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Chapter 9 Q-A
Influx of karmas
- 1 Kāya-vāng-manah ̣karma yogah
- 2 Sa āsravah
- 3 Śubhah ̣ punyasyāśubhah ̣ pāpasya
- 4 Sakasāyākasāyayoh ̣ sāparāyikeryāpathayoh
- 5 Indriya-kasāyāvrata-kriyāh pañca-catuh ̣pañca-pañcaviśati-sakhyāh ̣ pūrvasya bhedāh
- 6 Tīvra-manda-jñātājñāta-bhāvādhikaraṇa-vīrya-viśesebhyastadviśes ah
- 7 Adhikaraam jīvājīvāh
- 8 Adyaṃsaṃrambha-samārambhārambha-yoga-krta-kāritānumata-ks.āya-viśesistristri-ścatuścaikaśah
- 9 Nirvartanāniksepasayoganisargā dvicaturdvitribhedah ̣ param
- 10 Taatpradosa-nihnava-mātsaryāsādanopaghātā jñānadarśanāvaraayoh
- 11 Duh ̣kha-śoka-tāpākrandana-vadha-paridevanānyātmaparo bhaya-sthānānyasadvedyasya
- 12 Bhūta-vratyanukampā-dāna-sarāgasayamādi-yogah ks āntih -śaucamiti sadvedyasya
- 13 Kevali-śruta-saṃghadharmadevāvarṇavādodarśanamohasya
- 14 Kasāyodayāttīvrapariṇāmaścāritramohasya
- 15 Bahvārambha-parigrahatva nārakasyāyusah
- 16 Māyā tairyagyonasya
- 17 Alpārambha-parigrahatvaṃ mānusasya
- 18 Svabhāvamārdavaṃ ca
- 19 Niśśīla-vratatvaṃ ca sarvesām
- 20 Sarāgasaṃyama-saṃyamāsaṃyamākāmanirjarā-bālatapāṃsi daivasya
- 21 Nava-caturdaśa-pañca-dvibhedā yathākramaṃ prāgdhyānāt
- 22 Ālocana-pratikramaṇa-tadubhaya-viveka-vyutsarga-tapaścheda-parihāropasthāpanāh ̣
- 23 Jñāna-darśana-cāritropacārāh
- 24 Acāryopādhyāya-tapasvi-śakśa-glāna-gaṇa-kula-samgha-sādhu-manojñānām
- 25 Vācanā-prcchanānupreksāmnāya-dharmopadeśāh ̣
- 26 Bāhyābhyantaropadhyoh
- 27 Uttamasaṃhananasyaikāgracintānirodho dhyānamāntarmuhūrtāt
- 28 Ārta-raudra-dharmya-śuklāni
- 29 Pare moksahetū
- 30 Ārtamamanojñasya samprayoge tadviprayogāya smrti-samanvāhārah ̣
- 31 Viparītaṃ manojñasya
- 32 Vedanāyāśca
- 33 Nidānaṃ ca
- 34 Tadavirata-deśavirata-pramattasaṃyatānām
- 35 Hiṃsānrta-steya-visayasaṃraksaṇebhyo raudramavirata-deśaviratayoh
- 36 Ājñāpāya-vipāka-saṃsthāna-vicayāya dharmyam
- 37 Śukle cādye pūrvavidah
- 38 Pare kevalinah ̣
- 39 Prthaktvaikatvavitarka-sūksmakriyāpratipāti-vyuparatakriyā-nivartīni
- 40 Tryekayoga-kāyayogāyogānām
- 41 Ekāśraye savitarka-vīcāre pūrve
- 42 Avīcāraṃ dvitīyam
- 43 Vitarkah ̣ śrutam
- 44 Vīcāro(a)rtha-vyañjana-yogasaṃkrāntih
- 45 Samyagdrsti-śrāvakaviratānantaviyojaka-darśanamoha-ksapakopaśama-kopaśāntamoha-ksapaka-ksīṇamoha-jināh ̣kramaśo (a) samkhyeyaguṇanirjarāh
- 46 Pulāka-bakuśa-kuśīla-nirgrantha-snātakā nirgranthāh
- 47 Samyama-śruta-pratisevanā-tīrtha-liṃga-leśyopapādasthāna-vikalpatah ̣ sādhyāh
Kāya-vāng-manah ̣karma yogah
Meaning: The operation of the body, the organ of speech and the mind is called yoga (activity).
