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Chapter 7 Q-A
The Five Vows
- 1 Hiṃsā(a)nr ta-steyābrahma-parigrahebhyo viratirvratam
- 2 Deśa-sarvato(a)ṇu-mahatī
- 3 Tatsthairyārthaṃ bhāvanāh ̣ pañca-pañca
- 4 Vāṃ-mano-guptīryādānaniks epaṇa-samityālokitapāna-bhojanāni pañca
- 5 Krodha-lobha-bhīrutva-hāsya-pratyākhyanānyanuvīcibhās aṇāmca pañca
- 6 Śūnyāgāra-vimocitāvāsa-paroparodhākaraṇ-abhaiks aśuddhi sadharmāvisaṃvādāh ̣ pañca
- 7 Strīrāgakathāśravaṇa-tanmanoharānganirīks aṇa-pūrvaratānusmaraṇa-vrs yest arasa-svaśarīrasaṃskratyāgāh ̣pañca
- 8 Manojñāmaṇojñendriyavis aya-rāga-dves a-varjanāni pañca
- 9 Hiṃsādis vihāmutrāpāyāvadyadarśanam
- 10 Duh ̣kameva vā
- 11 Maitrī-pramoda-kāruṇya-mādhyasthāni ca sattva-guṇādhika-kliśyamānāvineyes u
- 12 Jagatkāyasvabhāvau vā saṃvegavairāgyārtham
- 13 Pramattayogātprāṇa-vyaparopaṇaṃ himsā
- 14 Asadabhidhānamanr tam
- 15 Adattādānaṃ steyam
- 16 Maithunamabrahma
- 17 Mūrcchā parigrahah ̣
- 18 Niśśalyoo vratī
- 19 Agāryanagāraśca
- 20 Aṇuvratoagārī
- 21 Digdeśānarthadaṇdavirati-sāmāyika-pros adhopavāsopabhoga-paribhoga-parimāṇātithisamvibhāgavrata-saṃpannaśca
- 22 Māraṇāntikīṃ sallekhanāṃ jositā
- 23 Śaṃkākāṃksā-vicikitsā-anyadrstpraśaṃsā-saṃstavāh ̣ samyagdsteratīcārāh
- 24 Vrataśīlesu pañca pañca yathākramam
- 25 Bandha-vadhacchedātībhārāropaṇānnapānanirodhāh
- 26 Mithyopadeśa-rahobhyākhyāna-kūtalekhakriyā-nyāsāpahāra-sākāra-mantrabhedāh
- 27 Stenaprayoga-tadāhrtādāna-viruddharājyātikrama-hīnādhikamānonmāna-pratirūpakavyavahārāh
- 28 Paravivāhakaraṇetvarikā-parigrhītāparigrhītā-gamānānaṃgakrīdā kāmatīvrābhinivśāh
- 29 Ksetra-vāstu-hiraṇya-suvarṇa-dhana-dhānya-dāsī-dāsa-kupya-bhānda pramāṇātikramāh ̣
- 30 Urdhvādhastiryagvyatikrama-ksetravrddhi-smrtyantarādhānānī
- 31 Ānayana-presyaprayoga-śabdarūpānupāta-pudgalaksepāh ̣
- 32 Kandarpa-kautkucya-maukharyāsamīksyādhikaraṇopabhoga-paribhogānarthakyāni
- 33 Yoga-duspraṇidhānānādara-smrtyanupasthānāni
- 34 Apratyaveksitāpramārjitotsargādāna-saṃstaropakramaṇānādara-smrtyanupasthānāni
- 35 Sacitta-sambandha-sammiśrābhisava-duhpakvāhārāh
- 36 Sacittaniksepāpidhāna-paravyapadeśa-mātsarya-kālātikramāh
- 37 Jīvitamaraṇāśamsā-mitrānurāga-sukhānubandha-nidānāni
- 38 Anugrahārthaṃ svasyātisargo dānam
- 39 Vidhi-dravya-dātr-pātra-vīśesāttadviśesah
Hiṃsā(a)nr ta-steyābrahma-parigrahebhyo viratirvratam
Meaning: Desisting from injury, falsehood, stealing, un-chastity and attachment is the (fivefold) vow.
Q.VII.1.1 What is meant by violence (hiṃsā)?
A.VII.1.1 Severance of vitalities (prāṇas) of self or others is violence.
Q.VII.1.2 What is meant by untruth (asatya)?
A.VII.1.2 What is not true is untruth.
Q.VII.1.3 What is meant by stealing (cori)?
A.VII.1.3 To take things which are not voluntarily given by others is stealing.
Q.VII.1.4 What is meant by un-chastity (abr hma)?
A.VII.1.4 Disposition with lust is un-chastity.
Q.VII.1.5 What is meant by possessions (parigraha)?
A.VII.1.5 To acquire from all directions is possession. It also means having a feeling of mine in others objects.
Q.VII.1.6 What is meant by vow (vrata)?
A.VII.1.6 Abstinence from injury, falsehood, stealing, un-chastity and attachment is called vow.
Q.VII.1.7 Why is ahiṃsā (non-violence/ injury) kept as the first vow out of the five vows?
A.VII.1.7 Non-violence is mentioned first as it is the primary or most important vow. Just as the surrounding fence protects the cereals in the field, similarly non-violence safeguards the truth etc.
Q.VII.1.8 Vows are a cause of stoppage of influx (as they are included in the ten kinds of moral virtues ‘dasa laks aṇa’). Why are they mentioned here as the cause of influx here?
A.VII.1.8 There is no contradiction in mentioning vows at both places. Vows are the causes of stoppage (or abstinence) in nature. Stoppage of influx itself is ‘giving-up of worldly pursuits’ by nature. Vows are accepted for observance after giving up sins like violence etc. Indulgence in the sins is the cause of influx and so they are mentioned here as cause of influx also.
Q.VII.1.9 What is the purpose of describing these vows by the preceptors?
A.VII.1.9 The purpose is to describe the path of spiritual purification so that the living beings can attain liberation from the cycle of transmigression. Liberation is free from both abstinence and indulgence and is the eternal existence in the nature of the self. Vows here are described more for indulgence in auspicious activities rather than abstinence in nature.
Q.VII.1.10 Why is the sixth vow as abstinence from eating at night not included for the ascetics here?
A.VII.1.10 Not eating the food at night is included in the first vow of non-violence as the practice of examining the food before eating.
Q.VII.1.11 What is meant by the contemplation of ālokitapāna?
A.VII.1.11 It means that proper examination of food (to ensure its suitability for consumption) at night is not possible due to low light and excessive existence of mobile living beings at night. Therefore contemplating on these facts makes one give up eating at night
Q.VII.1.12 What are the benefits of not eating at night?
A.VII.1.12 There are several benefits from not eating at night e.g. staying healthy, giving rest to the digestive system, increase in the mental and body efficiency for performing duties, having sound sleep and help in observance of chastity.
Meaning: (The vows are of two kinds), minor and major as per their being partial and complete.
Q.VII.2.1 What is meant by minor vows (aṇuvrata)?
A.VII.2.1 Partial abstinence from the five sins is called minor vows.
Q.VII.2.2 Why is meant by major vows (mahāvrata)?
A.VII.2.2 Total abstinence from the five sins for ever is called major vows.
Q.VII.2.3 What is meant by deśa and sarva in the aphorism?
A.VII.2.3 Deśa implies partial Matter wise, area wise, time wise while Sarva implies total or complete.
Q.VII.2.4 What is meant by aṇu and mahat in the aphorism?
A.VII.2.4 Minor is implied by aṇu while major is implied by mahat.
Q.VII.2.5 How many types of vows are there?
A.VII.2.5 There are two types of vows namely minor and major.
Q.VII.2.6 How many types of minor vows are there?
A.VII.2.6 There are five types of minor vows namely non-violence (ahiṃsāṇuvrata), speaking the truth (satyāṇuvrata), non-stealing (acauryāṇuvrata), celibacy (br hmacaryāṇuvrata) and non-possession (aparigrahāṇuvrata).
Q.VII.2.7 How many types of major vows are there?
A.VII.2.7 There are five types of major vows namely non-violence (ahiṃsāmahāvrata), speaking the truth (satyamahāvrata), non stealing (acauryamahāvrata), celibacy (br hmacaryamahāvrata) and non-possession (aparigrahmahāvrata).
Q.VII.2.8 Who observes minor and major vows?
A.VII.2.8 Minor vows are observed by laity/householders. Major vows are observed by monks/ascetics. When observed by nuns/ female ascetics they are also considered as major vows.
Q.VII.2.9 Why the vows observed by ascetics are called major vows?
A.VII.2.9 Major Vows are supreme and essential for observance to attain liberation from transmigression. They had been earlier observed by ford-makers, great preceptors, their primary disciples etc, also. Therefore the vows practiced by ascetics are called major vows.
Q.VII.2.10 What are the benefits of observing the vows?
A.VII.2.10 Observance of the major vows by religious people (ascetics) results in the end of transmigression while their partial observance by laity results in merit and auspicious state of the soul.
Tatsthairyārthaṃ bhāvanāh ̣ pañca-pañca
Meaning: To strengthen the vows and make them more effective and stable, there are five observances for each of these.
Q.VII.3.1 What strengthens the practice of vows?
A.VII.3.1 To strengthen the practice of vow, the five observances / contemplations of each of the five vows are to be ascertained.
Vāṃ-mano-guptīryādānaniks epaṇa-samityālokitapāna-bhojanāni pañca
Meaning: Control of speech, control of thought regulation of movement, care in lifting and putting things /own body objects and examining, food and drinks are five.
Q.VII.4.1 What are the contemplations of the vow of non-violence?
A.VII.4.1 The two attitudes of restraint (gupti) namely of speech and mind, the three attitudes of carefulness (samiti) namely regulation of movement (īryāsamiti), care in lifting and putting thing (ādāna-niks epa) and examining food and drinks (ālokitapāna) are the five contemplations of the vow of non-violence.
Q.VII.4.2 What is meant by attitude of restraint of speech (vacanagupti)?
A.VII.4.2 To observe restraint from speaking and observing silence is attitude of restraint of speech.
Q.VII.4.3 What is meant by attitude of restraint of mind (manogupti)?
A.VII.4.3 To indulge mental activities in auspicious activities by restraining it from inauspicious activities is attitude of restraint of mind.
Q.VII.4.4 What is meant by regulation of movement (īryāsamiti)?
A.VII.4.4 To walk carefully by cautiously looking four hands ahead so as to avoid injury to others is regulation of movement.
Q.VII.4.5 What is meant by care in lifting and putting (ādāna niks epa)?
A.VII.4.5 To be careful so as to avoid injury to others (small creatures) while lifting and putting implements of self-restraint like whisk, water pot, books and other things is called lifting and putting regulation.
Q.VII.4.6 What is meant by examining food and drinkables (ālokitapāna)?
A.VII.4.6 Examining the food and drinks before consuming them so as to avoid injury to others (small creatures) and self is called examining regulation..
Q.VII.4.7 Why has the attitude of restraint in speech given a place in the contemplations on non-violence?
A.VII.4.7 Violence is not just committed by body. Wicked tendencies of the speech are also cause of serious violence. Wounds caused due to speech can never be cured. Thus a person Practising restraint of speech stops violence by speech and hence it is placed as one of the contemplations of non-violence.
