded by an omniscient; heard, memorized and composed as texts by ascetics with special attainments (called gaṇadharas) are called scriptures.
Q.VI.13.4 What is meant by the congregation of ascetics or religious order (saṃgha)?
A.VI.13.4 The group of ascetics endowed with right perception-knowledge-conduct is called congregation (saṃgha).
Q.VI.13.5 What is meant by the true religion (dharma)?
A.VI.13.5 Non violence, non-pride (mārdava) etc known as dasalaksaṇa or the ten indicators of spiritual purification are called dharma.
Q.VI.13.6 What is meant by ‘attributing faults to faultless’ (avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.6 Attributing faults to faultless/ innocent (the ones mentioned in A.VI.13.2 to5) is called avarṇavāda.
Q.VI.13.7 What is meant by finding faults in the omniscient (kevalī avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.7 To say that omniscient eat through the mouth (i.e. kavalāhāri) is kevalī avarṇavāda as the omniscient, due to their attainment of nokarmāhāra (body i.e. capability to extract the nutrients required for the body from the environment).
Q.VI.13.8 What is meant by finding faults in the scriptures (śruta avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.8 To say ‘that to eat meat, to take alcohol, to eat at night, to indulge in sensual pleasures’ are all prescribed in the scriptures is finding faults in the scriptures.
Q.VI.13.9 What is meant by finding faults in the congregation (saṃgha avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.9 To find faults in the nirgrantha monks, nuns, laity, etc who is a part of congregation (and are detached from their body and worldly possessions and things) and say that they are not the real as prescribed in the scriptures is called finding faults in the congregation.
Q.VI.13.10 What is meant by finding faults in true religion (dharmaavarṇavāda)
A.VI.13.10 To denounce, find faults and say harmful for the nation’s cause, the religion based on non violence and as propounded by the omniscient is finding faults in true religion.
Q.VI.13.11 What is meant by finding faults in the celestial beings (devatā avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.11 To call the celestial beings as eaters of meat, consumer of alcohol and enjoying sex with other women is finding faults with the gods and goddesses.
Q.VI.13.12 What is inference of exceptions (apavāda), condemning (nindā) and finding faults in the faultless (avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.12 These are synonymous.
Q.VI.13.13 What happens by finding faultless in an innocent person?
A.VI.13.13 They accrue faith deluding karma influx.
Q.VI.13.14 Who is a bigger defaulter between the one who finds faults and the one who hears the faults of an innocent?
A.VI.13.14 The one who hears and accepts the faults of an innocent is a bigger defaulter than the one who finds faults and so has more potent influx of faith deluding karmas.
Meaning: Intense feelings induced by the rise of the passions cause the influx of the conduct-deluding karmas.
Q.VI.14.1 What is the cause of conduct deluding (cāritra mohanīya) karma?
A.VI.14.1 Intense feelings induced by the rise of the passions cause the influx of conduct deluding karmas.
Q.VI.14.2 What is meant by passions (kasāya)?
A.VI.14.2 Those entities which obscure the fourfold nature (infinite perception, knowledge, energy and happiness) of the soul are called passions.
Q.VI.14.3 How many kinds of conduct deluding karmas are there?
A.VI.14.3 It is of two kinds primarily, namely with passion (kasāya vedanīya) and with quasi passions (akasāya vedanīya).
Q.VI.14.4 What is meant by ‘conduct deluding karmas with passions’?
A.VI.14.4 It implies the entity which makes one feel the miserys induced by the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed).
Q.VI.14.5 What is meant by conduct deluding karmas with quasi-passions (akasāya vedanīya or no-kasāya vedanīya)?
A.VI.14.5 It implies the entity which makes one feel the slight miserys induced by the quasi-passions (jest /laughter, liking for certain objects, dissatisfaction, sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men/ women /neutral sexes).
Q.VI.14.6 What is meant by jest / laughter (hāsya)?
A.VI.14.6 Ridiculing right faith and the true religion, laughing at the distress or misery of others, making jokes at the expense of others, excessive laughter and the rest are meant by laughter.
Q.VI.14.7 What is meant by liking for certain objects (rati)?