Q.VI.1.1 What is meant by activity (yoga)?
A.VI.1.1 Vibrations caused in the space-points of the soul induced by mind, body and speech is called yoga /activity.
Q.VI.1.2 How many types of yoga are there?
A.VI.1.2 There are three types of yoga differentiated according to the nature of the cause namely; manoyoga (mind activities), vacanayoga (speech activities) and kāyayoga (body activities).
Q.VI.1.3 What is the cause of the vibrations in the space-points of the soul?
A.VI.1.3 The vibrations in the space-points of the soul are caused by the actions /movements of the organs of the mind, speech and body.
Q.VI.1.4 What are the characteristics of the body activities?
A.VI.1.4 Activities of one or more of the seven kinds of molecules (vargaṇās) of the body set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.5 What are the characteristics of the speech activities?
A.VI.1.5 Activities of the molecules composing the organ of speech set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.6 What are the characteristics of the mind activities?
A.VI.1.6 Mind or thought activities are the activities of the molecules that compose mind set the vibrations in the space-points of the soul.
Q.VI.1.7 How many types of mind activities are there?
A.VI.1.7 They are of four types, namely right activities of the mind (satyamanoyoga), wrong activities of the mind (asatya manoyoga), activities of the bilateral mind (ubhayamanoyoga) and activities of the neutral mind (anubhayamanoyoga).
Q.VI.1.8 What is meant by right activities of the mind?
A.VI.1.8 Satyamana or right mind is the one which cognizes the right objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called right activities of the mind.
Q.VI.1.9 What is meant by wrong activities of the mind?
A.VI.1.9 Asatyamana or wrong mind is the one which cognizes the wrong objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called wrong activities of the mind.
Q.VI.1.10 What is meant by the activities of the bilateral mind?
A.VI.1.10 Both types of mind existing simultaneously i.e. right and wrong is called ubhayamana. Vibrations of the soul space-points by such a mind are called activities of the bilateral mind.
Q.VI.1.11 What is meant by the activities of the neutral mind?
A.VI.1.11 The mind which is neither correct nor false is called anubhayamana. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a mind are called activities of the neutral mind.
Q.VI.1.12 How many types of the speech activities are there?
A.VI.1.12 There are four types of speech activities, namely right activities of the speech (satyavacanayoga), wrong activities of the speech (asatya vacanayoga), activities of the bilateral speech (ubhayavacanayoga) and activities of the neutral speech (anubhayavacanayoga).
Q.VI.1.13 What is meant by right activities of the speech?
A.VI.1.13 Satyavacana or right speech is the one which says/ speaks the right objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called right activities of the speech.
Q.VI.1.14 What is meant by wrong activities of the speech?
A.VI.1.14 Asatyavacana or wrong speech is the one which speaks / says the wrong objects. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called wrong activities of the speech.
Q.VI.1.15 What is meant by the activities of the bilateral speech?
A.VI.1.15 Both types of speech existing simultaneously i.e. correct and incorrect is called ubhayavacana. Vibrations of the soul space-points by such a mind are called activities of the bilateral speech.
Q.VI.1.16 What is meant by the activities of the neutral speech?
A.VI.1.16 The speech which is neither correct nor false is called anubhayavacana. Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by such a speech are called activities of the neutral speech.
Q.VI.1.17 How many types of kāyayoga or activities of the body are there?
A.VI.1.17 It is of seven types namely physical (audārika), physical-mixed (audārika miśra), celestial / protean (vaikriyaka), celestial mixed (vaikriyaka miśra), conveyance (āhāraka), conveyance-mixed (āhāraka miśra) and kārmaṇa.
Q.VI.1.18 What is meant by physical (audārika)?
A.VI.1.18 It means gross or big.
Q.VI.1.19 What is meant by audārika kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.19 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the gross body are called audārika kāyayoga or gross body activities.