Q.VII.4.8 Why has the restraint of the mind given a place in the contemplations on non-violence?
A.VII.4.8 The empirical souls suffer more from mental agony than from bodily miserys. Miserys and pleasures of empirical souls are influenced by their karmas but they uselessly commit psychic violence by thinking ill of others. To safeguard ourselves from this psychic violence this attitude of restraint of mind is placed as contemplation of non-violence.
Q.VII.4.9 What is the relationship of ‘regulation of movement’ and ‘care in lifting and putting thing’ with vow of non-violence?
A.VII.4.9 To safeguard against physical violence, these two have been associated with the vow of non-violence.
Q.VII.4.10 Why is ‘examining eatables and drinkables one of the five contemplations of the vow of non-violence?
A.VII.4.10 To cook or consume food at night involves both psychic and physical violence. Therefore ‘examining food and drinks’ has been included as one of the five contemplations of the vow of non-violence.
Q.VII.4.11 What is the benefit of the five contemplations of non-violence vow?
A.VII.4.11 They cause purification of the psychical thoughts and result in innumerably faster dissociation of karmas.
Krodha-lobha-bhīrutva-hāsya-pratyākhyanānyanuvīcibhās aṇāmca pañca
Meaning: Giving up anger, greed, cowardice or fearfulness and jest, and speaking harmless words are five.
Q.VII.5.1 What is meant by pratyākhāna in the aphorism?
A.VII.5.1 It means ‘to give up’ or to confess and forgiveness.
Q.VII.5.2 Which are the five contemplations of the vow of truthfulness?
A.VII.5.2 The five contemplations of the vow of truthfulness are to give-up anger (krodha), greed (lobha), cowardice or fearfulness (bhīrutva), jest(hāsya) and speaking harmless words (anuvīcī).
Q.VII.5.3 What is meant by ‘krodha pratyākhāna (to give-up anger)’?
A.VII.5.3 It simply means giving up anger.
Q.VII.5.4 What is meant by ‘lobha pratyākhāna (to give-up greed)’?
A.VII.5.4 It simply means to give up greed.
Q.VII.5.5 What is meant by ‘bhirūtva pratyākhāna (to give-up cowardice or fearfulness)’?
A.VII.5.5 It simply means to give up fearfulness or thoughts/acts of cowardice.
Q.VII.5.6 What is meant by jest (hāsya pratyākhāna)?
A.VII.5.6 It means to give up laughter or cutting jokes.
Q.VII.5.7 What is meant by speaking harmless words (anuvīcī bhāsaṇa)?
A.VII.5.7 It means to speak harmless words and as per the scriptures.
Q.VII.5.8 Why are one contemplation positive and the other four negative in nature?
A.VII.5.8 Anger, greed, jest, fear are to be given up while speaking harmless words as per the scriptures is to be practised. Hence four contemplations are negative and one positive in nature.
Q.VII.5.9 How are anger, greed and fear related to the vow of truthfulness?
A.VII.5.9 Generally people speak lies under the influence of either anger, greed, fear or for fun. Therefore these contemplations are associated with the vow of truthfulness.
Śūnyāgāra-vimocitāvāsa-paroparodhākaraṇ-abhaiks aśuddhi sadharmāvisaṃvādāh ̣ pañca
Meaning: Residence in a secluded place, residence in a deserted habitation, not obstructing access to others, pure food and not quarrelling with fellow monks about articles of common use, are five.
Q.VII.6.1 What are the five observances of the vow of non-stealing?
A.VII.6.1 The five observances of the vow of non-stealing are: residence in unoccupied place (śūnyāgāravāsa), residence in a deserted place (vimocitāvāsa), not obstructing access to others (paroparodhākaraṇa), pure food (bhaiks yaśuddhi) and not quarrelling with fellow ascetics about articles of common use (sadharma avisaṃvāda).
Q.VII.6.2 What is meant by stay in a secluded place (śūnyāgāravāsa)?
A.VII.6.2 It means to live in unoccupied places like caves, hills and hollow of a tree. To stay in such places does not cause the sin of stealing to be accrued.
Q.VII.6.3 What is meant by stay in a deserted secluded place (vimocitāvāsa)?
A.VII.6.3 It means to live in places deserted by others. Such places have no owners and so to stay in such places does not cause the sin of stealing to be accrued.
Q.VII.6.4 What is meant by not obstructing access to others (paroparodhākaraṇa)?
A.VII.6.4 It means not obstructing access to others to places where others are living. If someone causes hindrance, then it becomes the flaw of stealing as it means to develop a feeling of right on the place.
Q.VII.6.5 What is meant by seeking clean food (bhaiks yaśuddhi)?
A.VII.6.5 To beg apms as indicated in the scriptures, and not hides its flaws. To eat tasty food more than own share /need also is flaw of stealing.
Q.VII.6.6 What is meant by not quarreling with fellow ascetics (sadharma avisaṃvāda)?
A.VII.6.6 It means not to argue with fellow monks for articles of common use, like ‘it is mine, it is yours, etc’.
Q.VII.6.7 What is the benefit of observing these five observances?
A.VII.6.7 Observing these make free from developing a feeling of mine and strengthens the vow of non-stealing
Strīrāgakathāśravaṇa-tanmanoharānganirīks aṇa-pūrvaratānusmaraṇa-vrs yest arasa-svaśarīrasaṃskratyāgāh ̣pañca
Meaning: To give up listening to stories extending attachment for women, looking at sexually arousing parts of the bodies of women, recalling past sexual pleasures, stimulating and delicious food and drinks, and adornment of the body. These are the five observances of the vow of celibery.
Q.VII.7.1 What are the five observances of the vow of celibacy?
A.VII.7.1 The five observances of the vow of celibacy are: to give up listening to stories extending attachment for women (stri-rāga-kathā- śravaṇa-tyāga), to give up looking at sexually arousing parts of the bodies of women (tanmanohāranga-niriks aṇa-tyāga), to give up recalling past sexual pleasures (pūrvaratānusmaraṇa-tyāga), to give up stimulating and delicious food and drinks (vrs yes t a-rasa-tyāga) and to avoid adornment of own body (svaśarira-saṃskāra-tyāga).
Q.VII.7.2 What is meant by to give up listening to stories of attachment for women?
A.VII.7.2 It means to give up listening, reading and narrating stories related to attachment with women.
Q.VII.7.3 What is meant by looking at sexually arousing parts of the bodies of women?
A.VII.7.3 It means to give up looking at body parts such as eyes, lips, breast, hips, etc of the women. It also includes not looking at them with interest so as to minimize the development of lustful feelings.
Q.VII.7.4 What is meant by recalling past sexual pleasures?
A.VII.7.4 To give up recalling of past sexual pleasures as such actions enhance desire for more such occurrences.
Q.VII.7.5 What is meant by giving up stimulating and delicious food and drinks?
A.VII.7.5 To give up spicy-tasty-sweet foods which are stimulating in nature as their consumption enhances sexual feelings.
Q.VII.7.6 What is meant by to avoid adornment of the body?
A.VII.7.6 Giving up adornment of own body (with scents / oils /powder/ creams) etc so as not to attract attention of others towards ownself.
Q.VII.7.7 What is the benefit of these five observances?
A.VII.7.7 These observances firms up the practice of the vow of celibacy.
Q.VII.7.8 What happens if these five activities are not given up?
A.VII.7.8 If these observances are not practiced then the possibility of enhancing wicked mentality increases significantly.
Q.VII.7.9 What are the other activities which cause flaws in the observance of the vow of celibacy?
A.VII.7.9 In modern times, activities like watching erotic movies, TV serials or listening to such songs, reading such novels and to wear dresses which display the body parts are some of the other activities which cause flaws in the observance of the vow of celibacy.
Manojñāmaṇojñendriyavis aya-rāga-dves a-varjanāni pañca
Meaning: Giving up attachment and aversion for agreeable and disagreeable objects of the five senses constitutes five, observance of the vow of non-possession.
Q.VII.8.1 What is meant by agreeable (manojña)?
A.VII.8.1 It means something which is pleasant to the sensual experiences.
Q.VII.8.2 What is meant by disagreeable (amanojña)?
A.VII.8.2 It means something which is unpleasant to the sensual experiences.
Q.VII.8.3 What is to be done to safeguard the vow of non-possession?
A.VII.8.3 Not to develop attachment with the objects (with 8 touches, two smells, five tastes, five colours and seven musical notes) which are pleasant to the senses or not to develop aversion with such objects which are unpleasant to senses enhances safeguards of the vow of non-possession.
Q.VII.8.4 What are the five observances of the vow of non-possession?
A.VII.8.4 The five observances of the vow of non-possession are: giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable touch (manojñāmanojña-sparśa-rāga-dves a-tyāga), giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable taste (manojñāmanojña-rasa-rāga-dves a-tyāga), giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable smell (manojñāmanojña-gaṃdha-rāga-dves a-tyāga), giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable colour (manojñāmanojña-varṇa-rāga-dves a-tyāga), and giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable sound (manojñāmanojña-śabda-rāga-dves a-tyāga).
Q.VII.8.5 What is meant by giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable touch?
A.VII.8.5 It means observances to give up development of attachment or aversion towards the subjects of the touch sense organ. The subjects of the sense organ are oily, dry, hard, soft, hot, cold, light and heavy.
Q.VII.8.6 What is meant by giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable taste?
A.VII.8.6 It means observances to give up the development of attachment and aversion towards the subjects of taste sense organs. The subjects of taste organ are objects which are sour, sweet, bitter, pungent or spicy in taste.
Q.VII.8.7 What is meant by giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable smell?
A.VII.8.7 It means observances to give up the development of attachment and aversion towards the subjects of smell sense organs. The subjects of smell organ are pleasant and unpleasant smells.
Q.VII.8.8 What is meant by giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable colour?
A.VII.8.8 It means observances to give up the development of attachment and aversion towards the subjects of seeing sense organs (eyes). The subjects of eye are the five colours namely white, black, blue, yellow and red.
Q.VII.8.9 What is meant by giving up attachment and aversion towards agreeable and disagreeable sound?
A.VII.8.9 It means observances to give up the development of attachment and aversion towards the subjects of hearing sense organs (ears). The subjects of ears are sweet and harsh sounds.
Q.VII.8.10 What are the benefits of these five observances of the vow of non-possession?
A.VII.8.10 Infatuation towards possessions is eliminated and the practice of the vow of non-possession becomes easier.
Meaning: The observer of the vows should contemplate the consequences of violence etc. are calamity and reproach in this life and in the next.
Q.VII.9.1 What is the result of committing the five sins like violence etc?
A.VII.9.1 By committing these sins, one is subjected to many miseries in this and future lives and also faces shame in this life itself.
Q.VII.9.2 What is meant by calamity (apāya)?
A.VII.9.2 It means total destruction of activities which lead to prosperity and bliss.
Q.VII.9.3 What is meant by insult (avadya)?
A.VII.9.3 It means getting insulted by others.
Q.VII.9.4 What are the calamities and insults caused in this life and future lives by committing violence?