A.VI.14.7 Desire for different and strange kinds of pleasures, not relishing the minor vows and other spiritually beneficent activities is called rati.
Q.VI.14.8 What is meant by dissatisfaction (arati)?
A.VI.14.8 Promoting dissatisfaction amongst others, destroying pleasures of others, association with the wicked are the activities implied by arati.
Q.VI.14.9 What is the difference between rati and arati?
A.VI.14.9 Rati implies rest and arati implies restlessness.
Q.VI.14.10 What is meant by sorrow (śoka)?
A.VI.14.10 Plunging others in sorrow or making merry at other’s sorrows is sorrow.
Q.VI.14.11 What is meant by fear (bhaya)?
A.VI.14.11 Frightening ownself or others is fear.
Q.VI.14.12 What is meant by disgust (jugupsā)?
A.VI.14.12 Disgust at ennoble deeds and virtuous conduct of others is disgust.
Q.VI.14.13 What is the cause of female gender feeling/ inclinations (strī veda) karmas?
A.VI.14.13 Speaking what is untrue, playing trick on others, prying into other’s faults or weaknesses, intense attachment etc cause the influx of female gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.14 What is the cause of male gender feeling /inclinations (purūsa veda) karmas?
A.VI.14.14 Slight anger, mildness, contentment with one’s wife etc cause the influx of male gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.15 What is the cause of the neutral gender inclinations (napuṃsaka) karmas?
A.VI.14.15 Great or intense passion, extending injury to concealed parts/ organs, going for pleasure to other’s women etc are the causes of the neutral gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.16 What is the way to escape these deluding (mohanīya) karmas?
A.VI.14.16 To abstain from those inauspicious activities which cause the influx is the way to escape the deluding karmas.
Bahvārambha-parigrahatvaṃ nārakasyāyusah ̣
Meaning: Virulent aggression and extreme possessiveness cause the influx of karma which leads to birth in the infernal regions.
Q.VI.15.1 What is the influx leading to infernal life (narakāyu) karmas?
A.VI.15.1 Excessive infliction of misery (ārambha) and excessive attachment (parigraha) to objects are the causes of influx leading to infernal life karmas.
Q.VI.15.2 What is meant by ārambha?
A.VI.15.2 Activity which causes excessive misery and suffering to other living beings is called ārambha.
Q.VI.15.3 What is meant by parigraha?
A.VI.15.3 Attachment to objects with a feeling that they belong to me is parigraha.
Q.VI.15.4 What are the other causes for the influx of karmas leading to infernal life?
A.VI.15.4 Perpetual cruel activity, appropriating others wealth, infatuation with sensual pleasures, intense pride, intense anger are like a line drawn on a stone rock / black coloration (leśyā) leading to the influx of karmas taking one to life in infernal destiny in the next birth.
Meaning: Deceitfulness causes the influx of life-karma leading to the animal and plant world.
Q.VI.16.1 What is the cause for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryaṃca) life?
A.VI.16.1 Deceitfulness (māyā) is the cause of influx of karmas leading to subhuman life.
Q.VI.16.2 What is meant by māyā?
A.VI.16.2 Deceitful disposition of the soul caused by a particular conduct deluding karma produces the influx of life-karma leading to the birth in sub human world.
Q.VI.16.3 What are the other causes for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryaṃca) life?
A.VI.16.3 The preaching of religion from a perverted attitude, lack of good conduct and propriety, desire for cheating others, blue and grey thought-colourations of the soul, mournful concentration during death which are the varieties of deceitful conduct, are the other causes of influx of karmas leading to sub human life.
Meaning: Slight injury and / or attachment cause the influx of life-karma that leads to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.17.1 What are the causes of influx of karmas leading to human life?
A.VI.17.1 Extending slight injury to others and developing mild attachment are the causes of the influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.17.2 What are the other causes of influx of karma leading to human life?
A.VI.17.2 Gentle disposition, humility; death free from distressful disposition; simple and straight forward indulgence in activities of mind, speech and body; inclination to perform charity and mild passions are the other causes of influx leading to birth in human realm.
Meaning: Being humble by nature (soft hearted nature) also leads to the same influx.