Q.VI.1.20 What is meant by audārika miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.20 Before the gross body achieves completions / maturity (paryāpti), the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the gross body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called audārika miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.21 What is meant by vaikriyaka kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.21 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the protean body are called vaikriyaka kāyayoga or gross body activities.
Q.VI.1.22 What is meant by vaikriyaka miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.22 Before the celestial body achieves completions; the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the protean body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called vaikriyaka miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.23 What is meant by āhāraka kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.23 The vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the conveyance body are called āhāraka kāyayoga or conveyance body activities.
Q.VI.1.24 What is meant by āhāraka miśra kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.24 Before the conveyance body achieves maturity; the vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the conveyance body in association with the kārmaṇa body are called āhāraka miśra kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.25 What is meant by kārmaṇa kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.25 Body originated due to the rise of kārmaṇa śarīra body-making karma is called kārmaṇa kāya. Activities of the space-points of the soul caused by the kārmaṇa kāya are called kārmaṇa kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.26 What is the duration of the kārmaṇa kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.26 It varies from a minimum of one to a maximum of three time-instants (samaya).
Q.VI.1.27 When does kārmaṇa kāyayoga exist?
A.VI.1.27 It occurs only during kevalī samudghāta (dispersion of the space-points of the soul all over the universe without leaving the body by the omniscient) as well as during the movement of the empirical soul from old body to the new body (at the time of death).
Q.VI.1.28 How many activities are possible in one time-instant?
A.VI.1.28 Only one type of activity is possible in any one time-instant.
Q.VI.1.29 Which living beings are without any activity?
A.VI.1.29 The omniscient in the 14th stage of spiritual purification is living being and the liberated souls (siddhas) are free from activities.
Q.VI.1.30 What is meant by kāyayoga?
A.VI.1.30 Vibrations of the space-points of the soul caused by the body are called kāyayoga.
Q.VI.1.31 What is the maximum duration of the gross body?
A.VI.1.31 The maximum period of existence for a gross body is three pit-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.32 What is the maximum duration of the celestial body?
A.VI.1.32 The maximum period of existence for a celestial body is thirty-three ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.33 What is the maximum duration of the conveyance body?
A.VI.1.33 The maximum period of existence for a conveyance body is inter-Indian-hour (antarmuhurta) i.e. less than 48 minutes.
Q.VI.1.34 What is the maximum duration of the luminous (taijasa) body?
A.VI.1.34 The maximum period of existence for a luminous body is sixty six ocean-measured-periods.
Q.VI.1.35 What is the maximum duration of the kārmaṇa body?
A.VI.1.35 The maximum period of existence for a kārmaṇa body is seventy kotā-koti (70* 1014) ocean-measured-periods. However it varies depending of the intensity of the karmas associated.
SUTRA NO. 2
Meaning: It (vibrations caused by this threefold activity) is influx (āsrava).
Q.VI.2.1 What is meant by influx (āsrava)?
A.VI.2.1 The flow of karma particles, due to activities of mind,body and speech, towards the soul is called influx.
Q.VI.2.2 Why are the activities (yoga) called influx?
A.VI.2.2 Since activities of the mind body and speech are the cause of the inflow of kārmaṇa and nokarma (gross body building) particles to establish a relation with the soul. So activities (yoga) are called influx.
Q.VI.2.3 How does an empirical soul accept the kārmaṇa vargaṇās (matter particles capable of being transformed into karmas)?
A.VI.2.3 When a hot iron ball is thrown in a water stream, it accepts water from all sides. Similarly the empirical soul tainted with passions accepts kārmaṇa vargaṇās inflowing towards it due to the three fold activities.
Q.VI.2.4 Jain preceptors have indicated perverted views, disinterest in the vows, laziness, passions and activities as the causes for bondage of karmas with the soul. Why have we said here activities only as the cause of influx?
A.VI.2.4 All the other four causes are included in the three fold activities and so the author has mentioned here only activities.
Q.VI.2.5 How many classes of karma which get bonded to the soul are there?
A.VI.2.5 Such karmas are said to be of two classes namely merit (punya) and demerit (pāpa).
Q.VI.2.6 How do the meritorious karmas come?
A.VI.2.6 When the soul engages in virtuous activities then the inflow of meritorious karmas take place.