A.VII.9.4 He who commits violence is always subjected to animosity in this life. He is also subjected to misery, imprisonment and suffering in this life. And in the future life, he takes an inauspicious birth.
Q.VII.9.5 What are the calamities and insults caused in this life and future lives by speaking lies /untruth?
A.VII.9.5 He who speaks lies becomes untrustworthy in this life. He is meted out punishment by having his tongue cut and he develops animosity with people against whom he lied. In future life, he takes an inauspicious birth.
Q.VII.9.6 What are the calamities and insults caused in this life and future lives by stealing?
A.VII.9.6 He who steals others possessions first gets insulted by all. Then he gets beaten, bonded /imprisoned, given blows on body /face/ears /eyes etc. In future life, he takes an inauspicious birth.
Q.VII.9.7 What are the calamities and insults caused in this life and future lives by being unchaste?
A.VII.9.7 He, who is unchaste, has his mind agitated by lustful disposition and amorous excitement. Like an elephant full of lust is tricked by a false female elephant for imprisonment in forests, similarly a person with lustful disposition suffers body blows from others. He first gets insulted by all. Then he gets beaten, bonded /imprisoned, given blows on body /face/ears /eyes etc. In future life, he takes an inauspicious birth.
Q.VII.9.8 What are the calamities and insults caused in this life and future lives by possessiveness /possessions?
A.VII.9.8 A person obsessed with possessions attracts thieves. He undergoes lot of misery in amassing possessions and still he does not feel contented. People insult him by calling him a greedy person. In future life, he takes inauspicious birth.
Q.VII.9.9 A person with possessions gets respect in this world. He is made the leader even in religious activities. Then why is it (possessions) called a sin?
A.VII.9.9 The principal cause of all sins can be said as possessions. A person with lot of possessions does not get respect, though he may get worldly status temporarily. The person who gives up possessions i.e. one with disposition of charity of all the four types earns the respect in this world.
Duh ̣kameva vā
Meaning: Or sufferings only (result from injury etc.).
Q.VII.10.1 What happens by committing the five sins like violence etc?
A.VII.10.1 Only sufferings result from violence etc.
Q.VII.10.2 Why are these sins called as the cause of suffering?
A.VII.10.2 By committing these five sins; influx of suffering feeling (Asātāvedanīya) karmas takes place which by their very nature cause suffering on their rise. Thus committing these sins result in suffering only.
Q.VII.10.3 What happens with sinful disposition?
A.VII.10.3 Sinful disposition first suppresses the internal voice of the soul resulting in obscuring the nature of the soul. Thus only sufferings result.
Q.VII.10.4 Indulging in sensual pleasures and the riches result in happiness. Then why are they said to result in suffering?
A.VII.10.4 Happiness is not in the objects of sensual pleasures. Ignorant people assume this to be true (which is a big mistake). The person gets besieged by sensual pleasures which by themselves are the causes of misery and suffering. For example scratching gives relief from misery at that instant but results in more fierce itch or scabies later.
Q.VII.10.5 Amassing wealth gives pleasure. Then why is it called suffering?
A.VII.10.5 A wealthy person, like a bird with a piece of meat is bitten by other birds continuously, is tormented from all sides and feels suffering /miserys all over.
Q.VII.10.6 We are advised to give up sins like violence etc when perverted belief /views are bigger sins. Why we are not advised to give up perverted beliefs here?
A.VII.10.6 The five vows, be they minor or major, are observed only by a person with right belief. Thus perverted views /belief get extinguished in the beginning itself. Hence during discussions of the vows, we do not discuss perverted views here.
Maitrī-pramoda-kāruṇya-mādhyasthāni ca sattva-guṇādhika-kliśyamānāvineyes u
Meaning: Benevolence towards all living beings, joy at the sight of the virtuous, sympathy and compassion for the afflicted, and tolerance towards the insolent and ill-behaved.
Q.VII.11.1 Which observances are fit to be contemplated continuously?
A.VII.11.1 Benevolence towards all living beings (maitri), joy at the sight of the virtuous (pramoda), compassion and sympathy for the afflicted (kārūṇya) and equanimity or tolerance towards the ill behaved (mādhyastha) are the observances fit to be contemplated continuously.
Q.VII.11.2 What is meant by benevolence towards all living beings?
A.VII.11.2 The desire that others should be free from suffering and not to cause suffering to others is called benevolence towards all living beings.
Q.VII.11.3 What is meant by joy at the sight of the virtuous?
A.VII.11.3 To develop affection as well as veneration from the heart in the presence of the virtuous (those who have higher knowledge and conduct than self) is joy at the sight of the virtuous.
Q.VII.11.4 What is meant by compassion and sympathy for the afflicted?
A.VII.11.4 The disposition to render assistance to the afflicted is compassion and sympathy for the afflicted.
Q.VII.11.5 What is meant by equanimity or tolerance towards the ill behaved?
A.VII.11.5 Tolerance or unconcern, for those who have perverted belief or sinful disposition or are without modesty, is called equanimity or tolerance towards the ill behaved.
Q.VII.11.6 What is the subject of the observance on benevolence towards all?
A.VII.11.6 The subject of this observance is the realm of entire living beings. It enhances magnanimous disposition in the observer and eliminates the feelings of mine/ yours.
Q.VII.11.7 What is the subject of contemplation on joy at the sight of the virtuous?
A.VII.11.7 The subject of this contemplation is the virtuous living beings. It eliminates development of the ego in the practitioner.
Q.VII.11.8 What is the subject of contemplation on compassion and sympathy for the afflicted?
A.VII.11.8 The subject of this contemplation is those who are afflicted with sufferings from anguish and distress. It develops feelings of sympathy in the practitioner.
Q.VII.11.9 What is the subject of the contemplation on equanimity or tolerance towards the ill behaved?
A.VII.11.9 The subject of this observance is the insolent person. The person observing this develops a feeling of equanimity.
Q.VII.11.10 What is meant by living being (satva)?
A.VII.11.10 Those who are born in several kinds of wombs owing to the ripening of inauspicious karmas are called the living beings or jīva/satva.
Q.VII.11.11 What is meant by the virtuous (guṇādhika)?
A.VII.11.11 The persons in whom right knowledge and other jewels abound are called virtuous.
Q.VII.11.12 What is meant by afflicted (kliśyamāna)?
A.VII.11.12 The persons who suffer from anguish and distress due to the rise of the inauspicious karmas are called afflicted.
Q.VII.11.13 What is meant by insolent (avineya)?
A.VII.11.13 The persons who are not capable of listening/ understanding the concepts/ discussions on reality and existents etc and are devoid of the virtues like right belief etc are called insolent.
Q.VII.11.14 What is the benefit of contemplating on these observances?
A.VII.11.14 Contemplation on these observances results in total practice of the five vows.
Jagatkāyasvabhāvau vā saṃvegavairāgyārtham
Meaning: Reflect on the nature of mundane existence of the universe and your body in order to cultivate awe at the misery of worldly existence and detachment towards worldly things.
Q.VII.12.1 What is (saṃvega)?
A.VII.12.1 It is to cultivate awe at the misery of worldly existence.
Q.VII.12.2 What is meant by detachment (vairāgya)?
A.VII.12.2 To develop disinterest towards the subjects of the sensual and physical pleasures is detachment.
Q.VII.12.3 What is meant by universe (jagata)?
A.VII.12.3 The entity in which the living beings roam is called universe. Another synonym for jagata is saṃsāra.
Q.VII.12.4 What is meant by body (śarīra)?
A.VII.12.4 The entity which is created due to the rise of special body-making karmas and then decays. Synonym for body is kāya.
Q.VII.12.5 What is the nature of body and what is the result of contemplating on it?
A.VII.12.5 The nature of the body is transitory and full of misery and suffering. By contemplating on it one develops detachment from it.
Meaning: The severance of vitalities out of passion is injury.
Q.VII.13.1 What is meant by laxity (pramatta)?
A.VII.13.1 It means tainted with laxities (pramāda).
Q.VII.13.2 What is meant by tainted with laxities?
A.VII.13.2 The state of the soul tainted with passion is called tainted with laxities.
Q.VII.13.3 What is meant by lax activities (pramatta yoga)?
A.VII.13.3 It means the acts performed by the soul tainted with passions.
Q.VII.13.4 How many types of laxities are there?
A.VII.13.4 There are fifteen laxities, namely: four passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed), four types of perverted stories, five sense organs, sleep and affection /attraction.
Q.VII.13.5 Which are four types of perverted stories?
A.VII.13.5 There are stories concerning women, food, royalties / kings and robberies / thefts etc.
Q.VII.13.6 What is meant by injury /violence?
A.VII.13.6 To severe the vitalities (prāṇas) of self or others out of passions is injury /violence.
Q.VII.13.7 How many types of violence are there?
A.VII.13.7 Violence is of four types namely defensive (virodhī), in-profession (udyogī), life style (ārambhī) and intentional (saṃkalpī).
Q.VII.13.8 What is meant by life style violence?
A.VII.13.8 Violence committed while cooking food or in the upkeep of the home etc is called ‘life style violence’.
Q.VII.13.9 What is meant by in-profession violence?
A.VII.13.9 Violence committed in earning a livelihood is called ‘in-profession violence’.
Q.VII.13.10 What is meant by defensive violence?
A.VII.13.10 Violence committed in defending self and others from the oppressors is called ‘defensive violence’.
Q.VII.13.11 What is meant by intentional (saṃkalpī) violence?
A.VII.13.11 Violence committed with the intention of injuring or killing others is called ‘intentional violence’.
Q.VII.13.12 Which types of violence are given up by ascetics?
A.VII.13.12 Ascetics do not commit any of the four types of violence.
Q.VII.13.13 What is implied by pramatta yoga in the aphorism?
A.VII.13.13 The implication here is that just injuring the life vitalities of others is not violence but to cause injury to other’s life vitalities with the soul tainted with passions is violence.
Q.VII.13.14 Why does an ascetic walking carefully (observing īryāsamiti) and kills /injures worms by his feet is not considered as committing violence?
A.VII.13.14 This is true as the ascetic’s acts are not performed with his soul tainted with passions.
Q.VII.13.15 One person wants to kill another person but is not able to do so. Why is he said to have committed violence?
A.VII.13.15 As the first person is tainted with passions, so he commits psychic violence.
Q.VII.13.16 What is the other meaning of pramāda?
A.VII.13.16 It also means carelessness in observing the nature of soul.
Q.VII.13.17 What is meant by ‘not letting the development of disposition with attachment etc’?
A.VII.13.17 It means non-violence (ahiṃsā).
Q.VII.13.18 What is meant by‘letting the disposition with attachment etc develop’?
A.VII.13.18 It means violence (hiṃsā).
Q.VII.13.19 What is meant by psychic violence (Bhāva hiṃsā)?
A.VII.13.19 Violence committed in thoughts due to passion tainted state of the soul is called psychic violence.
Q.VII.13.20 What is meant by physical violence (dravya hiṃsā)?
A.VII.13.20 The actual injury caused to one of the life vitalities of others is called physical violence.
Q.VII.13.21 This cosmos is filled with gross and subtle living beings. What is the way to avoid injury to others?
A.VII.13.21 Passion tainted or lax activities are the foundation of violence. Therefore one should exercise carefulness in all activities of body, mind and speech, like sitting, standing, walking, eating etc to avoid injury to others.