Q.VI.18.1 What is the other primary cause of influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm?
A.VI.18.1 Being of soft hearted nature (simple dispositions) also is the cause of influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.18.2 What is meant by simple disposition or being of soft hearted nature?
A.VI.18.2 Being of soft hearted nature or natural gentleness results in gentle disposition naturally. It cannot be caused by the teaching or instructions of anyone else.
Q.VI.18.3 What is the need to make this as a separate aphorism?
A.VI.18.3 Since natural gentleness also is the cause of influx of karmas leading to heavenly life, it is mentioned here separately also.
Q.VI.18.3 What is the implication of the word ca in the aphorism?
A.VI.18.3 The word ca is used to present a collection of causes for influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm i.e. not just the slight attachment but natural gentleness is also the cause for the same.
Niśśīla-vratatvaṃ ca sarvesām
Meaning: Non-observance of supplementary vows and etc. causes the birth in all the four kinds of beings (realms).
Q.VI.19.1 What is meant by ‘nih ̣śīla-vratatvaṃ ca sarveśām’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.19.1 Lack of observance of the seven supplementary (called śīlavrata) vows which include Deśavirati, etc and the five minor vows (aṇuvratas) are the causes of the influx of karmas leading to birth in all realms.
Q.VI.19.2 What is meant by śīla?
A.VI.19.2 Observance of the three guṇavratas (which intensify the impact of minor vows) and four śiksāvrata (which teach or prepare the householder for monk-hood) along with giving up passions i.e. anger, pride etc is called śīla. In other words, the conduct which intensifies the practitioner of minor vows towards practice of major vows is śīla.
Q.VI.19.3 What is meant by vow (vrata)?
A.VI.19.3 Observing /practising Non-violence, truth speaking, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possession are the five vows.
Q.VI.19.4 What is nih ̣śīlavrata?
A.VI.19.4 It implies the non-observance of the five minor vows and seven supplementary vows.
Q.VI.19.5 What is implied by ca in the aphorism?
A.VI.19.5 It implies that slight injuries, mild attachment, non-observance of minor and supplementary vows are the causes of all influx leading to the birth in all the four realms also.
Q.VI.19.6 Which living beings attain birth as heavenly beings even without observing minor and supplementary vows?
A.VI.19.6 Human beings in paradise (bhogabhūmi) are born in heaven even without the observance of vows.
Q.VI.19.7 Which level of heavens can be attained by men from paradise and subhuman beings?
A.VI.19.7 They can go up to Aīśāna heaven.
Meaning: Self-restraint with attachment, partial-restraint (minor vows), involuntary dissociation of karmas and austerities with perverted faith (of misguided people), lead to birth in heavenly realms.
Q.VI.20.1 What are the causes of influx of karmas leading to birth in the heavens?
A.VI.20.1 Self-restraint with attachment (Sarāga saṃyama), partial-restraint (saṃyamāsaṃyama), involuntary dissociation (akāmanirjarā) and austerities with perverted views (bālatapa) are the causes of influx of karmas leading to birth in the heavenly realms.
Q.VI.20.2 What is meant by self-restraint with attachment?
A.VI.20.2 Practising self restraint /control with attachment is self control with attachment.
Q.VI.20.3 What is meant by partial-restraint?
A.VI.20.3 Giving up violence against mobile living beings and not giving up violence against stationery living beings is partial-restraint.
Q.VI.20.4 What is the characteristic of attachment?
A.VI.20.4 Attachment implies a person /living being that is keen to give up causes of transmigression but has not yet developed detachment in mind.
Q.VI.20.5 What is meant by self-restraint /control?
A.VI.20.5 Giving up inclinations of inauspicious sensual organs is called self-restraint.
Q.VI.20.6 What is meant by involuntary dissociation with effort (akāmanirjarā)?
A.VI.20.6 Dissociation which accrues without the specific objective so doing is involuntary dissociation e.g. enduring thirst, hunger, discipline etc. result in dissociation of karmas also.
Q.VI.20.7 What is meant by austerities with perverted views (bālatapa)?