Q.VI.2.7 How do the de-meritorious karmas come?
A.VI.2.7 When the soul engages in evil activities, then the inflow of de-meritorious karmas take place
Śubhah ̣ punyasyāśubhah ̣ pāpasya
Meaning: Virtuous activity is the cause of merit (puṇya) and wicked activity is the cause of demerit (pāpā).
Q.VI.3.1 How many types of influx are there?
A.VI.3.1 There are two types of influx namely auspicious (śubha) and inauspicious (aśubha).
Q.VI.3.2 What is inauspicious influx?
A.VI.3.2 Influx which causes inflow of de-meritorious karmas is called inauspicious influx.
Q.VI.3.3 What is auspicious influx?
A.VI.3.3 Influx which causes inflow of meritorious karmas is called auspicious influx.
Q.VI.3.4 What is meant by aśubha mana-vacana kāyayoga (inauspicious activities of mind body and speech)?
A.VI.3.4 Violence and stealing are inauspicious body activities. Not speaking the truth or unpleasant or harsh words which cause misery to others are inauspicious speech activities. Thinking of violence or of jealousy against some one is the inauspicious activity of mind.
Q.VI.3.5 What is meant by merit?
A.VI.3.5 That which purifies the soul or by which the soul is purified is called merit. It also produces happy feelings.
Q.VI.3.6 What is meant by demerit?
A.VI.3.6 That which keeps the soul away from good activities is called demerit. It also produces unhappy feelings.
Q.VI.3.7 How do the activities become auspicious or inauspicious?
A.VI.3.7 Intentions behind activities determine whether an activity is auspicious or inauspicious.
Q.VI.3.8 The cause of influx for the merit karmas (punya) is auspicious /good activities. The cause of influx for the demerit karmas (pāpa) is inauspicious /wicked activities. What is the harm in accepting these statements?
A.VI.3.8 If this is accepted in totality then we will find non-existence of auspicious activities. Scriptures say ‘except the lifespan-determining karma all the seven types of karmas have continuous influx towards the soul. Further the auspicious activities are also the cause of the bondage of knowledge obscuring karma etc at times’. Therefore the above hypothesis cannot be sustained.
Q.VI.3.9 If auspicious activities also cause bondage of obscuring karmas, then why are they called to be the cause of merit karmas?
A.VI.3.9 This statement is in the context of non-obscuring karmas. Merit and demerit are the two types of non- obscuring karmas. The cause of influx for the merit karmas (punya) is auspicious /good activities. The cause of influx for the demerit karmas (pāpa) is inauspicious /wicked activities. Non-obscuring karmas maintain their existence while the influx of merit karmas continues. The obscuring karmas even rise during this period and hence are bonded as well.
Sakasāyākasāyayoh ̣ sāparāyikeryāpathayoh
Meaning: (There are two kinds of influx, namely) that of persons with passions, which extends transmigration, and that of persons free from passions, which prevents or shortens it.
Q.VI.4.1 What are the kinds of influx from other viewpoint?
A.VI.4.1 From the viewpoint of the state of the soul; the influx is classified as transmigression-extending or sāmparāyika (in living beings tainted with passions) and transmigression-reduction or īryāpatha (in living beings free from passions).
Q.VI.4.2 What is meant by transmigression- extending / sāmparāyika influx?
A.VI.4.2 The influx which results in transmigression only is called transmigression- extending influx.
Q.VI.4.3 Who acquires transmigression-extending influx?
A.VI.4.3 Living beings tainted with passions and performing activities accrue transmigression- extending influx.
Q.VI.4.4 In which stages of spiritual purity, transmigression- extend influx possible?
A.VI.4.4 It can occur during 1st to 10th stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VI.4.5 What is meant by transmigression-reducing (īryāpatha) influx?
A.VI.4.5 Influx of karmas which are free of their duration (sthiti) and potency (anubhāga) is called transmigression-reducing influx.
Q.VI.4.6 Who acquires transmigression-reducing influx?
A.VI.4.6 Living beings without passions can acquire transmigression-reducing influx.
Q.VI.4.7 In which stages of spiritual purification, transmigression-reducing influx can be acquired?
A.VI.4.7 It can during occur during 11th till 13th stages of spiritual purification.