Q.VII.13.22 Does a fisherman commit violence if he is unable to catch fish even though he had been trying to do so for a long time?
A.VII.13.22 Yes even though he has not comitted physical violence but he had been comitting psychic violence since the time he had been thinking to go for catching fish.
Q.VII.13.23 Does a women observing extreme care while cleaning the house and cooking etc commit violence or not?
A.VII.13.23 No, as she is free from passionate activities. This is so as she is not lax in her attitude while cooking etc.
Q.VII.13.24 Can a householder, observing the vows, use implements with miserytings of horse, elephants etc on them?
A.VII.13.24 No, as he / she is likely to develop passionate disposition and commit psychic violence.
Q.VII.13.25 Is it proper to feed biscuits made in the shape of monkey, elephant etc?
A.VII.13.25 No such acts are the direct cause of committing psychic injury, by both the one who feeds and the one who eats them.
Meaning: Speaking what is not true or commendable is falsehood.
Q.VII.14.1 What is meant by falsehood (asatya)?
A.VII.14.1 Not to speak truth due to passionate activities or to speak harsh words is falsehood.
Q.VII.14.2 What is meant by not commendable (apraśasta)?
A.VII.14.2 The speech which causes injury to others is not commendable.
Q.VII.14.3 Parents and teachers speak harsh words to their children /students to bring them around on the right path. Are these untruth /falsehood?
A.VII.14.3 No as their speech is not based on passionate activities. They are rather full of benevolence
Q.VII.14.4 How many types of not commendable falsehood (asatya abhidhāna) are there?
A.VII.14.4 These are of four types namely to speak of non existent entities, to negate the existence of existents, to speak of an entity in a way contrary to its existence and to speak harsh and injurious words.
Q.VII.14.5 What is meant by ‘speaking of non existent entities’?
A.VII.14.5 To say that ‘some has a specific flaw even though he does not have it’ is an example of speaking of the non existent entities.
Q.VII.14.6 What is meant by ‘to negate the existence of existents’?
A.VII.14.6 To say that one does not have money to give even though he has it is an example of ‘to negate the existence of existents’.
Q.VII.14.7 What is meant by ‘to speak of an entity in a way contrary to its existence’?
A.VII.14.7 To say an insentient entity as sentient is an example of ‘to speak of an entity in a way contrary to its existence’.
Q.VII.14.8 What is meant by ‘to speak harsh and injurious words’?
A.VII.14.8 Some examples of ‘to speak harsh and injurious words’ are ‘to back bite, to make fun of others, to call names, to use insulting words’.
Q.VII.14.9 A housewife has to say no even tough she has the things. Is this commendable or not commendable?
A.VII.14.9 Such words are commendable as she has to maintain the decorum of the household and since such words is not accompanied with passionate activities.
Meaning: Taking anything that is not given is stealing.
Q.VII.15.1 What is meant by stealing?
A.VII.15.1 Taking anything that is not given by its owner is stealing..
Q.VII.15.2 What is meant by steya?
A.VII.15.2 It is synonymous with stealing.
Q.VII.15.3 What is meant by adatta??
A.VII.15.3 Datta means what is given and adatta means what is not given.
Q.VII.15.4 What is meant by ādāna?
A.VII.15.4 It means to accept.
Q.VII.15.5 If taking what is not given is stealing, then accepting body building particles (nokarma) by the empirical soul is also stealing as they are also not given by anyone?
A.VII.15.5 Stealing implies where the activity of give and take is possible. In nokarmas, such activity does not occur and so it is not stealing.
Q.VII.15.6 Does the flaw of accepting what is not given also apply to monks entering a city and its streets and by-lanes?
A.VII.15.6 No since the city and its streets and by-lanes are open to all; the flaw of accepting what is not given does not apply to monks entering a city and its streets and by-lanes. Also the monks are free from passionate activities when they do such activity.
Q.VII.15.7 Is it ok to pick up an expensive thing from the road and use it for some auspicious activity?
A.VII.15.7 The results from using the stolen things for auspicious activity appear to be ok. However the owner when he comes looking for it will have misery when he does not find the same. Thus it is better to ignore the existence of such items on the road or give to proper persons for safe keeping and return to the owner.
Meaning: Copulation is unchastity.
Q.VII.16.1 What is meant by copulation (maithuna)?
A.VII.16.1 It means unchaste (abr hma) or perverted conduct (kuśīla). It is also described as the desire to touch each other (opposite sex) with lust.
Q.VII.16.2 What is meant by perverted conduct?
A.VII.16.2 It is the desire to embrace (opposite sex) owing to the rise of lustful activitiy.
Q.VII.16.3 What is meant by mithuna?
A.VII.16.3 The union of male and female is called mithuna.
Q.VII.16.4 What is meant by maithuna /copulation?
A.VII.16.4 The indulgence of man and woman in lustful activity owing to the rise of conducts deluding karmas.
Q.VII.16.5 Why copulation is called as unchaste?
A.VII.16.5 Copulation devoid of virtues involves injury etc as he who indulges in copulation causes injury to mobile and immobile living beings as well as commits other sins. Therefore copulation is called unchaste.
Q.VII.16.6 What is meant by chaste (br hma)?
A.VII.16.6 Chaste implies something which develops virtues such as non injury etc.
Q.VII.16.7 Why is unchaste called as sin?
A.VII.16.7 Copulation involves performed onCe causes injury to nine hundred thousand mobile living beings. A person engaged in copulation causes injury to others (mobile and immobile beings), speaks lies, steals and amasses living and non living possessions. Therefore it is called as sin.
Q.VII.16.8 What is meant by perverted unchaste conduct (mithyācāra abr hma)?
A.VII.16.8 When a male or a female uses non-living entities or masturbates, for satiating intense lust/sexual desire then such activities are called perverted unchaste conduct.
Mūrcchā parigrahah ̣
Meaning: Infatuation (clinging) is attachment to possession.
Q.VII.17.1 What is meant by possession (parigraha)?
A.VII.17.1 Attachment to any object (living or non-living) is possession.
Q.VII.17.2 What is meant by infatuation (mūrcchā)?
A.VII.17.2 It is another word for attachment. The philosophical meaning of infatuation is any activity related to acquisition and safeguarding an external object.
Q.VII.17.3 How many kinds of possessions are there?
A.VII.17.3 They are of two kinds namely internal possessions and external possessions.
Q.VII.17.4 How many types of internal possessions are there?
A.VII.17.4 These are fourteen types namely; delusion, anger, pride, deceit, greed, jest, liking for certain objects, dissatisfaction, sorrow, fear, disgust, and hankering after men/ women /neutral sexes.
Q.VII.17.5 How many types of external possessions are there?
A.VII.17.5 Broadly it can be classified in two categories, namely possessions of living beings and possessions non-living beings. In general possessions are said to be of ten types which can be grouped in the two classes mentioned. These ten types of possessions are land, houses /buildings, gold, silver, wealth, food / cereals, male and female servants, clothes and utensils.
Q.VII.17.6 How many types of possession in total are there?
A.VII.17.6 As indicated above, we can say that possessions are of twenty four types.
Q.VII.17.7 If we term amassing of anything as possession, then can we say birds and animals as without possessions and an emperor as with greatest possessions?
A.VII.17.7 It is not so as will be clear from the following explanation. By possession is implied possessiveness which is the feeling of ‘mine’ in external sentient and insentient objects and internal states like attachment /aversion etc which is described as infatuation and hence possessions.
Q.VII.17.8 What is the characteristic of possessions?
A.VII.17.8 The ‘feeling of mine (mamatva)’ in external objects like wealth etc and the internal dispositions like attachment is the characteristic of possessions. This is so as they further give rise to the thought of safeguard such objects also.
Q.VII.17.9 Is the feeling of ‘mine’ in knowledge acquired also possession?
A.VII.17.9 It can be and may not be, depending on the application of the knowledge acquired. If it is used for self purification and to guide others to practise the path of spiritual purification, then it is not possession. However if the knowledge acquired gives rise to pride or cause injury to others then it is a possession.
Q.VII.17.10 Who the notorious persons are associated with the five types of sins?
A.VII.17.10 Dhanashri for violence, Satyaghosh for falsehood, Tapasvi for stealing, Police superintendent Thandand for being unchaste and Shmashru Navneet for possessions are the notorious persons in the respective sin.
Q.VII.17.11 If the giving up of clothes is essential for ascetics, then why giving up the whisk and water pot also not essential for them?
A.VII.17.11 An ascetic does not keep the whisk and water pot with a feeling of ‘mine’ or due to his desire. He /she keep them to practise self-restraint. Hence they cannot be said as possessions.
Meaning: The votary is free from stings.
Q.VII.18.1 Who is called a votary (vrati)?
A.VII.18.1 The one who observes vows and is free from thorns or stings (śalya) is called a votary.
Q.VII.18.2 What is meant by stings?
A.VII.18.2 An entity which causes misery to the soul like thorn to the body is called sting.
Q.VII.18.3 How many types of stings are there?
A.VII.18.3 Stings are of three types namely deceit, perverted faith and ‘desire for enjoyment of pleasure’.
Q.VII.18.4 What is meant by the sting of deceit?
A.VII.18.4 It is the pretence of observing vows and actually not doing so partially or wholly.
Q.VII.18.5 What is meant by sting of perverted faith?
A.VII.18.5 Sting of perverted faith is to believe in wrong metaphysical elements or to worship perverted gods or not to have faith in the creed (sermons of omniscient) while observing vows.
Q.VII.18.6 What is meant by ‘desire for enjoyment of pleasure’?
A.VII.18.6 To have expectations of sensual pleasures as the result from observing the vows is the sting of desiring (for enjoyment of pleasure).
Q.VII.18.7 How many types of the sting of desiring for enjoyment of pleasure are there?
A.VII.18.7 It is of three types, namely: commendable (praśasta), not commendable (apraśasta) and intention for enjoyment (bhogārtha).
Q.VII.18.8 What is meant by commendable desiring sting?
A.VII.18.8 To observe self control with a desire to be born in superior family is commendable desiring sting.
Q.VII.18.9 What is meant by non-commendable desiring sting?
A.VII.18.9 To observe self control with a desire to satisfy one’s ego /pride by ruling others (by being born in superior family with strong body and intellect etc.) is non-commendable desiring sting.
Q.VII.18.10 What is meant by intention for enjoyment desiring sting?
A.VII.18.10 It means to observe self control with a desire to enjoy worldly pleasures.
Q.VII.18.11 Can one observe vows even though he has these stings?
Q.VII.18.12 What is the difference between enjoyment of pleasure desiring sting and desire bondage?
A.VII.18.12 Hankering about the possibility of enjoyment in future is desiring sting; and the desire to have a pleasurable ambience is desire bondage.
Meaning: The ‘householder’ and the ‘homeless ascetic’ are the two kinds of votaries.
Q.VII.19.1 What is meant by householder /laity (agārī) or votary with a home?
A.VII.19.1 Those who have not given up the home are called householder votary or votary with homes.
Q.VII.19.2 What is meant by homeless (anagārī) or votary without a home?
A.VII.19.2 Those who have given up the home are called ascetics or votary without homes.