A.VI.20.7 Observance of austerities by a person with perverted faith (without proper knowledge of reality and true nature of self) is called austerities with perverted views.
Q.VI.20.8 What is literal meaning of bāla and tapa?
A.VI.20.8 Bāla (literarily means child). Here it implies perverted faith. Tapa means Practising conduct which prevents spiritual downfall.
Q.VI.20.9 Observing austerities are the causes of achieving stoppage of influx and dissociation of karmas. Then why is austerities with perverted views the cause of transmigression?
A.VI.20.9 Austerities observed by a person with right faith are the cause of stoppage and dissociation of karmas. Austerities observed by a person with perverted faith are the cause of transmigression.
Meaning: Right belief also (is the cause of influx of life-karma leading to celestial birth).
Q.VI.21.1 Why is ‘samyaktvaṃ ca’ given as a separate aphorism, when self-restraint with attachment and partial-restraint are the causes of influx for heavenly births?
A.VI.21.1 Influx of karmas to a person with right-belief leads to the birth as peripatetic gods only. This is the importance of the aphorism.
Q.VI.21.2 If right-belief is the cause of birth as peripatetic gods, then can living beings observing self-restraint with attachment and partial-restraint achieve birth as residential (bhavanvāsi) gods?
A.VI.21.2 One cannot practise self-restraint with attachment and partial-restraint without right-belief. Hence both are included in right-belief also. So these can be the cause of influx leading to birth as Saudharma-indra etc also.
Q.VI.21.3 Right-belief, self-restraint with attachment and partial-restraint are the causes of dissociation, then why are they said to be as the causes of bondage also?
A.VI.21.3 Right-belief, self-restraint with attachment and partial-restraint are not the causes of any bondage but the traces of attachment found in their practitioners lead to bondage.
Q.VI.21.4 Is influx of lifespan determining karmas similar to influx of other karmas?
A.VI.21.4 Generally the influx of lifespan determining karmas starts in last third part of the present life.
Yogavakratā-visaṃvādanaṃ cāśubhasya nāmnah
Meaning: Crooked activities and deception cause the influx of inauspicious physique-making karmas.
Q.VI.22.1 What is the cause of inauspicious physique /body-making (nāma) karmas?
A.VI.22.1 Crooked activities (of mind, speech and body) and deceiving others are the causes of influx of inauspicious body-making (nāma) karmas.
Q.VI.22.2 What is meant by crooked activities (yogavakratā)?
A.VI.22.2 To imply different meanings /intentions by activities of mind, speech and body is called crooked activity.
Q.VI.22.3 What is meant by deception (visaṃvāda)?
A.VI.22.3 It means to misguide/ mislead a person busy in auspicious activities and encourage him to perform inauspicious activities.
Q.VI.22.4 Vakratā (crookedness) includes visaṃvāda; then why visaṃvāda is mentioned here?
A.VI.22.4 Crookedness is for self while visaṃvāda implied crookedness directed at others. Hence they are mentioned separately also.
Q.VI.22.5 What is the difference between yogavakratā and visaṃvāda?
A.VI.22.5 They are poles apart. Yogavakratā is applying crooked activities on self while visaṃvāda refers to misleading others.
Q.VI.22.6 What is the implication of the word ca in the aphorism?
A.VI.22.6 It points to perverted belief, talking ill of others, fickleness of the mind, deceiving, self praise, etc as the causes of influx of karmas leading to inauspicious physique-making karmas.
Meaning: The opposites of these, namely straightforward activity and honesty or candour cause the influx of auspicious physique-making karmas.
Q.VI.23.1 What is the cause of influx of karmas leading to auspicious physique-making karmas?
A.VI.23.1 The opposite of crooked activities and deceiving i.e. straight forwardness of activities and honesty cause the influx of karmas leading to auspicious physique-making karmas.
Q.VI.23.2 What is meant by simplicity / straight forwardness?
A.VI.23.2 Here simplicity does not imply simple and pure nature of the self /soul but leads to simplicity associated with auspicious psychic state.
Q.VI.23.3 What are the other causes of influx of auspicious physique-making karmas?