Q.VI.4.8 What is meant by passion (kas.āya)?
A.VI.4.8 Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers is imparted to the cloth; similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.
Q.VI.4.9 What is meant by ‘with passions’ (sakas.āya)?
A.VI.4.9 Empirical souls tainted with passions are called sakas.āya.
Q.VI.4.10 What is meant by devoid of passion (akas.āya)?
A.VI.4.10 Souls in 11th and upwards stages of spiritual purification are called akas.āya i.e. souls devoid of don’t removl passions.
Q.VI.4.11 What is the function of passions?
A.VI.4.11 The function of passions is ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul.
Q.VI.4.12 What are the functions of activities (yoga) and passions?
A.VI.4.12 The function of yoga is to invite or initiate the influx of the kārma particles (matter particles capable of becoming karmas) towards the soul. The functions of passions are ‘to be the cause’ of kārma bondage with the soul and it’s ensure the same.
Q.VI.4.13 What is meant by wicked activities?
A.VI.4.13 The strong intentions /desires of enjoying the sensual pleasures are called wicked activities.
Q.VI.4.14 What is meant by meritorious activities resulting in demerit (pāpānubandhi punyakriyā)?
A.VI.4.14 To undertake meritorious activities with the intention of enjoying sensual pleasures in the heaven are the meritorious activities resulting in demerit.
Q.VI.4.15 What is meant by meritorious activities resulting in merit (punyānubandhi punya kriyā)?
A.VI.4.15 To undertake meritorious activities without the intention of enjoying sensual pleasures in the heaven are the meritorious activities resulting in merit. Here all activities are performed only with the intention of achieving liberation.
Q.VI.4.16 What is meant by pure or just activities?
A.VI.4.16 To undertake meritorious activities just for the activities and without any intention (even of liberation) are called pure activities.
Indriya-kasāyāvrata-kriyāh pañca-catuh ̣pañca-pañcaviśati-sakhyāh ̣ pūrvasya bhedāh
Meaning: The subdivisions of the former (transmigression-extending influx) are the five senses, the four passions, the non-observance of five vows and the twenty-five activities.
Q.VI.5.1 How many types of the transmigression-extending (sāmparāyika) influx are there?
A.VI.5.1 Transmigression extending influx is caused by activities of five sense organs, four passions, five vow-less-nesses and twenty five transmigression-extending activities.
Q.VI.5.2 Which are the five sense organs?
A.VI.5.2 Body (touch), tongue (taste), nose (smell), eyes (see) and ears (hear) is the five sense organs.
Q.VI.5.3 Which are the four passions?
A.VI.5.3 These are anger, pride, deceit and greed.
Q.VI.5.4 Which are the five-vow?
A.VI.5.4 These are violence, falsehood, stealing, non-chastity and possessions which are the opposite of five vows (vratas).
Q.VI.5.5 Which are the twenty five transmigression-extending activities(kriyā)?
A.VI.5.5 There are twenty five transmigression-extending activities, namely: right faith (samyaktva), urges that lead to deluded / wrong faith (mithyātva), evil urges of body (prayoga), neglect of vows (samādāna), walking carefully (īryāpatha), acting in anger (prādos.ikī), act in an evil way (kāyikī), taking weapons (ādhikaraṇikī), extending misery (pāritāpikī), injuring life-forces (prāṇātipātikī), to see beautiful things (darśana), to have pleasurable touch (sparśana), to explore new sense of enjoyments (prātyayikī), excreting on places frequented by others (samantānupāta), carelessness while lying down (anābhoga), undertaking others’ duties (svahasta), approval of de-meritorious (nisarga), proclaiming other’s sins (vidāraṇa), misinterpretation of scriptures (ajñāvyāpādikī), indifference to observe scriptural commandments (anākāṃks.a), indulgence (prārambha), to maintain attachment to worldly objects (pārigrāhikī), deceitful practice (māyā), to promote deluded views beliefs (mithyādarśana), not renounce renounce-able things (apratyākhyāna).
Q.VI.5.6 What is samyaktva kriyā?
A.VI.5.6 Activities like worshipping the true omniscient, scriptures and teachers to strengthen the right faith are called samyaktva kriyā.