Q.VII.19.3 A householder does not observe vows completely. Why he then is called a votary also?
A.VII.19.3 Like a person who lives in a small part of a city is called a city dweller; similarly a person who observes vows even in a small manner is called a votary.
Q.VII.19.4 Can we call a person who observes only one of the vows as a votary?
A.VII.19.4 No, as a votary is one who practises all the five vows partially or completely.
Meaning: One who observes the partial vows is a householder.
Q.VII.20.1 What is meant by minor vow (aṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.1 Aṇu means small or partial. Therefore minor vows mean small or partial vows.
Q.VII.20.2 Why the vows of a householder are called minor vows?
A.VII.20.2 As the vows observed by a householder lack complete abstinence from sins, therefore they are called minor vows.
Q.VII.20.3 Who is called a householder votary (agārī’ aṇuvratī śrāvaka)?
A.VII.20.3 A person who is incapable of observing the vows completely and stays as a householder to observe the vows partially by maintaining a disposition of detachment is called a householder votary.
Q.VII.20.4 What is the minor vow of non-violence (ahiṃsā aṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.4 Due to the difficulty of Practising the non injury against all types of mobile and immobile living beings, a person giving up intentional injury of mobile living beings completely and minimizing continuously the injury against the immobile living beings as per his/her capabilities is said to be observing the minor vow of non-violence.
Q.VII.20.5 What is the minor vow of truthfulness (satyāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.5 Not to speak injurious and false words under the influence of attachment /aversion or delusion is called the minor vow of truthfulness.
Q.VII.20.6 What is the minor vow of non-stealing (acauryāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.6 Not to take an object which involves legal or social punishment is called the minor vow of non-stealing.
Q.VII.20.7 What is the minor vow of not casting an evil / lustful eye on other men/women (br hmacaryāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.7 Not to cast an evil (lustful) eye on any person except the own legal and religiously married spouse is called br hmacaryāṇuvrata.
Q.VII.20.8 What is meant by the minor vow of non-possession (aparigrah āṇuvrata)?
A.VII.20.8 To set and observe a limit on the possessions of wealth is called the minor vow of non-possession.
Meaning: Abstaining from activity with regard to direction, zone and purposeless sin; vows of periodical concentration, fasting, limiting consumable and non-consumable things, and partaking of one’s food after offering alms to an ascetic, are the supplementary vows.
Q.VII.21.1 Which are the vows which supplement the minor vows?
A.VII.21.1 The seven supplementary vows called śīlavrata enhance the potency of the minor vows.
Q.VII.21.2 Which are the seven supplementary vows?
A.VII.21.2 The seven supplementary vows are: abstaining from activity with regard to direction (digvirati), abstaining from activity with regard to declared zone / country /city (deśavirati), abstaining from purposeless sin (anarthdaṇdavrata) are the three guṇavrata; periodical contemplation (sāmāyika), fasting at regular intervals (prosadhopavāsavrata), limiting consumable and non consumable things (upabhoga-paribhoga- parimāṇavrata), and partaking food after feeding the ascetics (athithisaṃvibhāgavrata) are the four śiksāvrata.
Q.VII.21.3 What is meant by enhancing vows (guṇavrata)?
A.VII.21.3 These are the vows that multiply or enhance the values of the minor vows.
Q.VII.21.4 What is meant by teaching vows (śiksāvrata)?
A.VII.21.4 These are the vows which teach the ascetic way of life to the votary householders.
Q.VII.21.5 What is meant by the vow to abstain from activity with regard to direction (digvirati))?
A.VII.21.5 The directions are east west etc (eight corners of the compass plus up and down for a total of ten). Taking a resolve, for the whole life, not to go or participate in any activities beyond set limits in these directions fixing limits with well known rivers / mountains /landmarks is the vow to abstain from activity with regard to direction. However the limits of activity do not apply for religious activities.
Q.VII.21.6 What is meant by the vow for abstaining activity with regard to country /city (deśavirati)?
A.VII.21.6 Taking a resolve, for the whole life, not to go or participate in any activities beyond set limits of a city or country is the vow to abstain from activity with regard to zone/country /city. However the limits of activity do not apply for religious puposes.
Q.VII.21.7 What is meant by vow for abstaining from purposeless sin (anarthdaṇdavirati)?
A.VII.21.7 Purposeless activity is the cause of a sin. To give up such purposeless activities for life is the vow for abstaining from purposeless sin.
Q.VII.21.8 How many types of the vow for abstaining from purposeless sin are there?
A.VII.21.8 There are five types of purposeless activities namely evil thought (apadhyāna), preaching of sin (pāpopadeśa), negligent activity (pramādacaryā), giving of implements of violence (hiṃsādāna) and listening to undesirable stories (duh ̣śruti).
Q.VII.21.9 What is meant by evil thought (apadhyāna)?
A.VII.21.9 Wishing and thinking ill of others, telling stories involving attachment and aversion and wicked disposition is evil thought.
Q.VII.21.10 What is meant by preaching of sin (pāpopadeśa)?
A.VII.21.10 To advice and guide others for sinful activities is preaching of sin.
Q.VII.21.11 What is meant by negligent activity (pramādacaryā)?
A.VII.21.11 Without any purpose; to wander here and there, to pluck flowers trees and leaves etc, to hurt others, to waste water or to dig earth are called negligent activities.
Q.VII.21.12 What is meant by giving of implements of violence (hiṃsādāna)?
A.VII.21.12 To give poisonous gases, arms and other implements of violence is called giving implements of violence.
Q.VII.21.13 What is meant by listening to undesirable stories (duh ̣śruti)?
A.VII.21.13 To read/teach or listen to texts which enhance violence / attachment and aversion or sins is called listening to undesirable stories.
Q.VII.21.14 What is meant by the vow for periodical contemplation (sāmāyika)?
A.VII.21.14 To practice contemplation on self or spiritual renderings for a fixed time period in the morning and evening, at fixed times and at a fixed quiet and calm place, after freeing one from all sins and a restraining all activities of mind, speech and body is called vow of periodical contemplation.
Q.VII.21.15 What is meant by vow for fasting at regular intervals (pros adhop avāsavrata)?
A.VII.21.15 To observe fast (after giving up all lifestyle activities) on 8th and 14th day of each fortnight with half fast on the day before and day after these days is called fasting at regular intervals. During the period of fasting one is expected to be busy in religious or spiritual purification activities.
Q.VII.21.16 What is meant by vow for limiting consumable and non consumable things (upabhogoparibhoga - parimāṇavrata)?
A.VII.21.16 Items like food articles which can be consumed only once are called upabhoga. Items like clothes etc which can be consumed many times are called paribhoga. To set a limit on the types and number of both types of items is called vow for limiting consumable and non consumable things.
Q.VII.21.17 What is meant by consumable (upbhoga)?
A.VII.21.17 Items which can be used only once and after use they become unusable are called consumables.
Q.VII.21.18 What is meant by non consumable (pariboga)?
A.VII.21.18 Items which can be used again and again are called non consumable
Q.VII.21.19 What is meant by vow for partaking food after feeding the ascetics (athithisaṃvibhāgavrata)?
A.VII.21.19 He who moves from place to place without transgressing his self control is called a guest (atithi). To give such guests (ascetics and other votaries) food, shelter, scriptures and medicines from own belonging with a pure heart is called the vow of partaking food after feeding the ascetics.
Q.VII.21.20 What is implied by the word ca in the aphorism?
A.VII.21.20 The word ca at the end is used to indicate that the vows also include the householder’s duties described in the next aphorism. It can also mean that the six essential duties (āvaśyakas) are also included in these twelve vows.
Q.VII.21.21 What are twelve vows of a householder votary (śrāvaka)?
A.VII.21.21 These are five minor vows, three enhancing vows and four teaching vows.
Māraṇāntikīṃ sallekhanāṃ jositā
Meaning: The householder courts ‘voluntary pious-death’ at the end of his life.
Q.VII.22.1 What is meant by death ‘maraṇa’?
A.VII.22.1 The loss of senses and the vitalities at the end of one’s duration of life acquired by one’s own dispositions is called death.
Q.VII.22.2 Why has anta added to maraṇa in the aphorism??
A.VII.22.2 The word anta or end refers to a particular state of existence caused by death.
Q.VII.22.3 What is meant by mārāṇantikī?
A.VII.22.3 That which has death as its object is mārāṇantikī.
Q.VII.22.4 What is ‘courting voluntary pious-death’ (sallekhanā)?
A.VII.22.4 It is making the physical body and the internal passions thin /weak by abandoning their sources of strength gradually at the approach of death.
Q.VII.22.5 Has the word jos itā instead of sevitā been used to make the intention of the aphorism crisp and clear?
A.VII.22.5 No! Sevitā means to enjoy or serve while the word jos itā means to observe with pleasure. Since ‘voluntary pious-death’ is observed with pleasure and on one’s own sweet will and hence the word jos itā is more appropriate here.
Q.VII.22.6 Is ‘courting voluntary pious-death’ synonymous with suicide as in ‘courting voluntary pious-death’ one severes the ten vitalities intentionally?
A.VII.22.6 No; it is not suicide as there is no passion or inadvertence ‘laxity’ (pramāda) in ‘courting voluntary pious-death’. To end life with passionate activities and violence is suicide. Deaths without passionate activities are essential to observe ‘voluntary pious-death’. Thus it cannot be said as suicide. Use of the implements of violence to end one’s life is suicide.
Q.VII.22.7 When and why one should start ‘courting voluntary pious-death’?
A.VII.22.7 When some calamity/fa’mine’ or extreme old age occurs or incurable disease has inflicted the body resulting in difficulty in observing the vows (vrata) by the individual affected, then to at least safeguard the vows one should start ‘courting voluntary pious-death’.
Śaṃkākāṃksā-vicikitsā-anyadrstpraśaṃsā-saṃstavāh ̣ samyagdsteratīcārāh
Meaning: Suspicion in the teachings of Jina, desire for worldly enjoyment, repugnance or disgust at the afflicted, admiration for the knowledge and conduct of the wrong believer and praise of wrong believers, are the five transmigressions of the right believer.
Q.VII.23.1 What is meant by transgression of the ‘suspicion in the teachings of jina’ (śaṃkāticāra)?
A.VII.23.1 It is to suspect the nature of the reality and the metaphysical elements like soul etc as propagated by omniscient lords.
Q.VII.23.2 What is meant by transgression of the ‘desire in worldly pleasures’ (kāṃks āticāra)?
A.VII.23.2 It is to develop a desire for the pleasures of this and future lives.
Q.VII.23.3 What is meant by transgression of ‘disgust’ (vicikitsāticāra)?
A.VII.23.3 It is to develop feelings of aversion towards the dirty bodies of ascetics (Practising the three jewels), or the virtues of pious people or the destitute.
Q.VII.23.4 What is meant by transgression of ‘admiration for the knowledge and conduct of wrong believers’ (anyadr s t i praśaṃs āticāra)?
A.VII.23.4 It is to admire or appreciate the knowledge or the austerities of persons with perverted views /faith.
Q.VII.23.5 What is the difference between praise (saṃstava) and admiration (praśaṃs ā)?
A.VII.23.5 Praise is basically expression by speech while administration is a mental process by the person for other’s attributes.