A.VI.23.3 To develop friendship with enemies, to bring a perverted person on the right path, right faith, contemplation of the mind etc are the causes of the influx of auspicious physique-making karmas.
Meaning: The influx of tirthaṃkara body-making karma is caused by these sixteen observances, namely purity of right faith, reverence, observance of vows and supplementary vows without transmigressions, ceaseless pursuit of knowledge, perpetual fear of the cycle of existence, giving gifts (charity), Practising austerities according to one’s capacity, removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics, serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering, devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors, preceptors and the scriptures, practice of the six essential daily duties, propagation and display of the religious practices, and fervent affection for one’s brethren follto owing the same path.
Q.VI.24.1 Who is a ford-maker (tīrthaṃkara)?
A.VI.24.1 An omniscient that organizes propagates and preaches the creed (tīrtha) is called fordmaker. He takes the followers from the shores of ignorance to the shores of enlightenment.
Q.VI.24.2 How many auspicious events in life are there of a fordmaker?
A.VI.24.2 They can have two, three or five auspicious events (kalyāṇakas) in their life.
Q.VI.24.3 Who are the ford-makers who have five auspicious events?
A.VI.24.3 The fordmaker who has bondage of the tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma in some previous life become ford-makers with five auspicious events (namely conception, birth, renunciation, attainment of omniscience and liberation).
Q.VI.24.4 Who are the ford-makers who have three auspicious events?
A.VI.24.4 The fordmaker who binds the tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma in the present life as man before becoming ford-maker are with three auspicious events (namely renunciation, attainment of omniscience and liberation).
Q.VI.24.5 Who are the ford-makers who have two auspicious events?
A.VI.24.5 The fordmaker who has bondage of the tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma after renunciation (initiation into monk-hood) in the present life as man before becoming ford-maker are with two auspicious events (namely attainment of omniscience and liberation).
Q.VI.24.6 Where are the fordmaker with 2, 3 or 5 auspicious events born?
A.VI.24.6 In Bharat and Airāvata regions only ford-makers with five auspicious events are born while in Videha region ford-makers with 2, 3 or 5 auspicious events can be born.
Q.VI.24.7 Who are the essential guides /mentors needed for bondage of tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma?
A.VI.24.7 An all scriptures knowing omniscient or one who knows (śrutakevalī) is essential in the region of labour (Karmabhūmi) is essential under whose patronage a person with right belief (subsidence, subsidence um destruction and destruction type) can have tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma bonded.
Q.VI.24.8 What is meant by observances / reflections (bhāvanā)?
A.VI.24.8 Repeated contemplation is called observance (bhāvanā).
Q.VI.24.9 Which are the contemplations necesary to achieve bondage of tīrthaṃkaraprakrati karma?
A.VI.24.9 These are popularly known as Solah Kāraṇa Bhāvanā or sixteen observances /contemplations.
Q.VI.24.10 What is meant by (Darśana viśuddhi bhāvanā) purity of right faith contemplation?
A.VI.24.10 It is the observance of the creed / faith propounded by the omniscient along with eight qualities (limbs of right faith), freedom from the twenty five flaws, and having deep inclination in pursuing the path of spiritual purification.
Q.VI.24.11 What is meant by abundance of reverence (vinaya sampannatā) contemplation?
A.VI.24.11 ‘Abundance of reverence’ is to profusely pay homage to the three jewels (right faith-knowledge-conduct) which lead to liberation, and their practitioners. Reverences should be observed for Faith-knowledge-conduct-practitice (upacāra).
Q.VI.24.12 What is meant by faultless practice of the vows (śīlavratesvanaticāra) contemplation?
A.VI.24.12 Faultless observance of the five vows of non injury, etc (vratas), the supplementary vows such as giving up passions like anger, etc which safeguard (śīlavratas) the five vows and which constitute freedom from transmigression is faultless practice of the vows (śīlavrates vanaticāra).
Q.VI.24.13 What is meant by constant contemplation of knowledge (abhīksaṇa jñānopayoga)?
A.VI.24.13 Incessant cultivation of knowledge of the soul and the other categories is contemplation of right knowledge. It can also be defined as continuous contemplation of knowledge and its manifestation.