Q.VI.5.7 What is mithyātva kriyā?
A.VI.5.7 Activities like worshipping the false omniscient, scriptures and teachers which weaken the right faith are called mithyātva kriyā.
Q.VI.5.8 What is prayoga kriyā?
A.VI.5.8 Body-activities like wandering, movements are called prayoga kriyā.
Q.VI.5.9 What is samādāna kriyā?
A.VI.5.9 Activities which involve developing closeness with non-voters even though observing self-control vows are called samādāna kriyā.
Q.VI.5.10 What is īryāpatha kriyā?
A.VI.5.10 Activities which involve careful walking from one place to another only for an objective are called īryāpatha kriyā.
Q.VI.5.11 What is prādos.ikī kriyā?
A.VI.5.11 Activities of violence etc performed in anger are called prādos.ikī kriyā.
Meaning: Influx is differentiated on the basis of intenseness and feebleness of thought-activity, intentional or unintentional nature of action, the substratum (instrument used) and its peculiar potency.
Q.VI.6.1 What is the cause of increase or decrease in the influx?
A.VI.6.1 Influx increases or decreases on the basis of intensity or feebleness of thought activity, intentional or unintentional nature of the activity, substratum and its peculiar potency (vīrya).
Q.VI.6.2 What is meant by intense thoughts?
A.VI.6.2 Intense thoughts are caused by intense anger, pride, etc.
Q.VI.6.3 What is meant by feeble thoughts?
A.VI.6.3 Feeble thoughts are caused by mild anger, pride, etc.
Q.VI.6.4 What is meant by intentional thoughts?
A.VI.6.4 Intentional thoughts are caused by intense intentions (like to kill someone) or done knowingly.
Q.VI.6.5 What is meant by unintentional thoughts?
A.VI.6.5 Unintentional thoughts are caused by activities performed without laziness or pride etc. or done unknowingly.
Q.VI.6.6 What is meant by substratum thoughts?
A.VI.6.6 Substratum thoughts are caused by based on the nature of the subject /substance itself.
Q.VI.6.7 What is meant by peculiar potency thoughts?
A.VI.6.7 Specific potency/ energy level of the subject is called peculiar potency. For example a person with superior most body has more influx than the person with less superior bodies.
Q.VI.6.8 Which are the intense thoughts which cause intense influx?
A.VI.6.8 Anger, attachment, aversion, company of civil and uncivil persons, objects of sense organs caused by external causes such as place, time, etc, passion, vow-less-ness and activities cause intense influx.
Q.VI.6.9 Which are the mild thoughts which cause mild influx?
A.VI.6.9 Mildness in the feelings of attachment and aversion, etc (please see A.VI.6.8) cause mild influx.
Q.VI.6.10 Which are the intentional and unintentional thoughts which increase or decrease influx?
A.VI.6.10 Some persons develop intense thoughts when they know about certain external objects while others develop milder thoughts under similar situations. Unintentional activities develop very mild influx.
Meaning: The living and the non-living constitute the substrata (instruments).
Q.VI.7.1 What is meant by substratum (plural is substrata) (adhikaraṇa)?
A.VI.7.1 The foundation or the basis of an entity is called substratum. It is of two types namely living beings (jīva) and non living beings (ajīva).
Q.VI.7.2 What is meant by living beings substratum?
A.VI.7.2 The influx caused by the living beings or in which the living-beings are the primary cause are called living beings substratum.
Q.VI.7.3 What is meant by non living beings substratum?
A.VI.7.3 The influx in which the non living beings are the primary cause of influx is called non living beings substratum.
Q.VI.7.4 How both living and non living beings can be the cause of influx?
A.VI.7.4 Transmigression is the result of interaction between living and non living beings. Merit and demerit karma are also bonded due to these only. Therefore both living and non living beings are the substrata of influx.
Q.VI.7.5 How many types of living and non living instruments are there?
A.VI.7.5 These are of ten types namely poison, salty, sour, bitter, and acidic, affection, fire, mind / body and speech tainted with wickedness.
Q.VI.7.6 How the living and non-living instruments can be classified?
A.VI.7.6 They can be classed as substance-substrata and mode-substrata.