Q.VII.23.6 Which are the eight limbs of right faith?
A.VII.23.6 The eight limbs of right faith are: absence of doubt in the variety of the tenets propounded by the Jina in part or as whole (nih ̣śamkita), absence of appreciation of manifold doctrine or having no desire for the worldly pleasures (nih ̣kāmkśita); absence of any repulsion from the impurity of the body of a person possessed with three jewels (nirvicikitsā); un-deluded vision(amūdhadr s ti); confirmation of faith (upagūhana), steadfastness of faith (sthitrīkaraṇa), affection for faith (vātsalya) and glorification of the creed (prabhāvanā).
Q.VII.23.7 If there are eight limbs of right belief /faith, then there should be eight transgressions of the right believer also instead of five listed above?
A.VII.23.7 The transgression of admiration for the knowledge and conduct of wrong believers is inclusive of the opposites of a number of limbs like upaguhana etc. Also as the author has given five transgressions for each vow, so here also he has given five transgressions of right believer and made them include all eight limbs.
Q.VII.23.8 What is meant by transgression (aticāra)?
A.VII.23.8 It means to show laziness /laxity in observing or performing the essential duties or the vows of the householders.
Q.VII.23.9 What is meant by wrong view (anācāra)?
A.VII.23.9 It means to consider the flaws as virtues and not as flaws.
Q.VII.23.10 What are the subsidiary dispositions which cause non observance of the vows?
A.VII.23.10 The four dispositions are: violation of vows (atikrama), crossing the limits of the vows with passionate disposition (vyatikrama), transgression (aticāra) and misconduct (anācāra).
Q.VII.23.11 What is meant by violation of the vows?
A.VII.23.11 It means developing deterioration of mental purity.
Q.VII.23.12 What is meant by crossing the limits of the vows with passionate disposition (vyatikrama)?
A.VII.23.12 It means to have an inclination and desire for worldly pleasures.
Q.VII.23.13 What is meant by transgression?
A.VII.23.13 To indulge in the sensual pleasures even once is transgression.
Q.VII.23.14 What is meant by misconduct?
A.VII.23.14 To indulge in sensual pleasures repeatedly (or repeated violations of the vows) is misconduct.
Q.VII.23.15 Which flaws can be purified by repentance?
A.VII.23.15 The first three i.e. violation of the vows, crossing the limits of the vows with passionate disposition, and transgression can be purified by repentance but not the last one i.e. misconduct.
Vrataśīlesu pañca pañca yathākramam
Meaning: There are five, five transgressions respectively for the vows and the supplementary vows.
Q.VII.24.1 How many transgressions are there for the five minor vows and seven supplementary vows?
A.VII.24.1 There are five transgressions each for the five minor and seven supplementary vows.
Q.VII.24.2 Which are the seven supplementary (śīlavratas) vows?
A.VII.24.2 The seven supplementary vows consist of three enhancing (guṇa) vows and four teaching (training) (śiks ā) vows.
Q.VII.24.3 What is meant by virtuous conduct (śīla)?
A.VII.24.3 The vows which are observed to safeguard and enhance the vows are called virtuous conduct.
Q.VII.24.4 How many total transgressions are there for the vows of the householder?
A.VII.24.4 There are 12*5 = 60 transgressions for the vows of the householders. By adding the five transgressions each for right belief and sallekhanā they add up to 70.
Meaning: Binding, beating, mutilating limbs, overloading and withholding food and drink are the transgressions of minor non-violence vow.
Q.VII.25.1 What are the five transgressions of the minor vow of non-violence (ahiṃsāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.25.1 The five transgressions of the minor vow of non-violence are: binding, beating, mutilating limbs, overloading and withholding food and drink of the living beings.
Q.VII.25.2 What is meant by binding?
A.VII.25.2 To fasten a living being with cord or chain or to keep in a cage or cell as to prevent their free movement is called binding.
Q.VII.25.3 What is meant by beating?
A.VII.25.3 To beat a living being with a whip, stick or cane to hurt (or to kill) is beating.
Q.VII.25.4 What is meant by mutilating?
A.VII.25.4 It means to mutilate the limb such as ear, nose, etc of a living being.
Q.VII.25.5 What is meant by overloading?
A.VII.25.5 To overload a living being with weight or work beyond its capacity is overloading.
Q.VII.25.6 What is meant by withholding food and drink?
A.VII.25.6 To deny food and drinks to living beings when they feel hungry and thirsty is withholding food and drink.
Q.VII.25.7 Can a votary householder keep domestic animals bound in his house?
A.VII.25.7 A votary cannot keep animals bound in his home. If he has to do so, he does it in a manner that the animals can escape in case of need.
Meaning: Perverted teaching, divulging secrets (what is done in private), forgery, misappropriation, and proclaiming others’ thoughts are the five transgression of minor vow of truthfulness.
Q.VII.26.1 What are the five transgressions of the minor vow of truthfulness (satyāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.26.1 Perverted teachings, divulging secret, forgery, misappropriation and proclaiming other’s thoughts are the five transgressions of the minor vow of truthfulness.
Q.VII.26.2 What is meant by perverted teachings?
A.VII.26.2 To misguide (wrong advice or teaching) others who are progressing on the path of salvation or prosperity is called perverted teaching.
Q.VII.26.3 What is meant by divulging what is done in secret?
A.VII.26.3 To divulge secret talks or activities of a couple to others is called divulging secret.
Q.VII.26.4 What is meant by forgery?
A.VII.26.4 Forgery is to prepare false records under the influence of wicked disposition (to cheat) with the intention of hurting others.
Q.VII.26.5 What is meant by misappropriation?
A.VII.26.5 It means to retain part of the wealth given by others for safekeeping and returning part of it (saying as it is the total wealth pledged by them.)
Q.VII.26.6 What is meant by proclaiming other’s thoughts?
A.VII.26.6 To guess other thoughts by reading their facial and body expressions and claim them as own with the intention of insulting others is proclaiming other’s thoughts.
Q.VII.26.7 Can a votary of the vow of truthfulness give false evidence in the court of law?
A.VII.26.7 No as this is transmigression of the vow (forgery).
Q.VII.26.8 Can a votary of the vow of truthfulness insult others?
A.VII.26.8 No as this tantamount to hurt others and is against the vow of truthfulness.
Meaning: Prompting others to steal, receiving stolen goods, under-buying in a disordered state, using false weights and measures, deceiving others with imitation goods are the five transgressions of minor vow of non-stealing.
Q.VII.27.1 What are the five transgressions of the minor vow of non-stealing (acauryāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.27.1 Promoting others to steal, receiving stolen goods, unlawful trading practice, using false weights and measures to buy and sell, deceiving others with imitations are the five transmigressions of the minor vow of non-stealing.
Q.VII.27.2 What is meant by promoting others to steal?
A.VII.27.2 To encourage a thief to steal or to guide him in stealing is promoting others to steal.
Q.VII.27.3 What is meant by receiving stolen goods?
A.VII.27.3 To buy stolen goods even though not promoting him to steal is receiving stolen goods.
Q.VII.27.4 What is meant by unlawful trading practice?
A.VII.27.4 It means to practice the trade in an illegal or inappropriate manner (e.g. smuggling / evading taxes or not obey state orders) by the seller. It can also mean not paying due taxes to the government.
Q.VII.27.5 What is meant by using false weights and measures to buy and sell?
A.VII.27.5 To use different (heavier for buying and lighter for selling than standard weights or longer yardstick for buying and shorter yardstick for selling) weights and measures for trade is using false weights and measures.
Q.VII.27.6 What is meant by deceiving others with imitations?
A.VII.27.6 To sell mixed goods (mixing cheap goods with expensive ones like artificial or stained diamonds with real and clear diamonds) as expensive goods is deceiving others with imitation goods.
Q.VII.27.7 Can a votary of the vow of non-stealing use foreign goods?
A.VII.27.7 Yes, if these goods are imported legally with the permission of the government; and no, if they are smuggled.
Meaning: Bringing about marriage, intercourse with unchaste married women, cohabitation with a harlot, perverted sexual practices, and excessive sexual passion.
Q.VII.28.1 What are the five transgressions of the minor vow of celibacy (br hmacaryāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.28.1 Arranging marriages of others, intercourse with an unchaste married woman, befriending a cohort, perverted sexual activities and excessive sexual disposition are the five transmigressions of the vow of contentment with own wife (minor vow of celibacy).
Q.VII.28.2 What is meant by arranging marriages of others?
A.VII.28.2 To arrange marriages of other’s children is the transmigression of arranging marriages of others.
Q.VII.28.3 What is meant by marriage?
A.VII.28.3 It means to give away a woman as a religiously wedded wife of a man.
Q.VII.28.4 What is meant by licentious woman/ prostitute (itvarikā)?
A.VII.28.4 A woman who has the nature of visiting other men for sexual gratification is called itvarikā.
Q.VII.28.5 What is meant by married woman (parigrahitā)?
A.VII.28.5 A woman who is married to a man for all her sexual and worldly needs is a married woman
Q.VII.28.6 What is meant by cohort (aparigrahitā)?
A.VII.28.6 A woman who is not married to any man, but mates with many is a cohort.
Q.VII.28.7 What is meant by intercourse with an unchaste married woman?
A.VII.28.7 It means to perform sexual activities with an unchaste married woman.
Q.VII.28.8 What is meant by intercourse with a cohort?
A.VII.28.8 It means to perform sexual activities with an unchaste unmarried woman.
Q.VII.28.9 What is meant by perverted sexual activities?
A.VII.28.9 It means to use organs not meant for sexual activities for sexual gratification.
Q.VII.28.10 What is meant by excessive sexual disposition?
A.VII.28.10 It means to be excessively involved in mental sexual activities and to indulge in enjoying sex arousing movies /dramas, songs, etc.
Q.VII.28.11 Can the marriage be performed of the son or of the daughter?
A.VII.28.11 Yes, the marriage of the son or daughter can be performed.
Q.VII.28.12 Can the thing given away (donated or gifted) once be donated /gifted again?
Q.VII.28.13 Can a woman (once married and now divorced or widow) be married again?
A.VII.28.13 No (not as per the scriptures)!
Q.VII.28.14 Can a votary of celibacy watch TV?
A.VII.28.14 No if they show perverted pictures or have such talks or music.
Ksetra-vāstu-hiraṇya-suvarṇa-dhana-dhānya-dāsī-dāsa-kupya-bhānda pramāṇātikramāh ̣
Meaning: Exceeding the set limits of possession of the lands, houses, gold, silver, cattle, grains, maids, servants clothes, utensils are the five transgressions of the vow of limiting possessions.
Q.VII.29.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow of limiting possessions (parigraha parimāṇāṇuvrata)?
A.VII.29.1 To exceed the limits set by ownself with regards to lands and houses, gold and silver, cattle and corn, maids and servants; and cloths and utensils are the five transgressions of the vow of limiting possessions (parigraha parimāṇāṇuvrata).
Q.VII.29.2 What is meant by land?
A.VII.29.2 The cultivatable field or barren or forest land is called land.
Q.VII.29.3 What is meant by vāstu (house)?
A.VII.29.3 It means the house or buildings to be used for residence commercial or any other purposes.
Q.VII.29.4 What is meant by exceeding the limits of land and houses?
