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Chapter 8 Q-A
Bondage of karmas
Meaning: Wrong belief, non-abstinence, laxity /negligence, passions and actions of the mind body and speech are the causes of bondage.
Q.VIII.1.1 What are the causes of bondage?
A.VIII.1.1 The five causes of bondage are wrong belief (mithyā darśana), non-abstinence (avirati), negligence (pramāda), passions (kas āya) and activities (yoga).
Q.VIII.1.2 What is meant by wrong belief (mithyā darśana)?
A.VIII.1.2 Belief in things as they are is right belief. Opposite of right belief is wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.3 How many types of wrong belief are there?
A.VIII.1.3 There are two types of wrong belief namely derived from teachings (grahīta) and natural (agrahīta).
Q.VIII.1.4 What is meant by natural wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.4 The manifestation of disbelief in the true nature of reality caused without the teachings from others but by the rise of the wrong belief karmas (which are associated with the soul from the beginning-less time) and is of the nature of wrong perception of the nature of soul is the natural wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.5 What is meant by wrong belief derived from teachings?
A.VIII.1.5 The belief acquired due to the wrong /pervert sermons and texts of others is wrong belief derived from teachings.
Q.VIII.1.6 How many types of wrong belief derived from teachings are there?
A.VIII.1.6 It is of five types, namely: absolutistic attitude (ekānta), contrary attitude (viparīta), doubtful attitude (saṃśaya), non discriminating attitude (vainayika) and ignorant attitude (ajñāna).
Q.VIII.1.7 What is meant by absolutistic wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.7 To think of an entity with multiple attributes as having just one attribute is monistic view wrong belief e.g. an entity is only permanent or is just impermanent.
Q.VIII.1.8 What is meant by contrary attitude wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.8 To think of the nature of soul or other substances exactly opposite of their true nature (e.g. to say that violence is religion) is contrary attitude wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.9 What is meant by doubtful attitude wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.9 To doubt in the belief on the existents is doubtful attitude wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.10 What is non discriminating attitude wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.10 To consider all gods, ascetics and religions is non discriminating attitude wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.11 What is ignorant attitude wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.11 Not having intellect to differentiate between what is good and what is evil is ignorant attitude wrong belief.
Q.VIII.1.12 How can one eliminate wrong belief?
A.VIII.1.12 One can eliminate ‘wrong belief caused by teachings’ by first understanding the true nature of right worthy persons (gods), right scriptures and right conduct. The natural wrong belief can be eliminated by learning the true nature of the soul and then experiencing the same.
Q.VIII.1.13 What is meant by non-abstinence (avirati)?
A.VIII.1.13 Non-abstinence is ‘not to protect the six kinds of living beings and not to exercise control on the five senses and mind’. Thus it is of twelve sub types. Non-self-restraint (asaṃyama) is its synonym.
Q.VIII.1.14 Which living beings are included in the six kinds?
A.VIII.1.14 All living beings are classified in six classes. These classes are living beings with earth as their body, with air as their body, with water as their body, with fire as their body and vegetation kingdom (all these five kinds are with one sense organ and stationery) and all mobile living beings (with two to five sense organs).
Q.VIII.1.15 Who are said to have non-abstinence of all twelve types?
A.VIII.1.15 The living beings, that are tainted with passions of the levels virulent (anantānubandhi i.e. those bonded for infinite births) and mild (apratyākhāna i.e. those that prevent partially the observance of vows), have non-abstinence of all twelve types.
Q.VIII.1.16 What is meant by negligence (pramāda)?
A.VIII.1.16 Disinterest or indifference in performing one’s duty is negligence. It can also be said as indifference to laudable activities.
Q.VIII.1.17 How many types of negligence are there?
A.VIII.1.17 Negligence is of fifteen types namely: hearing four types of stories (of women, food, stealing and empire /kings), four passions, and subjects of five sense organs, sleeping and affection.
Q.VIII.1.18 Indifference towards which activities causes flaw of negligence?
A.VIII.1.18 These are: five attitudes of carefulness (samiti), three attitudes of restraint (gupti), ten religious virtues (Dasa laks aṇa).
Q.VIII.1.19 Which are the purities of the five attitudes of carefulness and three attitudes of restraints?
A.VIII.1.19 The purities are: purity in reverence-in thought, in speech, in body, in walking, in food accepted, in placing things, in lying down and in sitting.
Q.VIII.1.20 What is meant by passions?
A.VIII.1.20 The dispositions, which cause distractions in the soul from its own nature and so are the cause of the transmigration, are passions.
Q.VIII.1.21 How many types of passions are there?
A.VIII.1.21 Passions are of twenty five sub types, namely four levels i.e. virulent, mild, moderate (pratyākhāna) and subtle (saṃjavalana) of anger, pride, deceit, greed, and nine quasi passions namely jest, liking for certain objects, dislike for certain objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after neutral gender.
Q.VIII.1.22 Till which stage of spiritual purification are passions existent?
A.VIII.1.22 Passions exist from first till tenth stage of spiritual purification in some form or another.
Q.VIII.1.23 What is meant by activities (yoga)?
A.VIII.1.23 Actions of mind, body and speech that cause vibrations of the space points of the soul are called activities.
Q.VIII.1.24 How many types of activities are there?
A.VIII.1.24 These are of fifteen types namely: Mental and speech activities are of four types each (true, false, both true and false and neither true nor false), seven activities of the body (gross, gross mixed, celestial, celestial mixed, conveyance, conveyance mixed, karma and luminous)
Q.VIII.1.25 Which are the five causes of bondage in the first stage of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.25 The five causes of bondage are wrong belief (mithyā darśana), non-abstinence (avirati), negligence (pramāda), passions (kas āya) and activities (yoga).
Q.VIII.1.26 What are the causes of bondage in two through fourth stages of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.26 Except wrong belief, all four causes of bondage commencing from non-abstinence are active in these stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VIII.1.27 What are the causes of bondage in the fifth stage of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.27 The causes of bondage i.e. non-abstinence cum abstinence,negligence, the passions and activities are operational.
Q.VIII.1.28 What are the causes of bondage in the sixth stage of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.28 The causes of bondage i.e. negligence, the passions and activities are operational.
Q.VIII.1.29 What are the causes of bondage in the seventh till tenth stage of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.29 The causes of bondage i.e. the passions and activities are operational.
Q.VIII.1.30 What are the causes of bondage in the eleventh till thirteenth stage of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.1.30 Activities are the only cause of bondage and operational.
Q.VIII.1.31 What are the causes of bondage in the fourteenth stage of spiritual purification?
Q.VIII.1.32 Out of 148 tendencies (prakr ti) of the karmas how many tendencies cause bondage?
A.VIII.1.32 120 tendencies of the karmas cause bondage.
Sakas āyatvājjīvah ̣ karmaṇo yogyānpudgalānādatte sa bandhah ̣
Meaning: The individual self attracts particles of matter which are fit to turn into karma, as the self is actuated by passions. This is bondage.
Q.VIII.2.1 What is meant by bondage (bandha)?
A.VIII.2.1 Bondage is the bonding of the matter particles fit to be karmas with the soul (in the state of passions).
Q.VIII.2.2 How does the soul get bonded with the matter particles capable of becoming karma (kārmaṇa vargaṇā)?
A.VIII.2.2 Whenever the empirical soul is tainted with passion and gets involved in activities, it creates vibrations in the surroundings filled with matter particles capable of becoming karma. These matter particles then get attracted towards the soul and get bonded like red hot iron when dipped in water attracts water from all sides.
Q.VIII.2.3 How are the new karmas bonded with the soul?
A.VIII.2.3 Bondage of the empirical soul with karmas exists from beginning-less time. When the existing (already bonded) karmas rise they cause passions in the soul’s disposition which if not checked by the soul cause new bondage of karmas.
Q.VIII.2.4 In the previous aphorism, passions has been mentioned as the cause of bondage, then why sakas āyatvat is used here again?
A.VIII.2.4 Virulent, mild and moderate states of the passions cause identical levels of the duration and potency characteristics of the karmas bonded. To express this fact the word sakas āyatvat is used here again.
Q.VIII.2.5 How non-concrete soul gets bonded with concrete karmas?
A.VIII.2.5 Non-concrete soul does not get bonded with concrete karmas. By tradition we say that the empirical soul acts like concrete entity and get bonded with concrete karmas.
Q.VIII.2.6 Who is a living being (jīva)?
A.VIII.2.6 An entity which has six to ten life forces /vitalities and has life is called a living being. Another definition of a living being is one who is endowed with knowledge and perception.
Q.VIII.2.7 Why the word jīva is used in the aphorism?
A.VIII.2.7 The word jīva is used to show that a living being with life span (the pure soul does not get bonded) only gets bonded.
Q.VIII.2.8 Why the word karmaṇo yogyān is used instead of karmayogyān in the aphorism?