Q.VI.7.7 What is meant by mode-substrata?
A.VI.7.7 Passions and other thoughts of the living beings and the potency of non-living beings like the sharpness of a sword are mode-substrata.
Meaning: The substratum (instruments of inflow) of the living is of 108 kinds.
Q.VI.8.1 How many types of living beings instruments of inflow are there?
A.VI.8.1 The instruments of influx of the living are of 108 kinds. These are:
• Planning to commit (saṃrambha), preparation for it (samārambha) and commencement (ārambha) of activities:- 3
• Done by self, (kr.ata), extending it done by others (kārita) and approval to other (anumodana) doeis. - 3
• By activities of mind, body and speech. - 3
• Passion (anger, pride, deceit and greed) - 4
Total: 3*3*3*4 - 108
Q.VI.8.2 How many types of non-living beings instruments of influx are there?
A.VI.8.2 The instruments of influx of non-living beings are eleven namely:
• Production (nivartanā) - 2
• Placing /representation (niks.epa) - 4
• Combining (saṃyoga) - 2
• Urging (nisarga) - 3
Total : 2*4*2*3 - 11
Q.VI.8.3 What is meant by planning to commit / intention (saṃrambha)?
A.VI.8.3 To firm up the intentions of undertaking an activity is called planning to commit.
Q.VI.8.4 What is meant by preparation for it (samārambha)?
A.VI.8.4 To start collecting appliances and implements to undertake the intended activity is called preparation for it.
Q.VI.8.5 What is meant by commencement (ārambha) of activities?
A.VI.8.5 To start performing the activity intended is called commencement of activity.
Q.VI.8.6 What is meant by ‘doing’ (kr.ata)?
A.VI.8.6 To perform the activity is called “doing’.
Q.VI.8.7 What is meant by extending it done (kārita)?
A.VI.8.7 To get the activity done / performed by others is called extending it done.
Q.VI.8.8 What is meant by approval (anumodana)?
A.VI.8.8 To approve or appreciate the activity performed by others is called approval.
Q.VI.8.9 What is meant by yoga?
A.VI.8.9 Vibrations of the space-points of the soul are called yoga. It is of three types based on the type of causes namely mind, speech and body yoga.
Q.VI.8.10 What is meant by passions? How many types of passion are there?
A.VI.8.10 Just like the decoction (dye) of the vegetables / fruits / flowers imparted to the cloth, similarly the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) impart taint to the soul shrouding its true nature and the kārma particles move towards it for bondage.
Q.VI.8.11 What is meant by viśes.a or specific in the aphorism?
A.VI.8.11 Specific here implies the specificity of an object, e.g. specific commitment, specific commencement etc is added to each type of substrata.
Q.VI.8.12 Why are there 108 beads in the rosary (mālā)?
A.VI.8.12 Multiplying the different types of passions (A.VI.8.1) gives 108 subtypes. Empirical souls while living and involved in auspicious or inauspicious activities are invariably associated with one of these passions. To purify from each of these passions and so there are 108 beads in the rosary.
Nirvartanāniksepasayoganisargā dvicaturdvitribhedah ̣ param
Meaning: Production, placing, combining and urging are the substratum of the non-living or non-living instruments of inflow, with two, four, two and three subtypes respectively.
Q.VI.9.1 What is meant by production (nivartanā)?
A.VI.9.1 It means to create, to produce or to make.
Q.VI.9.2 How many types of production are there?
A.VI.9.2 It is mainly of two types namely of primary attributes and of secondary attributes.
Q.VI.9.3 What is meant by production of primary attributes?
A.VI.9.3 Creating or making of body, speech, mind; beathing (inhalation and exhalation) are production of primary attributes.
Q.VI.9.4 What is meant by production of secondary attributes?
A.VI.9.4 Creating or making of articles of wood, stone, clay or pictures etc. is called production of secondary attributes.
Q.VI.9.5 What is meant by placing (niksepa)?
A.VI.9.5 To place /keep articles on floor etc is called placing.
Q.VI.9.6 How many types of placing are there?
A.VI.9.6 Placing is of four types namely quick (sahasā), carelessly (anābhoga), without inspection (apratyvekita) and disinterested (duh ̣pramrsa).