A.VII.29.4 To possess more than the limits in terms of the area of land and number of houses is called exceeding the limits of cultivable land and houses.
Q.VII.29.5 What is meant by hiraṇya?
A.VII.29.5 It means silver.
Q.VII.29.6 What is meant by suvarṇa?
A.VII.29.6 It means gold.
Q.VII.29.7 What is meant by exceeding the limits of silver and gold?
A.VII.29.7 It means to exceed the limits (by weight or value) of having gold and silver.
Q.VII.29.8 What is meant by wealth?
A.VII.29.8 It means cows, bull, elephants, horses, jewelry etc.
Q.VII.29.9 What is meant by cereals (dhānya)?
A.VII.29.9 It means rice, wheat, etc which constitute food items.
Q.VII.29.10 What is meant by exceeding limits of possessing food items?
A.VII.29.10 It means to be excessively involved in mental and physical activities to own more food items than set as limits.
Q.VII.29.11 What is meant by dāsa and dāsīs?
A.VII.29.11 The men and women hired to serve as slaves are called maids and servants.
Q.VII.29.12 What is meant by kupya?
A.VII.29.12 It means the clothes for use as dress to put on.
Q.VII.29.13 What is meant by exceeding limits of men and women servants?
A.VII.29.13 It means to exceed the limits of the number of men and women servants to be kept.
Q.VII.29.14 What is meant by exceeding the limits of clothes and utensils?
A.VII.29.14 It means to exceed the limits of clothes and utensils to be owned or used.
Q.VII.29.15 What is meant by pramāṇātikrama?
A.VII.29.15 It means to exceed the limits set.
Meaning: Exceeding the limits set in the directions, namely up-wards, downwards and horizontally, enlarging the boundaries in the accepted directions, and forgetting the boundaries set, are the five transgressions of the minor vow of directional limits.
Q.VII.30.1 What are the five transgressions of the ‘vow of the directional limits’ (digavirati)?
A.VII.30.1 Exceeding the limits for movement set in the directions namely upwards, downwards and horizontally, enlarging the boundaries in the accepted directions and forgetting the boundaries set are the five transgressions of the vow of directional limit.
Q.VII.30.2 What is meant by exceeding the limit of upwards direction?
A.VII.30.2 To go on hills or fly above the limits set for upwards movements is exceeding the limits of upwards directions.
Q.VII.30.3 What is meant by exceeding the limit of downward movement?
A.VII.30.3 To go below in wells or sea etc beyond the lowest downward movement limit set is exceeding the limit of downward movement.
Q.VII.30.4 What is meant by exceeding the limit of horizontal movement?
A.VII.30.4 To go beyond the limit set in horizontal direction though tunnels or on land is called exceeding limits of horizontal movement.
Q.VII.30.5 What is meant by enlarging the boundaries in accepted directions?
A.VII.30.5 To increase the limits of movement in different directions under the influence of greed is called enlarging the boundaries in accepted directions.
Q.VII.30.6 What is meant by forgetting the boundaries set?
A.VII.30.6 It means to forget the set limits of movement in different directions.
Q.VII.30.7 Why does one forget the limits set for movement in different directions?
A.VII.30.7 The main reasons for forgetting are negligence and delusion.
Meaning: Sending for something outside the country of one’s resolve, commanding someone there to do thus, and indicating one’s intentions by sounds, by showing ownself, and by throwing cold etc.
Q.VII.31.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow of limiting movement outside the limit of country or city (deśavirati)?
A.VII.31.1 These are sending for something outside the country of one’s resolve i.e.zonal limits, commanding there someone to do something, and indicating one’s intentions by indications like sound or signals or throwing something there to perform certain activities.
Q.VII.31.2 What is meant by sending for something outside the country of one’s resolve?
A.VII.31.2 It means ‘To ask someone to bring things from places beyond the country set as limit for one’s movement’.
Q.VII.31.3 What is meant by commanding there someone to do something outside the country of one’s resolve?
A.VII.31.3 It means ‘To send or order someone to perform some activities in a place beyond the limit of a country set as a limit for one’s movement’.
Q.VII.31.4 What is meant by expressing the intentions by indications like sound to perform certain activities outside the set zone?
A.VII.31.4 It means ‘To indicate to people in a place, beyond the zone set as a limit for movement, by indications like coughing /clapping/ fingers etc to perform the intended activity’.
Q.VII.31.5 What is meant by expressing the intentions by indications like signals there to perform certain activities outside the set zone?
A.VII.31.5 It means ‘to indicate to people in a place, outside the set zone set as limit for movement, by indications like actions of the face or standing in a position so as to be visible, etc. to perform the intended activity’.
Q.VII.31.6 What is meant by expressing the intentions by indications like throwing something there to perform certain activities outside set zone?
A.VII.31.6 It means ‘to indicate to people in a place, outside the country of resolve set as a limit for movement, by indications like throwing pebbles or other material things to perform the intended activity’
Q.VII.31.7 Is it valid for a votary of deśavirati to talk on phone or to write letters or emails to persons outside the limit of set zone of movement?
Q.VII.31.8 Is achieving the objective through means other than personally going to places outside the country of resolve for movement OK for the votary of deśavirati?
A.VII.31.8 No as the votary is to be contented person and by doing so, he looses his contentment.
Meaning: Vulgar jokes, erotic gestures, garrulity (excessive talking), unmindful indulgence in too much action, keeping too many consumable and non-consumable objects, are the five transgressions of the vow of desisting / abstaining from unnecessary sin.
Q.VII.32.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow of abstaining from unnecessary / purposeless sinful activities (anarthadaṃdavirati)?
A.VII.32.1 These are: vulgar jokes, erotic gestures, garrulity and unmindful indulgence in too much action, keeping too many consumable and non-consumable objects.
Q.VII.32.2 What is meant by cutting vulgar jokes?
A.VII.32.2 It means to use dirty words to cut dirty and vulgar jokes.
Q.VII.32.3 What is meant by erotic gestures?
A.VII.32.3 It means to employ vulgar language mixed with laughter and wicked actions of the body.
Q.VII.32.4 What is meant by garrulity?
A.VII.32.4 It is to indulge in meaningless and unrestrained talks out of arrogance recklessly.
Q.VII.32.5 What is meant by unmindful indulging in too much action?
A.VII.32.5 It is too excessively, and without purpose, indulges in activities of mind, speech and body.
Q.VII.32.6 What is meant by keeping too many consumable and non-consumable objects?
A.VII.32.6 It is to stock more than what are essential levels of consumables and non-consumable objects.
Q.VII.32.7 What is meant by arthakya and anarthakya?
A.VII.32.7 Objects needed are arthakya and objects not needed are anarthakya.
Q.VII.32.8 Which is the transgression to read and think of not needed verses etc. from authors with perverted views?
A.VII.32.8 It is called unmindful indulging in too much mental action transgression.
Q.VII.32.9 Which is the transgression to unnecessarily cause misery to others by speaking vulgar language?
A.VII.32.9 It is called unmindful indulgence in too much speech action transgression.
Q.VII.32.10 Which transgression is to unnecessarily pierce live or dead flowers or to give weapons and poison etc to others?
A.VII.32.10 It is called unmindful indulgence in too much body action transgression.
Meaning: Misdirected threefold activity, lack of earnestness, and fluctuation of memory (are the five transgressions of the vow of periodical concentration.
Q.VII.33.1 What are the five transmigressions of the vow of periodical concentration (sāmāyika)?
A.VII.33.1 The five transgressions are misdirected activities of mind, speech and body, lack of earnestness and fluctuation of thoughts while performing the periodicals.
Q.VII.33.2 What is meant by misdirected activities of mind?
A.VII.33.2 To think of other subjects and not focus on contemplation during the periodical contemplation is the misdirected activities of mind.
Q.VII.33.3 What is meant by misdirected activities of speech?
A.VII.33.3 To pronounce the words fast or incorrectly during the periodical recitations is misdirected activities of speech.
Q.VII.33.4 What is meant by misdirected activities of body?
A.VII.33.4 Not keeping the body calm and composed (i.e. to perform activities like stretching, yawning, moving legs /hands, scratching etc) while performing the periodics is misdirected activities of body.
Q.VII.33.5 What is meant by lack of earnestness?
A.VII.33.5 Not to be enthusiastic in performing the periodic or to complete the same quickly for one reason or the other is called lack of earnestness.
Q.VII.33.6 What is meant by fluctuation of thoughts?
A.VII.33.6 To forget the sequence of activities due to the wandering of mind everywhere while performing the periodics is called fluctuation of thoughts.
Q.VII.33.7 What is meant by yoga?
A.VII.33.7 To perform activities of mind /speech / body which cause vibrations in the space points of the soul is called yoga /activities.
Q.VII.33.8 What is meant perverted activities?
A.VII.33.8 Activities performed with ill intentions are called perverted activities.
Q.VII.33.9 What is meant by ill intentions?
A.VII.33.9 To perform activities of mind /speech /body under the influence of anger / pride /deceit or greed while performing the periodics is called ill intention.
Meaning: Excreting, handling sandal-wood paste, flowers, etc., and spreading mats and garments without inspecting and cleaning the place and the materials, lack of earnestness and lack of concentration/memory.
Q.VII.34.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow of ceremonic fasting (pros adhopavāsavrata)?
A.VII.34.1 Excreting, handling sandal wood paste, flowers etc, spreading mats /garments etc without inspecting and cleaning the place and things, lack of earnestness and lack of concentration are the five transmigressions of the vow of fasting.
Q.VII.34.2 What is meant by pratyaveks ita?
A.VII.34.2 It means to inspect personally for the presence and absence of living beings at a place or a thing.
Q.VII.34.3 What is meant by pramārjita?
A.VII.34.3 It means to dust for cleaning a place or thing by soft implements like whisk.
Q.VII.34.4 What is meant by excreting?
A.VII.34.4 To attend to the nature’s calls (urinating, passing stool) is called excretion.
Q.VII.34.5 What is meant by excreting at apratyaveks ita and apramārjita place?
A.VII.34.5 It means to excrete at an un-inspected and unclean place.
Q.VII.34.6 What is meant by handling sandal wood, garments etc without inspecting and cleaning them?
A.VII.34.6 It means to pick up materials for worship or garments etc without inspecting and cleaning them.
Q.VII.34.7 What is meant by spreading mats or garment without inspection and cleaning of the place?
A.VII.34.7 It means to spread the mat for sleeping on the floor without inspecting and cleaning the place and the mat.
Q.VII.34.8 What is meant by lack of earnestness?
A.VII.34.8 It means to show lack of earnestness in observing the ceremonic fast due to the miserys of hunger /thirst etc.
Q.VII.34.9 What is meant by lack of concentration/memory?
A.VII.34.9 It means to forget the important activities of the vow.
Meaning: Victuals containing (one-sensed) organisms, placed near organisms and mixed with organisms, stimulants and ill-cooked food.
Q.VII.35.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow of limiting consumable and non consumable things (bhogo pabhoga - parimāṇavrata)?
A.VII.35.1 The five transgressions are: consuming foods which are: animate i.e. with organism, placed near animate food, mixed with animate food or with stimulants and ill-cooked.