A.VIII.2.8 The kārma bondage takes place due to passions and due to the passionate disposition of the soul; it gets bonded with matter particles fit to become karmas. This also proves that karmas and the soul are bonded from a beginning-less time.
Q.VIII.2.9 What is the flaw in saying that the bondage of karmas with soul has a beginning?
A.VIII.2.9 By accepting that bondage of the soul has a beginning; bondage of empirical souls, like for pure soul, will also be not possible.
Q.VIII.2.10 What is the nature of empirical soul and karma?
A.VIII.2.10 The nature of empirical soul is to develop passionate disposition while the nature of karmas is to affect such disposition of the empirical soul.
Q.VIII.2.11 How do we establish the existence of soul in the body?
A.VIII.2.11 The feeling and use of the word ‘I’ indicates the existence of the soul in the body. Thus the word ‘I’ is the indication of the soul.
Q.VIII.2.12 How do we establish the existence of karmas with the empirical soul?
A.VIII.2.12 There are infinite living beings in this universe. Each has different level of the manifestation of consciousness as knowledge and intuition. Also the discrimination amongst them as rich or poor, happy and unhappy etc all prove the existence of karmas with the soul.
Q.VIII.2.13 Why has the word pudgala used in the aphorism?
A.VIII.2.13 This word is used to show the concomitance of matter and karma.
Q.VIII.2.14 Even though jīva is a being of independent nature, still it is transmigrating in this universe. Why?
A.VIII.2.14 This transmigration is due to its bondage with karmas.
Prakr tisthiyanubhavapradeśāstadvidhayah ̣
Meaning: Bondage of four kinds according to the nature or species, duration, fruition and the quantity of space-points of karma.
Q.VIII.3.1 How many kinds of bondage (baṃdha) are there?
A.VIII.3.1 Bondage is of four kinds namely species (prakr ti), duration (stithī), potency (anubhāga) and quantity of space-points (pradeśa).
Q.VIII.3.2 What is meant by species of bondage?
A.VIII.3.2 The innate nature of the bondage is called species of bondage. Knowledge obscuring etc are the eight kinds of species of bondage.
Q.VIII.3.3 What is meant by duration of bondage?
A.VIII.3.3 Time period for which various species of karmas will stay bonded with the soul is called duration of the bondage.
Q.VIII.3.4 What is meant by potency of the bondage?
A.VIII.3.4 The strength of different karmas to yield strong or mild etc effects on their rise is called potency of bondage.
Q.VIII.3.5 What is meant by space-points of the bondage?
A.VIII.3.5 The quantity of kārmaṇa particles which get bonded with the soul is called space-points of bondage.
Q.VIII.3.6 What are the causes of these four types of bondage?
A.VIII.3.6 The species and space-points bondage are caused by activities while the potency and duration bondage is caused by passions.
Q.VIII.3.7 Which influx type has all four kinds of bondage?
A.VIII.3.7 Influx towards soul tainted with passion (sāmparāyika) has all kinds of bondage.
Q.VIII.3.8 Till which stage of spiritual purification all four kinds of bondage are possible?
A.VIII.3.8 Till the tenth stage of spiritual purification, all four kinds of bondage can take place.
Q.VIII.3.9 Which kind of bondage takes place in 11th till 13th stages of spiritual purification?
A.VIII.3.9 Only pleasant feeling karma (sātā vednīya) karma can be bonded. However due to absence of passions, duration and potency bondage of these also is not possible. Due to existence of activities only species and space-points of karma bondage can take place.
Q.VIII.3.10 Till which stages of spiritual purification bondage of each of the four kinds can take place?
A.VIII.3.10 The species and space points can take place from 1st till 13th stages of spiritual purification. The potency and duration bondage is possible from 1st till 10th stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VIII.3.11 Which kind of bondage is possible in the 14th stage of spiritual purification?
Q.VIII.3.12 Why the liberated /pure souls (siddha) are fee from bondage of any kind?
A.VIII.3.12 Since pure soul is fee from passions and activities, they are free from all types of bondage.
Meaning: The species-bondage is of eight kinds, knowledge-obscuring, perception-obscuring, feeling-producing, deluding, life-determining, body-making (physique-making),status-determining and obstructive karmas.
Q.VIII.4.1 How many types of species bondage (prakr ti baṃdha) are there?
A.VIII.4.1 It is of eight types namely: knowledge obscuring (jñānāvarṇīya), perception obscuring (darśanāvarṇīya), feeling producing (vedanīya), deluding (mohanīya), lifespan determining (āyu), physique-making (nāma), status-determining (gotra), obstructive (antarāya).
Q.VIII.4.2 What is meant by obscuring (āvaraṇa)?
A.VIII.4.2 It means to put a veil or cover or to hide. The cover used to hide is called āvaraṇa.
Q.VIII.4.3 What is meant by knowledge obscuring karma?
A.VIII.4.3 The karma which obscures or covers the knowledge attribute of the soul is called knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.4.4 What is meant by perception obscuring karma?
A.VIII.3.4 The karma which obscures or covers the perception attribute of the soul is called perception obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.4.5 What is meant by feeling producing karmas?
A.VIII.4.5 The karmas, rise of which, produce a feeling of misery or pleasure is called feeling producing karma.
Q.VIII.4.6 What is meant by deluding karma?
A.VIII.4.6 The karmas which cause distraction from the self and develop a feeling of ‘mine’ in others are called deluding karmas.
Q.VIII.4.7 What is meant by lifespan determining karma?
A.VIII.3.7 The karmas which give the living body existence in the four destinies (hell, heaven, human and sub human) are called lifespan determining karma.
Q.VIII.4.8 What is meant physique-making karma?
A.VIII.4.8 The karmas rise of which gives various forms and their characteristics are called physique -making or name karma.
Q.VIII.4.9 What is meant by status determining karma?
A.VIII.4.9 The karmas which deter’mine’ the high or low status family of the living beings in the same realm is called status determining karma.
Q.VIII.4.10 What is meant by obstructing karmas?
A.VIII.4.10 The rise of which causes obstructions in the dispositions of gain, charity, enjoyment and potency is called obstructing karma.
Q.VIII.4.11 Which out of these eight types of karmas cause bondage of new karmas?
A.VIII.4.11 Deluding karma is the only cause of bondage of new karmas.
Q.VIII.4.12 How these eight types of karmas are grouped in two classes?
A.VIII.4.12 These can be clubbed as obscuring (ghātiā) and non-obscuring (aghātiā) karmas.
Q.VIII.4.13 What is meant by obscuring karmas?
A.VIII.4.13 These karmas do not let the nature (main characteristics) of the soul become active fully i.e. they obscure the nature of the soul partially.
Q.VIII.4.14 Which are the obscuring karmas?
A.VIII.4.14 These are the knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, deluding and obstructing karmas.
Q.VIII.4.15 What are the non-obscuring karmas?
A.VIII.4.15 The karmas which do not obscure the nature (primary attributes) of the soul are called non obscuring karmas.
Q.VIII.4.16 Which types of karmas are non-obscuring?
A.VIII.4.16 The feeling producing, body-making, lifespan determining and status determining karmas which do not obscure the nature (primary attributes) of the soul and are thus called non obscuring karmas.
Q.VIII.4.17 How many types of tendencies (prakr ti) of obscuring karma are there?
A.VIII.4.17 There are two types of tendencies namely complete obscuring and partial obscuring.
Q.VIII.4.18 Which obscuring tendencies obscure completely?
A.VIII.4.18 The tendencies omniscience (kevala jñāna), complete perception (kevala darśana), five types of sleep; virulent, mild and moderate passions (12) and deluding are the 20 tendencies which completely obscure the soul.
Q.VIII.4.19 Which are the tendencies (prakr ti) of karmas that are partially obscuring?
A.VIII.4.19 The four tendencies of knowledge obscuring, three of perception obscuring (eye, non eye and clairvoyance), right belief, subtle passions (4), nine quasi passions and five of obstructing karmas for a total of 26 tendencies which partially obscure the nature of the soul
Q.VIII.4.20 How the karma particles which obscure the nature of soul, get classified as of eight types?
A.VIII.4.20 Like the food eaten once gets converted into meat, bones, blood, stool etc; similarly one disposition of the soul can cause many types of karmas to be bonded with the soul.
Meaning: The subdivisions are five, nine, two, twenty-eight, four, forty-two, two and five kinds respectively.
Q.VIII.5.1 What are the sub divisions of the eight types of karmas?
A.VIII.5.1 The 148 sub divisions of the eight types of karmas are: five for knowledge obscuring, nine for perception obscuring, two for feeling producing, twenty eight for deluding, four lifespan determining, two for status determining, ninety three for physique-making and five for obstructing karmas.
Meaning: Karmas which obscure sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience are the five kinds of knowledge-obscuring karmas.