Q.VI.24.14 What is meant by contemplation perpetual fear of transmigression (saṃvega)?
A.VI.24.14 To develop detachment from the pleasures of the sensual organs and perpetual fear of transmigression and to enhance the inclinations towards spirituality is called saṃvega.
Q.VI.24.15 What is meant by contemplation of giving gifts or charity (śaktitastyāga)?
A.VI.24.15 Without hiding one’s capacity to give, to give appropriate charity of the four kinds is śaktitastyāga.
Q.VI.24.16 What is meant by contemplation of Practising austerities (śaktitasyatapa)?
A.VI.24.16 Austerity is voluntary dissociation with the body in conformity with the scriptures and one’s capacity. To observe appropriate austerities like fasting, etc of twelve kinds, etc is called śaktitasyatapa.
Q.VI.24.17 What is meant by contemplation of removal of obstacles that threaten equanimity of ascetics (sādhu samādhi)?
A.VI.24.17 To remove the obstacles faced by the monk /ascetics in observing equanimity and the vows is sādhu samādhi.
Q.VI.24.18 What is meant by contemplation of serving the meritorious (vaiyāvratyakaraṇa)?
A.VI.24.18 To ward off the sickness of a sick ascetic or meritorious person and to help the meritorious persons is vaiyāvratyakaraṇa.
Q.VI.24.19 What is meant by devotion to omniscient lords (arihantabhakti)?
A.VI.24.19 It is the worship of omniscient lords and their attributes namely omniscience, detachment, delivering beneficial sermons. It also includes contemplation of the ten attributes of their birth and omniscience each, fourteen auspicious events performed by gods, eight auspicious objects (prātihārya), and four infinites (intuition, knowledge, energy and bliss) for a total of 46 virtues of the omniscient.
Q.VI.24.20 What is meant by contemplation of devotion to the chief preceptors and preceptors (ācārya bhakti)?
A.VI.24.20 Devotion to the chief preceptors and preceptors and their 36 virtues namely twelve austerities, ten characteristics of religion (dasa dharma), six essential duties (āvaśyakas), five types of conduct (pancācāra), three restraints (guptis) is ācārya bhakti.
Q.VI.24.21 What is meant by contemplation of devotion to the scripturers (bahuśruta bhakti)?
A.VI.24.21 Devotion to the scripturers’ engaged in learning and teaching of the eleven folds, fourteen members and four faculties based on the sermons of the omniscient is bahuśruta bhakti.
Q.VI.24.22 What is meant by contemplation of the sermons of the omniscient or the creed (pracavacana bhakti)?
A.VI.24.22 With dedication, to study repeatedly the scriptures based on the sermons of omniscient lords at appropriate time and to hear the sermons on the same and to teach others is pracavacana bhakti.
Q.VI.24.23 What is meant by contemplation of practice of essential daily duties (āvaśyaka parihāṇi)?
A.VI.24.23 Duties whose daily performance is essential are called āvaśyaka. For the ascetics these are sāmāyika, stavana, vandanā, pratikramaṇa, pratyākhāna and kāyotsarga. To practice these daily is called āvaśyaka parihāṇi.
Q.VI.24.24 What is meant by contemplation of the propagation of the creed (mārga prabhāvanā)?
A.VI.24.24 The propagation of the creed means to practice the three jewels (right belief-knowledge-conduct), to observe as per the time and capability austerities, charity, worships etc and then to propagate them by teaching others and aencouraging them to appriaite and practice them.
Q.VI.24.25 What is meant by contemplation of the affection for the brethren following the same path /creed (pravacana vātsalya)?
A.VI.24.25 Like the cow feels happy and show affection to her calf, similarly to feel happy and show affection to fellow brethren practising the same creed is pravacana vātsalya. It also includes affection in the holy omniscient-scriptures- teacher monks’ etc, laymen observing the five vows, monks practising the five major vows etc, and are deliverers of sermons.
Parātma-nindā-praśaṃse sadasadguṇocchādanodbhāvane ca nīcairgotrasya
Meaning: Censuring others and praising ownself, Condemning good qualities present in others and proclaiming un-noble qualities present in ownself, cause the influx of the low status karma.