Q.VII.35.2 What is meant by animate or organism?
A.VII.35.2 It means an entity with consciousness i.e. living beings.
Q.VII.35.3 What is meant by animate food?
A.VII.35.3 It means the green (i.e. not ripe) vegetables / flowers / fruits etc eaten out of ignorance (here meat and such non-veg items are not mentioned as they are not considered food at all).
Q.VII.35.4 What is meant by food placed touching animate articles?
A.VII.35.4 It means food placed on green leaf /s etc or covered by them etc.
Q.VII.35.5 What is meant by food mixed with animate articles?
A.VII.35.5 It means pure food mixed with animate food or food given by ignorant persons.
Q.VII.35.6 What is the difference between food placed touching animate articles and food mixed with animate food?
A.VII.35.6 The food placed near animate food can be made consumable by removing it from its environment while the mixed food cannot be made consumable / edible.
Q.VII.35.7 Why does a votary indulge in eating animate food?
A.VII.35.7 The votary does so under the influence of laziness, delusion and serenity of hunger /thirst.
Q.VII.35.8 What is meant by stimulating food?
A.VII.35.8 It means the food which when consumed, arouse pervert feelings.
Q.VII.35.9 What is meant by ill-cooked food?
A.VII.35.9 It means the food which is not cooked properly i.e. under cooked or over cooked.
Q.VII.35.10 What is harm in eating stimulating and ill-cooked foods?
A.VII.35.10 Stimulating food arouses disposition for sensual pleasures while ill-cooked foods cause physical disorders like stomach misery, indigestion, burning sensation, etc.
Meaning: Placing food on animate things such as green leaves, covering it with such things, food of another host, envy, and untimely food are the five transgressions of guest partaking vow.
Q.VII.36.1 What are the five transgressions of the vow to consume food after feeding the ascetics (athithisaṃvibhāgavrata)?
A.VII.36.1 These are serving the food to the guests; by placing the food on animate things, by covering food with things infested with organism, food from another host, with envy and untimely.
Q.VII.36.2 What is meant by serving the food to the guests by placing the food on things infested with organism?
A.VII.36.2 It means to place the food on lotus or banana leaf etc (with organism) to serve to the guests.
Q.VII.36.3 What is meant by apidhāna?
A.VII.36.3 It means to cover.
Q.VII.36.4 What is meant by covering food with animate objects?
A.VII.36.4 It means to cover the food with green leafs of the plants like lotus /banana etc which are still animate.
Q.VII.36.5 What is meant by parvyapdeśa?
A.VII.36.5 It means to ask others to bring food and serve (and not self) or to serve food prepared by others.
Q.VII.36.6 If a person spends money for food but instead of serving asks others to serve, then what is benefit to him?
A.VII.36.6 The benefits of serving are accrued to others (who serve) and not to himself (donor).
Q.VII.36.7 It is earlier said that doing, asking others to do or supporting others to do are all equal. Then why here we say that benefits are accrued by the server and not by the one who donates?
A.VII.36.7 Donating, worshipping and having a child are the benefits which are accrued by performing the instrumental activities yourself. Of course a disabled person can accrue benefits by asking others to donate or worship on his behalf. Supporting worship and donation by others, the human and sub-human beings can accrue benefits.
Q.VII.36.8 What is the benefit accrued by donating yourself?
A.VII.36.8 The donor accrues the energy to have and digest food, enjoy sensual pleasures, have woman and the capability to donate.
Q.VII.36.9 What is meant by envy?
A.VII.36.9 It means not to donate with respect to the recipient, or to feel envious of other donors.
Q.VII.36.10 What is meant by untimely?
A.VII.36.10 It means to serve food at inappropriate times (either too late or too early).
Q.VII.36.11 What is the appropriate time to serve food?
A.VII.36.11 The appropriate time is three half-Indian-hours (ghadi) after sun-rise or before sunset. (One ghadi is approximately equal to 24 minutes).
Meaning: Desire for life, desire for death, recollection of affection for friends, recollection of pleasures and constant longing for enjoyment.
Q.VII.37.1 What the five transmigressions of vow of voluntary pious death (sallekhanā) are?
A.VII.37.1 These are desire for life /or to live, desire for death, recollection of affection to friends, recollection of pleasures and longing for enjoyment.
Q.VII.37.2 What is meant by desire for life /or to live?
A.VII.37.2 It means to have a desire to prolong life to live longer to perform worship and serve others, etc.
Q.VII.37.3 Every one in this world wants to live longer. Then why is it called a transgression of ‘vow of voluntary pious death’?
A.VII.37.3 In reality this body is not permanent i.e. it is impermanent. Therefore it is appropriate to have this body till it supports observance of the vows. When it becomes a deterrent in observing the vows, then it should be discarded. It is at this moment that the desire to live longer is a transgression of the vow.
Q.VII.37.4 What is meant by desire for death?
A.VII.37.4 It means to wish for death when sickness and other calamities make life intolerably miseryful.
Q.VII.37.5 A votary of the ‘vow of voluntary pious death’ has intolerable misery. He wishes to die quickly to avoid the misery. Then why is it a transgression?
A.VII.37.5 Observing this vow means to have equanimity between life and death. Therefore he should tolerate the miserys with equanimity and not have a coward’s death which is a transgression. By such death one does not accrue merit.
Q.VII.37.6 What is meant by recollection of affection for friends?
A.VII.37.6 To recollect the friends and relatives with affection is recollection of affection for friends.
Q.VII.37.7 What is meant by recollection of pleasures??
A.VII.37.7 To recollect repeatedly the pleasures enjoyed earlier is recollection of pleasures.
Q.VII.37.8 What is meant by longing for pleasures / enjoyment?
A.VII.37.8 To expect /desire pleasures /enjoyment as a result of austerities being observed now is longing for pleasures / enjoyment.
Q.VII.37.9 A right believer also has the longing for liberation or dissociation of karmas and to be happy. Are these also longings or pleasure then?
A.VII.37.9 Longing is of two types namely auspicious and inauspicious. The right believer has auspicious longing which are not the cause of bondage. On the other hand, a wrong believer has inauspicious longings which are the cause of infinite bondage.
Anugrahārthaṃ svasyātisargo dānam
Meaning: Charity is the giving of one’s wealth to another for mutual benefit.
Q.VII.38.1 What is meant by anugraha?
A.VII.38.1 Anugraha means beneficial to both the donor and the recipient.
Q.VII.38.2 What is meant by charity?
A.VII.38.2 Charity is the giving of one’s wealth to another for mutual benefit.
Q.VII.38.3 How charity benefits the donor?
A.VII.38.3 Donor accumulates merit. This is the benefit accrued by the donor.
Q.VII.38.4 The recipient of charity develops a feeling of shame. Then how does it benefit him?
A.VII.38.4 Donating helps the enhancement of right belief-knowledge-conduct of the recipient also.
Q.VII.38.5 How does giving food to the ascetics help enhancement of the three jewels of the ascetic?
A.VII.38.5 Consuming the healthy food by the ascetics make them healthy and helps them contemplate and study scriptures more.
Q.VII.38.6 Can a donor ask others to donate the gifts on his behalf?
A.VII.38.6 If the donor is sick or not fit to donate for some reason, then he can ask others to give gifts (on his behalf).
Q.VII.38.7 What quality of gifts should be which the donor wants to donate?
A.VII.38.7 The gifts should be free from flaws, clean and as per the norms given in the scriptures.
Q.VII.38.8 How many types of charity are there?
A.VII.38.8 The four types of charity are of food, medicine, fearlessness and knowledge.
Meaning: The distinction with regard to the effect of a gift consists in the manner, the thing given, the nature of the donor and the nature of the recipient.
Q.VII.39.1 What are the distinctive features of the gift to be donated?
A.VII.39.1 The distinction with regard to the effects of a gift consists in the manner, the thing given, the nature of the giver and the nature of the recipient.
Q.VII.39.2 What is the distinction of the manner of donating?
A.VII.39.2 The distinction in manner lies in the nine fold veneration reverence or lack of it in welcoming the guest.
Q.VII.39.3 What is ‘Nine fold Veneration’?
A.VII.39.3 Collection (reception), high pedestal, feet wash, worship, bowing, mind-speech-body purity declarations, and purity of food are the nine venerations.
Q.VII.39.4 What is meant by saṃgraha?
A.VII.39.4 To welcome the ascetic for accepting food by chanting the mantra “O sire, I bow to thee, I bow to thee, I bow to thee, please stay here, please do stay here, the food and water are pure by speech; mind and body language”.
Q.VII.39.5 What is meant by high pedestal?
A.VII.39.5 High pedestal means a high place for the visiting ascetic to stand /sit for taking food.
Q.VII.39.6 What is meant by pādodaka?
A.VII.39.6 It is to wash the feet of the guest ascetic with pure water.
Q.VII.39.7 What is meant by arcana?
A.VII.39.7 It is to worship the guest ascetic.
Q.VII.39.8 What is meant by praṇāma?
A.VII.39.8 It is to bow in reverence before the guest ascetic.
Q.VII.39.9 What is meant by yogaśuddhi?
A.VII.39.9 It is to cleanse /purify the mind, speech and body of the donor and declare so to the recipient ascetic.
Q.VII.39.10 What is meant by es aṇāśuddhi?
A.VII.39.10 It is to clean and purify food by to donor and to declare so the recipient ascetic.
Q.VII.39.11 What is meant by dravyaviśes a?
A.VII.39.11 It is the food which enhances observing austerities, study etc of the ascetic.
Q.VII.39.12 Who are the donors?
A.VII.39.12 Warrior, Brāhmaṇa and Vaiśya can be donors.
Q.VII.39.13 What are the special characteristics of the donor?
A.VII.39.13 These are faith, devotion, free from personal gains, free from greed, compassion, contentment, full of forgiveness, intelligence and practitioner of truth,. These characteristics enhance significantly the benefits accrued from charity. Further he is free from envy and regret.
Q.VII.39.14 Who are the special recipients of the gifts?
A.VII.39.14 The ascetics who practise the three jewels (right faith-knowledge-conduct) are the special recipients.
Q.VII.39.15 How many types of recipients of gifts are there?
A.VII.39.15 The recipients are of three categories namely supreme recipients, average recipients and ordinary recipient.
Q.VII.39.16 Who are the supreme recipients of gift?
A.VII.39.16 Ascetics fall in this category.
Q.VII.39.17 Who are average recipients of gifts?
A.VII.39.17 These are the nuns (female ascetics) and the votary householders at higher levels of pratimas (stages of spiritual purification for the householders).
Q.VII.39.18 Who are the ordinary recipients of the gifts?
A.VII.39.18 The householders endowed with right belief /faith but not observing the vows fall in this category.
Q.VII.39.19 Who are improper recipients o the gifts?
A.VII.39.19 The householders who lack right faith / belief and observe external austerities (i.e. imitating a votary).
Q.VII.39.20 Who are categorized as unworthy recipients?
A.VII.39.20 The householders who are devoid of right faith and even do not observe external austerities.
Q.VII.39.21 What is the benefit of donating to a worthy recipient?
A.VII.39.21 Like a seed put in a good and fertile land grows to be a tree and provides fruit and shade etc, similarly donations to a worthy recipient gives desired benefits at appropriate times.