Q.VIII.6.1 How many sub divisions of knowledge obscuring karma are there?
A.VIII.6.1 The five sub divisions of knowledge obscuring karma are: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience.
Q.VIII.6.2 What is meant by sensory knowledge obscuring karma?
A.VIII.6.2 The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the sensory knowledge is called sensory knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.6.3 What is meant by scriptural knowledge obscuring karma?
A.VIII.6.3 The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the sensory knowledge is called sensory knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.6.4 What is meant by clairvoyance obscuring karma?
A.VIII.6.4 The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the clairvoyance knowledge is called clairvoyance knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.6.5 What is meant by telepathy knowledge obscuring karma?
A.VIII.6.5 The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the telepathy knowledge is called telepathy knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.6.6 What is meant by omniscience obscuring karma?
A.VIII.6.6 The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the omniscience is called omniscience obscuring karma.
Q.VIII.6.7 In what type of living beings are these five sub divisions of knowledge obscuring karmas found?
A.VIII.6.7 These are found in both capable of salvation (bhavya) and incapable of salvation (abhavya) living beings.
Q.VIII.6.8 Do the inauspicious living beings have the potential for attaining telepathy and omniscience?
A.VIII.6.8 From substance point of view, they have these potentials while from modal viewpoint; they do not have the potential to achieve telepathy and omniscience.
Q.VIII.6.9 If the inauspicious beings have these two potentialities to achieve omniscience and telepathy, then what is the difference between them and auspicious beings?
A.VIII.6.9 Existence of potential is not a criterion of their distinction but the actual attainment of these potentials is the criterion of the distinction as auspicious and inauspicious beings.
Q.VIII.6.10 Are there eight sub divisions of knowledge or just five?
A.VIII.6.10 Knowledge is of five sub types only. Because of the opposite nature of the first three i.e. sensory, scriptural and clairvoyance also possible, it is said that knowledge is of eight types.
Caks uracaks uravadhi-kevalānāṃ nidrā-nidrānidrā-pracalā-pracalā-pracalā-styānagr ddhayaśca
Meaning: The four karmas that cover ocular perception, non-ocular intuition, clairvoyant perception and perfect perception, sleep, deep-sleep, drowsiness (sleep in sitting posture), heavy drowsiness (intense sleep in sitting posture) and somnambulism (committing cruel deeds in sleep) are the nine subtypes of perception-obscuring karmas.
Q.VIII.7.1 How many types of perception obscuring karmas are there?
A.VIII.7.1 These are of nine types namely: ocular perception, non-ocular perception, clairvoyant perception, perfect perception, sleep, deep-sleep, drowsiness (sleep in sitting posture), heavy drowsiness and somnambulism/sleep walking(committing cruel deeds while asleep).
Q.VIII.7.2 What is meant by obscuring ocular perception?
A.VIII.7.2 Not letting the eyes see the objects of knowledge is ocular obscuring.
Q.VIII.7.3 What is meant by obscuring non ocular perception?
A.VIII.7.3 Not letting the four sense organs (barring eyes) and mind perceive the objects of knowledge is non ocular perception obscuring.
Q.VIII.7.4 What is meant by obscuring clairvoyant perception?
A.VIII.7.4 Not letting the general perception before the clairvoyant knowledge manifests is obscuring the clairvoyant perception.
Q.VIII.7.5 What is meant by obscuring perfect perception?
A.VIII.7.5 Not letting the perfect perception which occurs simultaneously with perfect knowledge is obscuring perfect perception.
Q.VIII.7.6 What is meant by sleep?
A.VIII.7.6 To sleep induced by pride, sorrow or hard efforts is called sleep.
Q.VIII.7.7 What is meant by obscuring perception due to sleep?
A.VIII.7.7 Perception obscured by the general sleep induced by the rise of perception obscuring karmas is obscuring perception due to sleep.
Q.VIII.7.8 What is meant by sleep-sleep?
A.VIII.7.8 Deep sleep which makes it hard to open the eyes is called sleep-sleep.
Q.VIII.7.9 What is meant by obscuring perception due to sleep-sleep?
A.VIII.7.9 Perception obscured by the deep sleep induced by the rise of perception obscuring karmas is obscuring perception due to sleep-sleep.
Q.VIII.7.10 What is meant by drowsiness karmas?
A.VIII.7.10 The karmas which cause semi sleep-awake disposition are called perception obscuring due to drowsiness karmas.
Q.VIII.7.11 What is meant by heavy drowsiness karmas?
A.VIII.7.11 The karmas the rise of which cause movement of head, body etc and discharge of saliva from the mouth while drowsy (i.e. sleeping even in sitting posture) are called heavy drowsiness inducing karmas.
Q.VIII.7.12 What is meant by somnambulism (sleep walking)?
A.VIII.7.12 It means to perform activities while asleep without knowing even after being awake from the sleep.
Q.VIII.7.13 Perception is of four types. Why nine types of perception obscuring karmas are mentioned here?
A.VIII.7.13 It is true that perception is of four types only. But we have perception first and then knowledge manifestation. The remaining five i.e. sleep etc do not let one perceive and hence do not let manifestation of knowledge take place. Therefore these five types of sleep have been included here also.
Meaning: The two karmas which cause pleasant feeling and unpleasant feeling respectively are the two subtypes of feeling-producing karmas.
Q.VIII.8.1 What are the two types of feeling-producing karmas?
A.VIII.8.1 These are pleasant feeling and unpleasant feeling karmas.
Q.VIII.8.2 What is meant by pleasant feeling (Sātā Vedanīya)?
A.VIII.8.2 It means the karmas rise of which produce pleasant feelings amongst living beings in heavenly and other states of existences are called pleasant feeling karmas.
Q.VIII.8.3 What is meant by unpleasant feeling (Asātā Vedanīya)?
A.VIII.8.3 It means the karmas rise of which produce unpleasant feelings amongst living beings in different states of existences are called unpleasant feeling karmas.
Meaning: The deluding karmas are of twenty-eight kinds. These are the three subtypes of faith-deluding karmas; i. the two types of conduct-deluding karmas which cause (and which are caused by) the passions and quasi-passions, the subtypes of the passions ii. and the quasi-passions iii being sixteen and nine respectively.
Q.VIII.9.1 Which are the two types of deluding karmas?
A.VIII.9.1 These are the faith deluding (darśana mohanīya) and conduct deluding (cāritra mohanīya).
Q.VIII.9.2 How many sub types of faith deluding karmas are there?
A.VIII.9.2 The three sub types of faith deluding karmas are: wrong belief (mithyātva), mixed wrong and right belief (samyaktva) and right belief slightly clouded by wrong belief (samyaktva mithyātva).
Q.VIII.9.3 What is meant by faith deluding karma (darśana mohnīya)?
A.VIII.9.3 The karmas which obscures or covers the right belief attribute of the soul is called faith deluding karma.
Q.VIII.9.4 What is meant by wrong belief karmas (mithyātva)?
A.VIII.9.4 The karma which rise of which turns a living being believer of reality and its nature as described by the omniscient are called wrong belief karma.
Q.VIII.9.5 What is meant by mixed wrong and right belief (samyaktva)karmas?
A.VIII.9.5 The karmas, rise of which produce a flaw in the right belief is called mixed wrong and right belief.
Q.VIII.9.6 What is meant by right belief slightly clouded by wrong belief karma?
A.VIII.9.6 The karmas rise of which produce a mixed disposition (like curd mixed with jiggery) i.e. evolving belief that is neither right nor wrong, is called right belief slightly clouded by wrong belief karmas.
Q.VIII.9.7 How many sub types of conduct deluding karmas are there?
A.VIII.9.7 These karmas are mainly of two types namely caused by passions (kas āya) and those caused by quasi passions (no-kas āya).
Q.VIII.9.8 How many types of quasi passions are there?
A.VIII.9.8 Quasi passions are of nine types namely: jest, liking for certain objects, dislike for certain objects, grief or sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men, hankering after women and hankering after neutral gender.
Q.VIII.9.9 What is meant by conduct deluding karma?
A.VIII.9.9 The karmas rise of which obstruct the right conduct nature of the soul are called conduct deluding karmas.
Q.VIII.9.10 What is meant by jest karma?
A.VIII.9.10 The karmas rise of which causes laughter is called jest karma.
Q.VIII.9.11 What is meant by liking for certain objects (rati) karmas?
A.VIII.9.11 The karmas rising of which causes liking for pleasant things are called ‘liking for certain objects’ karmas.
Q.VIII.9.12 What is meant by dislike for certain objects (arati) karmas?
A.VIII.9.12 The karmas rising of which causes disliking for unpleasant things are called dislike for certain objects karmas.
Q.VIII.9.13 What is meant by sorrow /grief karmas?