Q.VI.25.1 What is the cause of the birth in low status family?
A.VI.25.1 Condemning others and praising own self, condemning good qualities of others and projecting un-noble qualities in ownself cause the influx of karmas which lead to birth in low status family.
Q.VI.25.2 What is the difference between condemning (nindā) and condemning of other’s (para-nindā)?
A.VI.25.2 Nindā means condemning the deeds whether good or bad while para-nindā means condemning other, be they right or wrong.
Q.VI.25.3 What is meant by praise?
A.VI.25.3 It means to praise / project the virtues regardless of their presence or not in ownself.
Q.VI.25.4 What is meant by self-praise?
A.VI.25.4 It means to praise your own qualities and attributes.
Q.VI.25.5 What is meant by sadguṇocchādana?
A.VI.25.5 It implies ‘not to praise the virtues of others even though those virtues are present in them’.
Q.VI.25.6 What is asadguṇodbhāvana?
A.VI.25.6 It implies ‘to praise own attributes even though they are not good one’.
Q.VI.25.7 Who have the low status families?
A.VI.25.7 Living beings in all realms namely heavenly, hellish, and human and subhuman have low status families. Low family status implies lower status in the same species of one realm only.
Tadviparyayo nīcairvrttyanutsekau cottarasya
Meaning: The opposites of those mentioned in the previous sutra, humanity and modesty cause the influx of karmas which determine high status.
Q.VI.26.1 What is the cause of birth in high status family?
A.VI.26.1 To praise others and to bring forth own faults; modesty and humility are the causes of the influx of karmas leading to birth in high status family.
Q.VI.26.2 What is implied by tadviparyaya in the aphorism?
A.VI.26.2 The word tad in the beginning means that (refer to low status in the previous aphorism) and viprayaya means opposite; so it means opposite of that / those in the previous aphorism. It can thus imply as proclaiming the good qualities of others and not proclaiming own good qualities.
Q.VI.26.3 What is meant by humility (nicairvrtti)?
A.VI.26.3 Veneration of, or humility for the virtuous is nicairvrtti or namravrtti.
Q.VI.26.4 What is meant by modesty (anutseka)?
A.VI.26.4 To be free from pride in spite of being great in knowledge and so on is anutseka.
Meaning: Putting obstruction in charity, etc is the cause of the influx of obstructive karmas.
Q.VI.27.1 What is the cause of influx of karmas leading to the obstructing karmas (antarāya)?
A.VI.27.1 Laying an obstacle in the activities related to charity, gain, enjoyment, energy of others lead to the influx of obstructing karmas.
Q.VI.27.2 What is the difference between obstacle and extending obstacles?
A.VI.27.2 To cause obstacles in attainment of others is extending obstacles. Obstacle means to put an opposing entity in attainment of an objective.
Q.VI.27.3 What is meant by obstacle (antarāya)?
A.VI.27.3 The obstacle between the donor and the recipient is called antarāya.
Q.VI.27.4 What is the cause of influx of charity-obstructing (dānāntarāya) karma?
A.VI.27.4 To create an obstacle in the charitable disposition of someone is the cause of influx of charity-obstructing karma.
Q.VI.27.5 What is the cause of influx of gain – obstructing (lābhāntarāya) karma?
A.VI.27.5 To create an obstacle in the accrual of gain of someone is the cause of influx of gain-obstructing karma.
Q.VI.27.6 What is the cause of influx of enjoyment-obstructing(bhogāntarāya) karma?
A.VI.27.6 To create an obstacle in the enjoyment of someone is the cause of influx of enjoyment-obstructing karma.
Q.VI.27.7 What is the cause of influx of repeated-enjoyment-obstructing (upabhoāntarāya) karma?
A.VI.27.7 To create an obstacle in the repeated enjoyment of someone is the cause of influx of repeated enjoyment-obstructing karma.
Q.VI.27.8 What is the cause of influx of work or energy-obstructing (vīryāntarāya) karma?
A.VI.27.8 To create an obstacle in the work or energy of someone is the cause of influx of energy-obstructing karma.