A.VIII.9.13 The karmas rise of which cause sorrow /grief are called sorrow /grief karmas.
Q.VIII.9.14 What is meant by fear karmas?
A.VIII.9.14 The karmas rise of which cause feeling of fear are called fear karmas.
Q.VIII.9.15 What is meant by disgust karmas?
A.VIII.9.15 The karmas rise of which cause feelings of disgust are called disgust karmas.
Q.VIII.9.16 What is meant by hankering after women karmas?
A.VIII.9.16 The karmas rise of which causes feeling of being with women are called hankering after women karmas.
Q.VIII.9.17 What is meant by hankering after men karmas?
A.VIII.9.17 The karmas rise of which causes feeling of being with men are called hankering after men karmas.
Q.VIII.9.18 What is meant by hankering after neutral gender karma?
A.VIII.9.18 The karmas rise of which cause feeling being with both men and women are called hankering after neutral gender karmas.
Q.VIII.9.19 How many types of conduct deluding karmas caused by passions are there?
A.VIII.9.19 These are of sixteen sub types namely four levels (virulent (anantānubaṃdhi), mild (apratyākhāna), moderate (pratyākhāna) and subtle (saṃjvallana)) of the four passions namely anger, pride, deceit and greed.
Q.VIII.9.20 What is the nature of the virulent anger-pride-deceit-greed karmas?
A.VIII.9.20 These severely obscure the true nature of the soul and cause infinite cycles of transmigression by not letting the soul achieve the right belief.
Q.VIII.9.21 What is the nature of the mild anger-pride-deceit-greed karmas??
A.VIII.9.21 The rise of these karmas does not let the soul develop disposition to observe slightly the right conduct.
Q.VIII.9.22 What is the nature of the moderate anger-pride-deceit-greedkarmas?
A.VIII.9.22 The rise of these karmas does not let the soul develop disposition to practice the right-conduct completely.
Q.VIII.9.23 What is the nature of the subtle anger-pride-deceit-greed karmas?
A.VIII.9.23 The rise of these karmas does not let the soul develop the disposition to observe perfect conduct (yathākhyāta).
Q.VIII.9.24 What is meant by the passion ‘anger’?
A.VIII.9.24 The disposition rise of which causes inclinations to hurt the owner himself and not to be compassionate towards others or be cruel towards them is called anger.
Q.VIII.9.25 What is meant by the passion ‘pride’?
A.VIII.9.25 The disposition rise of which causes development of pride for family, caste, wealth, power, knowledge, physical beauty, austerities and influence as well as lack of humility towards others is called pride.
Q.VIII.9.26 What is meant by the passion ‘deceit’?
A.VIII.9.26 The disposition (bhāva) rise of which causes wicked activities of mind, speech and body to deceive others or to usurp their wealth is deceit.
Q.VIII.9.27 What is meant by the passion ‘greed’?
A.VIII.9.27 The disposition rise of which causes the development of desire /want for pleasant objects is greed.
Q.VIII.9.28 What is the state of the soul due to virulent anger?
A.VIII.9.28 The anger at this level is like the line drawn in a rock and is the cause of the hellish realm.
Q.VIII.9.29 What is the state of the soul due to mild anger?
A.VIII.9.29 The anger at this level is like the line drawn in soil and is the cause of the sub-human realm.
Q.VIII.9.30 What is the state of the soul due to moderate anger?
A.VIII.9.30 The anger at this level is like the line drawn in sand and is the cause of the human realm.
Q.VIII.9.31 What is the state of the soul due to subtle anger?
A.VIII.9.31 The anger at this level is like the line drawn in water and is the cause of the heavenly realm.
Q.VIII.9.32 What is the state of the soul due to virulent pride?
A.VIII.9.32 The pride at this level is like the pillar of rock which can break but not bend and is the cause of the hellish realm.
Q.VIII.9.33 What is the state of the soul due to mild pride?
A.VIII.9.33 The pride at this level is like the bone which can bend back¡rds due to some reason and is the cause of the sub human realm.
Q.VIII.9.34 What is the state of the soul due to moderate pride?
A.VIII.9.34 The pride at this level is like the new wood which bends in water and is the cause of the human realm.
Q.VIII.9.35 What is the state of the soul due to subtle pride?
A.VIII.9.35 The pride at this level is like the branch of the creeper which bends easily and is the cause of the heavenly realm.
Q.VIII.9.36 What is the state of the soul due to virulent deceit?
A.VIII.9.36 The deceit at this level is like the root of the bamboo and is the cause of hellish realm.
Q.VIII.9.37 What is the state of the soul due to mild deceit?
A.VIII.9.37 The deceit at this level is like the horns of a ram and is the cause of the sub human realm.
Q.VIII.9.38 What is the state of the soul due to moderate deceit?
A.VIII.9.38 The deceit at this level is like the urine (appearing on the ground) of the moving cow and is the cause of the human realm.
Q.VIII.9.39 What is the state of the soul due to subtle deceit?
A.VIII.9.39 The deceit at this level is like the hair of a cow or the bent shape of a pen and is the cause of the heavenly realm.
Q.VIII.9.40 What is the state of the soul due to virulent greed?
A.VIII.9.40 The greed at this level is like the fast colour of cloth/carpet and is the cause of hellish realm.
Q.VIII.9.41 What is the state of the soul due to mild greed?
A.VIII.9.41 The greed at this level is like the colour of the soot and is the cause of the sub human realm.
Q.VIII.9.42 What is the state of the soul due to moderate greed?
A.VIII.9.42 The greed at this level is like the colour of the dirt mudded water and is the cause of the human realm.
Q.VIII.9.43 What is the state of the soul due to subtle greed?
A.VIII.9.43 The greed at this level is like the colour of turmeric and is the cause of the heavenly realm.
Q.VIII.9.44 What is the duration of existence of each type of passion at four levels?
A.VIII.9.44 The maximum duration of virulent passions is numerable /innumerable /infinite time periods, of mild passions is six months, of moderate passions is fifteen days and of subtle passions is less than 48 minutes.
Q.VIII.9.45 What is meant by duration of the passions?
A.VIII.9.45 It is the period for which karmas bonded due to the passions exist even though they have attained the rise and if not destroyed, converts to the next higher level.
Meaning: (The life-karmas deter’mine’ the quantum of life in the states of existence as) infernal beings, plants and animals, human beings and celestial beings.
Q.VIII.10.1 How many types of life determining (āyu) karma are there?
A.VIII.10.1 These are of four different types namely heavenly/celestial (deva), infernal /hellish (naraka), human (manus ya) and sub-human (animal and plant or tiryaṃca) realms (states of existence).
Q.VIII.10.2 What is meant by life in hell or hellish life?
A.VIII.10.2 The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in the infernal realm to suffer intense miserys due to heat, cold, hunger, thurst etc is life in hell.
Q.VIII.10.3 What is meant by sub-human life?
A.VIII.10.3 The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in sub human realm is life in sub- human realm.
Q.VIII.10.4 What is meant by human life?
A.VIII.10.4 The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in human realm is life in human realm.
Q.VIII.10.5 What is meant by life in heaven or heavenly life?
A.VIII.10.5 The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in heaven realm is life in heaven realm.
Q.VIII.10.6 What is meant by life determining karma?
A.VIII.10.6 Life determining vitality is the main life vitality out of the ten vitalities. The karma whose presence is the cause of existence of life vitality (i.e. life) and absence is the cause of death is life determining karma. Life determining karma deter’mine’s the span of existence in a particular realm and is not the cause of the movement of the living being from the present realm to the next realm (which is the cause of physique-making karma).
Q.VIII.10.7 What is the primary cause of getting birth in a particular realm?
A.VIII.10.7 The primary cause of getting birth in a particular realm is the physique-making (nāma) karma and cause of its existence in the realm is life determining (āyu) karma.
Q.VIII.10.8 Out of the four ralms which destinies are the auspicious and/or inauspicious?
A.VIII.10.8 The three realms i.e. heavenly, human and sub-human are auspicious and the heavenly realm is inauspicious.
Q.VIII.10.9 Why sub-human life is called auspicious?
A.VIII.10.9 No one wants to get sub human realm and so it is inauspicious. However, due to attaining right belief in this realm also, it is called auspicious.
Q.VIII.10.10 Why infernal realm is called inauspicious?
A.VIII.10.10 No one wants to get infernal life as it is full of miserys and sufferings only and it is almost impossible to achieve right belief.
Gati-jāti-śarīrāṃgopāṃga-nirmāṇa-bandhana-sanghāta-saṃsthāna-saṃhanana- sparśa-rasa-gandha-varnānupūrvyagurulaghūpaghāta-paraghātātapodyotocchvāsa-vihāyogatayah pratyekaśarīra-trasa-subhaga-susvara-śubha-sūks ma-paryāpti-sthirādeya-yaśah ̣kīrti setarāṇi tīrthakaraivam ca
Meaning: The physique-making karmas comprise the state of existence, the class, the body, the primaryand secondary body parts, formation, binding (union), molecular interfusion, structure, joint, touch, taste, odour, colour, movement after death, neither heavy nor light, self-annihilation, annihilation by others, emitting warm splendour, emitting cool luster, respiration, gait, individual body, mobile being, a melodious voice, beauty of form, minute body, complete development (of the organs), firmness lustrous body, glory and renown, and the opposites of these (commencing from individual body), and tirthakaratva.
Q.VIII.11.1 What is meant by state of existence (realm body-making) karma?
A.VIII.11.1 The karmas rise of which causes the movement of the living being from present realm to the next realm is called state of existence body-making karma. It is of four types namely infernal state of existence body-making karma, sub-human state of existence body-making karma, human state of existence body-making karma and celestial state of existence body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.2 What is meant by infernal state of existence body-making karmas?
A.VIII.11.2 The karmas, rise of which causes birth in the hellish realm are called infernal state of existence body-making e karma.
Q.VIII.11.3 What is meant by sub human state of existence body-making karmas?
A.VIII.11.3 The karmas rises of which causes birth in the sub-human realm are called sub-human state of existence body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.4 What is meant by human state of existence name karmas?
A.VIII.11.4 The karmas rises of which causes birth in the human realm are called human state of existence body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.5 What is meant by celestial state of existence body-making karmas?
A.VIII.11.5 The karmas rises of which causes birth in the heavenly realm are called celestial state of existence body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.6 What is meant by the class (jāti) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.6 The karmas rise of which produces birth in a grouping of similar / alike beings (called jāti) without deviating from the particular realm is called class body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.7 How many sub types of class body-making karmas are there?
A.VIII.11.7 These karmas are of five types namely one sensed, two sensed, three sensed, four sensed and five sensed living beings
Q.VIII.11.8 What is meant by one sensed-class- body making karma?
A.VIII.11.8 The karmas rise of which cause birth as one sensed living being is called one- sensed-class- body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.9 What is meant by two sensed-class- body making karma?
A.VIII.11.9 The karmas rise of which cause birth as two sensed living being is called two- sensed-class- body making karma.
Q.VIII.11.10 What is meant by three sensed-class body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.10 The karmas rise of which cause birth as three sensed living being is called three- sensed-class- body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.11 What is meant by four sensed-class- body making karma?
A.VIII.11.11 The karmas rise of which cause birth as four sensed living being is called four- sensed-class body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.12 What is meant by five sensed-class- body making karma?
A.VIII.11.12 The karmas rise of which cause birth as five sensed living being is called five- sensed-class body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.13 What is meant by the physique body-making karmas?
A.VIII.11.13 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a body by the soul are called physique body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.14 How many types of physique body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.14 There are five types of body-name karmas namely physical /gross, protean, conveyance, luminous and kārmaṃa.
Q.VIII.11.15 What is meant by physical body body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.15 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a physical body (like human and sub-humans) by the soul are called physical body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.16 What is meant by protean body and body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.16 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a protean body (like heavenly and hellish beings and capable of transformation in stature and form) by the soul are called protean body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.17 What is meant by conveyance body body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.17 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a conveyance body by the soul are called conveyance body body-making karma. Such bodies are achieved by ascetics with very high spiritual purification to transmit this red coloured body from their forehead to the omniscient lords for resolving mystical problems.
Q.VIII.11.18 What is meant by luminous body body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.18 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a luminous body (formed by taijasa vargaṇās) by the soul are called luminous body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.19 What is meant by kārmaṇa body body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.19 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of a kārmaṇa body (body which is a collection of the eight types of karmas and formed by kārmaṇa vargaṇās) by the soul are called kārmaṇa body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.20 What is meant by major limbs-minor limbs (aṃgopāṃga) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.20 The karmas rise of which causes the formation of major and minor limbs (like hands, feet, eyes, ears, moth, legs etc) of the body are called major and minor limbs body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.21 How many types of major-minor limbs body-making karmas are there?
A.VIII.11.21 There are three types of the major minor limbs body-making karma namely: physical, protean and conveyance.
Q.VIII.11.22 What is meant by physical major minor limbs body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.22 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of major and minor limbs of a physical body (like human and sub-humans) by the soul are called physical major and minor limbs body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.23 What is meant by protean major minor limbs body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.23 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of major and minor limbs of a protean body (like of heavenly and hellish beings) by the soul are called protean major and minor limbs body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.24 What is meant by conveyance body major minor limbs body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.24 The karmas rise of which causes the formation of right form, size and at the right place of major and minor limbs of a conveyance body by the soul are called conveyance body formation karma.
Q.VIII.11.25 What is meant by the formation (nirmāṇa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.25 The karma rise of which causes development of pride for family, caste, wealth, power, knowledge, physical beauty, austerities and influence as well as lack of humility towards others is called formation body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.26 What is meant by binding or union (baṃdhana) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.26 The karmas rise of which the particles of physical and other bodies stay consolidated together are called binding body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.27 What is meant by the molecular interfusion body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.27 The karmas rise of which causes attainment of close interpenetration (without any intervening spaces) of the space points of the body is the body-making karma of molecular interfusion.
Q.VIII.11.28 What is meant by structure (saṃsthāna) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.28 The karmas rise of which causes the structure of the body accomplished are called structure body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.29 How many types of structure body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.29 The structure body-making karma is of six types namely: perfectly symmetrical body (samacaturasa), the upper part symmetrical alone (nyagrodhaparimaṃdala), the lower part alone symmetrical (svāti), dwarf (vāmana), hunchbacked body (kubjaka) and deformed body (huṃdaka).
Q.VIII.11.30 What is meant by perfectly symmetrical body (samacaturasa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.30 The karmas rise of which causes the perfectly symmetrical structure of the body accomplished are called perfectly symmetrical body (samacaturasa) body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.31 What is meant by ‘the only upper part symmetrical alone (nyagrodhaparimaṃdala) body-making karma’?
A.VIII.11.31 The karmas rise of which causes only the upper part symmetrical structure of the body accomplished are called the only upper part symmetrical body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.32 What is meant by ‘the only lower part alone symmetrical (svāti) body-making karma’?
A.VIII.11.32 The karmas rise of which causes only the lower part alone symmetrical structure of the body accomplished are called the the only lower part symmetrical body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.33 What is meant by dwarf (vāmana) body body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.33 The karmas rise of which causes the dwarf structure of the body accomplished are called dwarf body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.34 What is meant by hunchbacked body (kubjaka)body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.34 The karmas rise of which causes the hunch backed structure of the body accomplished are called hunchback body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.35 What is meant by deformed body (hundaka) name karma?
A.VIII.11.35 The karmas rise of which causes the entirely unsymmetrical structure of the body accomplished are called deformed body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.36 What is meant by bone-joint (saṃhanana) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.36 The karmas on the rise which the different types of bone-joints in the body get particularity are called bone-joint body-making karma?
Q.VIII.11.37 How many types of joint body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.37 These are of six types namely, body-making perfect joint (vajravr s abhanārāca), the less perfect joint (vajranārāca), inferior joint (nārāca), weak joint (ardhanārāca), and very weak joint (kīlaka), fragile joint (asaṃprāpatsr pāt ikā).
Q.VIII.11.38 What is meant by the perfect joint (vajravr s abhanārāca) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.38 The karmas rise of which causes joints with extraordinary sturdiness and strength are called perfect joint body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.39 What is meant by the less perfect bone-joint (vajranārāca) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.39 The karmas rise of which causes bone-joints with slightly less than extraordinary sturdiness and strength are called less perfect bone-joint body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.40 What is meant by the inferior joint (nārāca) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.40 The karmas rise of which cause joints with nails keeping them together are called inferior joints body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.41 What is meant by the weak bone-joint (ardhanārāca) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.41 The karmas rise of which cause bone-joints with nails keeping them together partially are called weak joints body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.42 What is meant by the very weak bone-joint (kīlaka) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.42 The karmas rise of which cause bone-joints without nails only (loose joints) are called very weak joint body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.43 What is meant by the fragile bone-joint (asaṃprāpatsr pāt ikā) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.43 The karmas rise of which causes individual bones tied together by nerves are called fragile joints body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.44 What is the touch (sparśa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.44 The karmas rise of which gives the touch attribute to the body are called touch body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.45 How many types of touch body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.45 These are of eight types namely: smooth and dry; cold and hot; soft and hard; light and heavy.
Q.VIII.11.46 What is the taste (rasa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.46 The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.47 How many types of taste body-making karmas are there?
A.VIII.11.47 These are of five types, namely: bitter, pungent, astringent, sour and sweet.
Q.VIII.11.48 What is meant by odour body-making (gaṃdha) karma?
A.VIII.11.48 The karmas rise of which gives the smell attribute to the body are called odour body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.49 What is meant by colour (varṇa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.49 The karmas rise of which gives the colour attributes to the body are called colour body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.50 How many types of colour body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.50 There are five types of colour body-making karmas namely: black, blue, yellow, red and white.
Q.VIII.11.51 What is meant by migratory /movement after death (ānupūrvya) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.51 The karmas rise of which the form of the previous body does not disappear during the transitory period are called migratory form body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.52 How many sub types of migratory form body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.52 There are four sub types of migratory form body-making karma relating to the tendency of the soul to move towards the four states of existence namely infernal, heavenly, human and sub- human.
Q.VIII.11.53 What is the migratory form body-making karma for movement to infernal existence?
A.VIII.11.53 When a human or sub human dies and heads towards infernal existence in his next birth, the soul retains its old form during the transitory period (i.e. from previous existence to infernal existence). This is due to the rise of infernal migratory form body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.54 When does the rise of migratory form body-making karma take place?
A.VIII.11.54 It takes place during the transitory state i.e. movement from previous existence to the next birth in the next existence.
Q.VIII.11.55 What is meant by neither heavy nor light (agurūlaghu)body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.55 The karmas rising of which causes the body neither to fall down like heavy iron ball nor fly away like a light cotton swab are called neither heavy nor light body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.56 What is meant by self annihilation (upaghāta) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.56 The karmas rising of which causes attainment of major and minor limbs that cause self destruction (like horns of a dear) are called self annihilation body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.57 What is meant by annihilation of others (paraghāta) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.57 The karmas rising of which causes the body to acquire major and minor limbs that cause annihilation of others ( like sharp horns, nails, poisonous bite etc) are called annihilation of others body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.58 What is meant by emitting warm light (ātapa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.58 The karmas rise of which causes the body of a being to emit warm light like sun light is called body-making karma emitting hot light. The gross living beings with earth as their body in the solar planetary system can have rise of this karma.
Q.VIII.11.59 What is meant by emitting cool lustre (udyota) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.59 The karmas rise of which causes the body of a being to emit cool light like moon light is called body-making karma emitting cool light. These karmas rise in gross living beings with earth as their body in the lunar planetary system and animals like glowworms (juganu), cat, lion etc
Q.VIII.11.60 What is meant by respiration body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.60 The karmas rise of which cause breathing activity are respiration body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.61 What is meant by gait (vihāyogati) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.61 The karmas rise of which causes movement in space are called body-making karma of movement or gait.
Q.VIII.11.62 How many types of movement /gait body-making karma are there?
A.VIII.11.62 These karmas are of two types namely commendable and not-commendable.
Q.VIII.11.63 What is meant by commendable movement body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.63 The karmas rise of which cause auspicious gait of the living beings (like elephant, bull etc) are called commendable movement body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.64 What is meant by not-commendable movement body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.64 The karmas rise of which cause inauspicious gait of the living beings (like donkey, camel etc) are called not-commendable movement body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.65 What is meant by individual body (pratyeka) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.65 The karmas rise of which causes each living being to have individual /personal body is called individual body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.66 What is meant by common body (sādhāraṇa) body-making karmas?
A.VIII.11.66 The rise of these karmas causes many living beings to have one common body to share is called common body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.67 What is meant by mobile body (trasa) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.67 The rise of these karmas causes a living being to be born with two, three, four or five sense organs are called mobile body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.68 What is meant by stationery body (sthāvara) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.68 The rise of these karmas causes living being to be born with one sense organ only is called stationery body body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.69 What is meant by the fortunate (subhaga) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.69 The rise of which causes a living being to be loved by others is called fortunate body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.70 What is meant by the misfortunate (durbhaga) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.70 The rise of which causes a living being to be avoided or hated by others is called misfortunate body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.71 What is meant by the melodious voice (susvara) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.71 The rise of which causes a living being to have sweet and likable voice by others is called melodious voice body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.72 What is meant by the harsh voice (dusvara) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.72 The rise of which causes a living being to have unpleasing voice not liked by others is called harsh voice body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.73 What is meant by auspicious (śubha) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.73 The rise of which causes a living being to have charming and beautiful form liked by others is called auspicious body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.74 What is meant by inauspicious (aśubha) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.74 The rise of which causes a living being to have ugly and repugnant form not liked by others is called inauspicious body-making karmas.
Q.VIII.11.75 What is the meant by minute body (sūks ma) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.75 The rise of which causes a body to be such that neither it causes nor is caused by any as a hindrance to others is called minute body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.76 What is the meant by gross body (bādara) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.76 The rise of which causes a body to be such that it causes hindrance or others cause hindrance to it is called gross body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.77 What is meant by completeness (paryāpti) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.77 The rise of which causes complete development of all body organs is called complete development body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.78 What is meant by incompletion (aparyāpti) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.78 The rise of which causes incomplete development of all body organs is called incomplete development body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.79 What is meant by firmness (sthira) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.79 The rise of which causes firmness (such as of major and minor limbs well knit in a frame) is called firmness body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.80 What is meant by weakness (asthira) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.80 The rise of which causes weakness (such as major and minor limbs not knit together in a frame) is called weakness body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.81 What is the meant by lustrous body (ādeya) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.81 The rise of which causes luster of the body is called lustrous body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.82 What is the meant by lusterless body (anādeya) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.82 The rise of which causes lusterless body is called lusterless body body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.83 What is meant by glory and fame (yaśah ̣kīrtī) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.83 The rise of which causes glory and fame of the living being is called glory and fame body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.84 What is meant by demerit (ayaśah ̣kīrtī) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.84 The rise of which causes demerit and disgrace of the living being is called demerit and disgrace body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.85 What is meant by fordmaker (tīrthaṃkara) body-making karma?
A.VIII.11.85 The rise of which causes the status of an arhat and the founder cum preacher of the creed is called fordmaker body-making karma.
Q.VIII.11.86 If the completion of the breathing organs causes breathing, then why breathing body-making karmas are taken separately?
A.VIII.11.86 Completion of the breathing organs is the cause and the breathing body-making karma is the effect and so they are related.
Q.VIII.11.87 The luminous body is the cause of luster, then why is lustrous body body-making karma mentioned separately?
A.VIII.11.87 The luminous body is owned by all living beings but the same luminosity is not seen in all of them. This specific luminosity of individuals is caused by luminous body-making karma.
Meaning: The high and the low (are the two kinds of status determining karmas).
Q.VIII.12.1 What is meant by status determining (gotra) karma??
A.VIII.12.1 The karmas rise of which deter’mine’s the birth in a particular family (heredity attribute) in the same realm is called status determining karma.
Q.VIII.12.2 How many types of status determining karmas are there?
A.VIII.12.2 These are of two types, namely high status and low status.
Q.VIII.12.3 What is meant by high status?
A.VIII.12.3 The rise of which results birth in a high status family with prestige and name is called high status karma.
Q.VIII.12.4 What is meant by low status?
A.VIII.12.4 The rise of which results birth in a low status family with no prestige or name is called low status karma.
Q.VIII.12.5 Who can have high status?
A.VIII.12.5 The living beings in heavenly and human realms can have high status
Q.VIII.12.6 Who can have low status?
A.VIII.12.6 The living beings in infernal and sub-human realms can have low status
Q.VIII.12.7 Who can have both high and low status?
A.VIII.12.7 The human beings of the region of labour (Karmabhūmi) can have both high and low status
Meaning: The obstructive karmas are of five kinds, obstructing the making of gifts, gain, enjoyment of consumable things, enjoyment of non-consumable things and effort (energy).
Q.VIII.13.1 What is meant by obstructing (antarāya) karma?
A.VIII.13.1 Obstruction means to obstruct /stop or cause hindrance. The karma rise of which causes obstruction in giving charity or receiving gifts is called obstructing karma.
Q.VIII.13.2 How many types of obstructing karmas are there?
A.VIII.13.2 These are of five types namely charity obstructing (dānāntrāya), gain obstructing (lābhāntrāya), and enjoyment obstructing (bhogāntarāya), repeated enjoyment (upabhogāntarāya) and energy obstructing (vīryāntarāya).
Q.VIII.13.3 What is meant by charity obstructing (dānāntarāya) karmas?
A.VIII.13.3 The rise of which obstructs donating gifts even though one is having the intention and capacity to donate is called charity obstructing karmas.
Q.VIII.13.4 What is meant by gain obstructing (lābhāntarāya) karmas?
A.VIII.13.4 The rise of which obstructs receiving gifts even though one is fit to receive and the donor is having the intention and capacity to donate is called gain obstructing karmas.
Q.VIII.13.5 What is meant by enjoyment obstructing (bhogāntrāya) karmas?
A.VIII.13.5 The rise of which obstructs enjoying consumption of worldly items even though one is fit to enjoy (consumable items) is called enjoyment obstructing karmas.
Q.VIII.13.6 What is meant by repeated enjoyment obstructing (upabhogāntrāya) karmas?
A.VIII.13.6 The rise of which obstructs repeated enjoyment of life even though one is fit to enjoy (items consumable more than once) are called repeated enjoyment obstructing karmas...
Q.VIII.13.7 What is meant by bhoga and upabhoga?
A.VIII.13.7 Objects which are unusable or consumed after their enjoyment once are called bhoga (e.g. earned money, food items, oil etc). Objects which can be enjoyed again and again are called upabhoga (e.g. dwellings, clothes, ornaments etc).
Q.VIII.13.8 What is meant by energy obstructing (vīryāntrāya) karmas?
A.VIII.13.8 The rise of which obstructs using one’s energy even though he has it is called energy obstructing karmas.
Q.VIII.13.9 How many types of duration-bondage are there?
A.VIII.13.9 It is of two types namely maximum (utkr s t a) and minimum (jaghanya).
Q.VIII.13.10 What is meant by maximum duration bondage?
A.VIII.13.10 Existence of the karmas bonded once with the soul for a maximum period is called maximum duration bondage.
Q.VIII.13.11 What is meant by minimum duration bondage?
A.VIII.13.11 Existence of the karmas bonded once with the soul for a minimum period is called minimum duration bondage.
Āditastisr ṇāmantarāyasya ca triṃśat-sāgaropama-kot īkot yah ̣ parā sthitih
Meaning: The maximum duration of the three main types (primary species) from the first and obstructive karmas is 30x1014 ocean-measured-periods (30 kotākotī sāgaropama).
Q.VIII.14.1 What is the maximum duration of existence of the first three types of karmas namely knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring and feeling producing karmas along with obstructing karmas?
A.VIII.14.1 These four types of karmas have a maximum existence of 30x1014 ocean-measured-periods duration.
Q.VIII.14.2 Which types of living beings can have bondage of this maximum duration?
A.VIII.14.2 The bondage, with maximum 30x1014 ocean-measured-periods duration, can occur in the wrong believers with virulent passions and who are endowed with mind, five senses and all completions.
Meaning: 70x1014 ocean-measured-periods is the maximum duration of the deluding karma.
Q.VIII.15.1 What is the maximum duration of existence of the deluding karmas?
A.VIII.15.1 The maximum existence for deluding karmas has duration of 70x1014 ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VIII.15.2 Which types of living beings can have bondage of this maximum duration?
A.VIII.15.2 The bondage, with maximum 70x1014 ocean-measured-periods duration, can occur to the wrong believers who are endowed with mind, five senses and all completions.
Meaning: 20x1014 ocean-measured-periods is the maximum duration of the body-making karma and the status-determining karma.
Q.VIII.16.1 What is the maximum duration of existence of the name and status determining karmas?
A.VIII.16.1 The maximum existence of physique-making and status determining karmas has duration of 20x1014 ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VIII.16.2 Which types of living beings can have bondage of this maximum duration?
A.VIII.16.2 The bondage, with maximum 20x1014 ocean-measured-periods duration, can occur in the wrong believers who are endowed with mind, five senses and all completions.
Trayastriṃśat sāgaropamāṇyāyus ah ̣
Meaning: 33x1014 ocean-measured-periods is the maximum duration of life.
Q.VIII.17.1 What is the maximum duration of existence of the life span determining karmas?
A.VIII.17.1 The maximum existence of life span karmas has duration of 33x1014 ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VIII.17.2 Which types of living beings can have bondage of this maximum duration?
A.VIII.17.2 The bondage, with maximum 30*1014 ocean-measured-periods duration, can occur to both the right and wrong believers who are endowed with mind, five senses and all completions and not to others.
Aparā dvādaśamuhūrtā vedanīyasya
Meaning: The minimum duration of the feeling-producing karma is twelve Indian-hours (muhūrtas).
Q.VIII.18.1 What is the minimum duration of existence of the feeling producing karmas?
A.VIII.18.1 The minimum existence of feeling producing karmas is twelve Indian-hours or nine hours and thirty six minutes.
Meaning: The minimum duration of the name-karma and the status-determining karmas is eight Indian-hours.
Q.VIII.19.1 What are the minimum durations of existence of the name and status determining karmas?
A.VIII.19.1 The minimum existence of name and status determining karmas is eight Indian-hours or six hours and twenty four minutes.
Q.VIII.19.2 When does the bondage of minimum duration of feeling producing, name and status determining karmas take place?
A.VIII.19.2 These bondages of minimum duration can occur to those ascetics who are in the annihilating category of the tenth stage of spiritual purification.
Meaning: The minimum duration of the rest is up to one Indian-hour.
Q.VIII.20.1 What is the minimum duration of existence of the remaining five types (deluding, knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, obstructing and life span determining karmas?
A.VIII.20.1 The minimum duration of bondage of these five types of karmas is up to forty eight minutes indicated as intra-Indian-hour (antaramuhūrta).
Q.VIII.20.2 When does the bondage of minimum duration of deluding karmas take place?
A.VIII.20.2 This bondage of minimum existence can occur to those ascetics who are in the ninth stage of spiritual purification.
Q.VIII.20.3 When does the bondage of minimum duration of life span determining karmas take place?
A.VIII.20.3 Those human and sub human beings who have life span of numerable years in the region of labour can have this minimum bondage of life span determining karmas.
Q.VIII.20.4 When does the bondage of minimum duration of knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, obstructing karmas take place?
A.VIII.20.4 These bondages of minimum duration can occur to those ascetics who are in the annihilating category of the tenth stage of spiritual purification.
Meaning: Fruition is the ripening or maturing of karmas.
Q.VIII.21.1 What is meant by experience (anubhava or anubhāga)?
A.VIII.21.1 It is the distinctive and variegated ripening of the karmas producing feeling.
Q.VIII.21.2 What is meant by ripening /fruition (vipāka)?
A.VIII.21.2 The maturing or rising of the karmas to yield distinctive and variegated fruits is ripening.
Q.VIII.21.3 How many types of experience (anubhava or anubhāga) are there?
A.VIII.21.3 These are of two types namely own nature and other’s nature.
Q.VIII.21.4 What is meant by own nature’s experience?
A.VIII.21.4 The karmas ripening for fruition in the same category (e.g. knowledge obscuring ripening to yield effects of knowledge obscuring karmas only and not of feeling etc karmas) as they were bonded is called own nature’s experience.
Q.VIII.21.5 What is meant by other’s nature experience?
A.VIII.21.5 The karmas ripen for fruition in the different species than the one they were bonded due to other’s nature is called other’s nature experience (e.g. transformation is possible between any two sub species of the same main type of karma except life span determining karmas; conduct and faith deluding karmas yielding results due to other’s nature is possible).
Q.VIII.21.6 Which species of the karma can yield experience by own nature?
A.VIII.21.6 All species yield experience due to their own nature only. Lifespan determining karmas; conduct and faith deluding karmas yield experience due to their own nature alone. The fruition of sub- human and human life is not possible from infernal life. Similarly conduct deluding karmas cannot yield experience of faith deluding karmas and vice versa.
Q.VIII.21.7 Which species of karmas can yield experience of other’s nature?
A.VIII.21.7 Except lifespan determining karmas, conduct and faith deluding karmas; all sub species of same type of karmas can produce experience of other sub species nature.
Meaning: (The nature of) fruition is according to the names of the karmas.
Q.VIII.22.1 What is the nature of results / experience from rise/ripening of the karmas?
A.VIII.22.1 The nature of experience is similar to the name of the karma species e.g. knowledge obscuring karma will only cover the manifestation of knowledge.
Q.VIII.22.2 What is the experience on fruition produced by knowledge obscuring karmas?
A.VIII.22.2 The knowledge obscuring karma is of five sub types. Each sub type produces lack of complete or partial knowledge of the same type. The primary result of knowledge obscuring karmas is to weaken the knowledge manifestation attribute of the soul.
Q.VIII.22.3 What is the experience on fruition produced by perception obscuring karmas?
A.VIII.22.3 The result of this karma is to experience reduction in perception attribute of the soul.
Q.VIII.22.4 What is the experience on fruition produced by feeling producing karmas?
A.VIII.22.4 It is making the physical body and the internal passions thin /weak by abandoning their sources gradually at the approach of death.
Q.VIII.22.5 What is the experience on fruition produced by deluding karmas?
A.VIII.22.5 The result of this karma is to experience delusion i.e. forget own nature and accept other’s nature as own.
Q.VIII.22.6 What is the experience on fruition produced by lifespan determining karmas?
A.VIII.22.6 The result of this karma is to experience existence in a particular realm.
Q.VIII.22.7 What is the experience on fruition produced by body-making karmas?
A.VIII.22.7 The result of this karma is to experience different body formations and structures.
Q.VIII.22.8 What is the experience on fruition produced by status determining karmas?
A.VIII.22.8 The result of this karma is to experience high and low status in one’s family / life.
Q.VIII.22.9 What is the experience on fruition produced by obstructing karmas?
A.VIII.22.9 The result of this karma is to experience obstructions in achieving the desired objectives.
Q.VIII.22.10 In how many classes the results /experiences of 148 sub species can be grouped?
A.VIII.22.10 These can be grouped in four main groups namely: consciousness experience (jīvavipākī), material experience (pudgalavipākī), mode experience (bhavavipākī) and place experience (ks etravipākī).
Q.VIII.22.11 What is meant by consciousness experience?
A.VIII.22.11 The experience caused in the different degrees of manifestation (upayoga) of consciousness of the soul is consciousness experience.
Q.VIII.22.12 What is meant by material experience?
A.VIII.22.12 The experience caused in the body attributes is material experience.
Q.VIII.22.13 What is meant by mode experience (bhavavipākī)?
A.VIII.22.13 The experience caused in the mode (paryāya) of the empirical soul is mode experience.
Q.VIII.22.14 What is meant by place experience (ks etravipākī)?
A.VIII.22.14 The experience caused in the space points of the soul during transit from realm to another is called place experience.
Q.VIII.22.15 Which are the karma species that produce consciousness experience (jīvavipākī)?
A.VIII.22.15 These are as follows: 47 of the four obscuring karmas, 2 of feeling producing, 27 of the name karma for a total of 78 sub species.
Q.VIII.22.16 Why has anta added to maraṇa in the aphorism?
A.VIII.22.16 The word anta or end refers to a particular state of existence caused by death.
Q.VIII.22.17 What is meant by mārāṇantikī?
A.VIII.22.17 That which has death as its object is mārāṇantikī.
Q.VIII.22.18 What is voluntary pious-death (sallekhanā)?
A.VIII.22.18 It is making the physical body and the internal passions (kas āya) and activities (yoga) thin /weak by abandoning their sources gradually at the approach of death.
Meaning: After fruition (enjoyment), the karmas fall off or disappear.
Q.VIII.23.1 What happens to karmas after fruition?
A.VIII.23.1 They get dissociated from the soul after fruition (producing pleasant or miseryful experience).
Q.VIII.23.2 What is meant by dissociation (nirjarā)?
A.VIII.23.2 Like the food consumed after digestion get excreted, similarly the karmas after fruition get excreted or dissociated from the soul. This is dissociation.
Q.VIII.23.3 How many types of dissociation are here?
A.VIII.23.3 It is of two types, namely with fruitions (savipāka) and without fruits (avipāka).
Q.VIII.23.4 What is meant by dissociation with fruits?
A.VIII.23.4 Dissociation of Karmas after their rise yield fruits and on completion of the results they get dissociated from the soul. This is dissociation with fruits.
Q.VIII.23.5 What is meant by dissociation without fruits?
A.VIII.23.5 The karmas whose time to rise has not yet materialized but by austerities etc they are made to mature fast and dissociate without rising and without yielding fruits. This is dissociation without fruits.
Q.VIII.23.6 Explain through examples dissociation with fruits and dissociation without fruits?
A.VIII.23.6 Dissociation with fruits is like a mango which ripens on the tree itself and then falls down is the example of dissociation with fruits. The same mango when plucked before it ripens and then the raw mango is ripened in an incubator is an example of dissociation without fruits.
Q.VIII.23.7 Why is the word ca used in this aphorism?
A.VIII.23.7 This word denotes that there are other methods / forms of achieving dissociation other than those mentioned above.
Nāmapratyayāh ̣sarvato yogaviśes ātsūks maikaks etrāvagāhasthitāh ̣sarvātmapradeśes va nantānantapradeśāh
Meaning: The karmic molecules of infinite time infinite space-points always pervade in a subtle fom in the entire space-points of every soul in every birth. And these are absorbed by the soul because of its activity.
Q.VIII.24.1 What is meant by space-points bondage (pradeśa baṃda)?
A.VIII.24.1 It is a state of the soul getting bonded with the matter particles capable of becoming karmas called kārmaṇa varagaṇā.
Q.VIII.24.2 What is meant by nāma-pratyaya?
A.VIII.24.2 It means the species of the karmas indicated by respective names. Also the matter particles capable of becoming karmas are called nāma-pratyaya i.e. the entity whose name is the cause of its nature.
Q.VIII.24.3 What happens with space-points bondage of the empirical soul?
A.VIII.24.3 As they get bonded they become of the nature of the seven species of karmas (except the life determining karma). However, a particular instant if happened only to be the instance of the bonding of the life determining karma then they become of the nature of all the eight species.
Q.VIII.24.4 When and where do these space-points of karmas get bonded?
A.VIII.24.4 These get bonded in all the four destinies. There is no time instance when the karmas do not get bonded.
Q.VIII.24.5 How do these karmas get bonded?
A.VIII.24.5 They get bonded with special activities.
Q.VIII.24.6 What is meant by activity?
A.VIII.24.6 Actions of mind, speech and body which cause vibrations in the space points of the soul are called activities.
Q.VIII.24.7 What is the nature of these karmas?
A.VIII.24.7 All matter particles capable of becoming karmas are subtle and not gross.
Q.VIII.24.8 Where do the bonded karmas exist?
A.VIII.24.8 These karmas pervade in the same space-points as occupied by the soul being bonded.
Q.VIII.24.9 Are the karmas stationery or mobile when getting bonded?
A.VIII.24.9 The matter-particles capable of becoming karmas are stationery do not get bonded when moving.
Q.VIII.24.10 Does bondage take place in all space-points of the soul or just a few?
A.VIII.24.10 The matter particles capable of becoming karmas get bonded in all space-points of the soul and not just a few.
Q.VIII.24.11 What is the size of the bondage of the matter particles capable of becoming karmas bonded with the soul?
A.VIII.24.11 Each space point of the soul is bonded with infinite space points of karmas. In every space point of the soul infinite karmas get bonded every instant.
Meaning: The good variety of feeling-producing karmas and the auspicious life, name and status-determining karmas constitute merit (puṇya).
Q.VIII.25.1 Which karma species constitute merit (punya)?
A.VIII.25.1 The good variety of feeling producing karmas and auspicious life, name and status determining karmas constitute merit.
Q.VIII.25.2 Which sub species of karmas constitute merit?
A.VIII.25.2 These are 42 namely: pleasant feeling producing, the three life karmas in heaven, human and sub human destinies and high status determining karmas along with 37 of name karma (without discriminating) or 63 with discrimination namely: human and celestial destinies, the class of beings with five senses, the five bodies, the three major and minor limbs, the symmetrical structure of the body, the utmost firmness of the joints, pleasant colour-taste-odour-touch, two ānūpūrvi which tend to move the soul towards celestial birth, neither heavy nor light, liability of getting injured by others, capacity for breathing, emitting a warm splendour, emitting a cold luster, graceful gait, moveable body, gross body, complete development of organs and the faculties of the body, possession of an individual body, firmness of the bodily frame, beauty of the body, melodious voice, lustrous body, glory and renown, the formation of the body with parts in their right place, fordmaker status, high status and pleasant feeling.
Meaning: The remaining varieties of karma constitute demerit.
Q.VIII.26.1 Which karma species constitute demerit (pāpa)?
A.VIII.26.1 These are unpleasant feeling producing karma, inauspicious life span determining, inauspicious name and inauspicious status are the five species which constitute demerit.
Q.VIII.26.2 Which are the sub species of karma that constitute demerit?
A.VIII.26.2 The 47 species of obscuring karmas (5 for knowledge obscuring, 9 for perception obscuring, 28 for deluding, 5 of obstructing karmas), low status, unpleasant feeling producing karma, infernal life, 50 inauspicious species of name karma (the infernal and the sub-human realms, 4 classes of beings i.e. 1 to 4 sensed living beings, 5 kinds of structure of the body, 5 kinds of joint, 20 of inauspicious colour-taste-touch-smell, movement of the soul towards infernal birth or sub human birth, infirmness of limbs, ugliness, bad looks (extending disgust or loathing), unpleasant voice, lusterless body and disgrace). In the 16 subtypes of inauspicious colour etc, therefore one can say from detailed view 98 species and from general view 82 species of karmas are bonded as demerit. But these two tendencies i.e. wrong and right beliefs can have existence as well as rise during the demerit bondage. Thus the total species from discrimination view can be 100 and from general view are 84 for demerit bondage.
Q.VIII.26.3 Which are the sub-species which can be bonded?
A.VIII.26.3 As the 28 (16 of touch-taste-colour-smell, 5 union / binding, 5 of molecular interfusion, and 2 of faith deluding) sub species are not binding, balance 120 sub-species are bondable.