Q.VI.9.7 What is meant placing quickly (sahasā niksepa)?
A.VI.9.7 To place an object quickly on the floor due to fear or urgency to undertake another activity is called quick placing.
Q.VI.9.8 What is meant by placing carelessly (anābhoga niksepa)?
A.VI.9.8 To place an object at any place carelessly (without cleaning the place properly) instead of its proper place, is called careless placing.
Q.VI.9.9 What is meant by placing without inspection /seeing (apratyveks.ita niks.epa)?
A.VI.9.9 To place an object on the floor or at other place without ensuring that the place is clean and free from living beings placing without inspection.
Q.VI.9.10 What is meant by disinterested placing ?
A.VI.9.10 To place an object at its proper place carelessly (without cleaning the place despite seeing its dirtyness) even though there is no urgency to complete the task is called duh ̣pramrsta niksepa.
Q.VI.9.11 What is meant by anābhoga?
A.VI.9.11 To place implements of carefulness (like whisk, water pot, etc) on floor etc without inspecting and re-inspection the place properly is anābhoga.
Q.VI.9.12 What is meant by combining (saṃyoga)?
A.VI.9.12 To combine many objects / materials is called combining (saṃyoga).
Q.VI.9.13 How many types of combining (saṃyoga) are there?
A.VI.9.13 It is of two types, namely combining edible items (bhaktapāna) and combining implements (upakaraṇa).
Q.VI.9.14 What is meant by combining edible items (bhaktapānāsamyoga)?
A.VI.9.14 It is mixing living and non living items as food (e.g. mixing un-boiled and unstrained water with boiled milk or flour etc as food for the ascetics).
Q.VI.9.15 What is meant by combining implements (upakaraṇāsamyoga)?
A.VI.9.15 To wipe cold books /body, water pot etc by warm whisk or to combine hot and cold implements is combining implements. It can also be defined as assembling things together for any act or effect.
Q.VI.9.16 What is meant by ‘urging’ (nisarga)?
A.VI.9.16 Inclination, to act is called ‘urging’ (nisarga).
Q.VI.9.17 How many types of ‘urging’ (nisarga) are there?
A.VI.9.17 It is of three types, namely intention of mind, speech and body.
Q.VI.9.18 What is mental urge (behaviour of mind)?
A.VI.9.18 Wicked behaviour of the mental faculty is called mental urge.
Q.VI.9.19 What is meant by speech urge?
A.VI.9.19 Wicked behaviour of the speech faculty is called speech urge.
Q.VI.9.20 What is meant by body urge?
A.VI.9.20 Wicked behaviour of the body is called body urge.
Q.VI.9.21 Why production (nivartanā) and placing etc are called non-living substrata?
A.VI.9.21 As non-living beings (ajīva) is the basis of creation, of production, placing, combining and urge are the types of influx; these are called as non-living beings substrata.
Meaning: Slander (Spite againt faith and knowledge), concealment, non-imparting of knowledge out of envy, extending impediment to acquisition of knowledge, disregard and disparagement (disregard to the keepers and instruments) of true knowledge lead to the influx of karmas which obscure knowledge and perception.
Q.VI.10.1 What are the causes of influx of knowledge and perception /intuition obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.1 Slander (prados.a), Concealment (nihnava), non-imparting out of jealousy (mātsarya), extending impediments to acquisition (antarāya), disregard (āsādana), disregard to the keepers and instruments (upaghāta) lead to the influx of knowledge and perception obscuring karma.
Q.VI.10.2 What is meant by spite (prados.a) against knowledge?
A.VI.10.2 When someone is giving an exposition of true knowledge for attaining liberation, another is spiteful or resentment in his attitude towards it (him and his exposition) is spite against knowledge (prados.a).
Q.VI.10.3 What is meant by concealment (nihnava) of knowledge?
A.VI.10.3 Not responding to a query i.e. does not reply saying I dont know by a learned person despite knowing fully the answer is concealment of knowledge (nihnava).
Q.VI.10.4 What is meant by non-imparting knowledge out of jealousy (mātsarya)?
A.VI.10.4 Not responding to a query by a learned person i.e. does not reply thinking that the person seeking knowledge will become equal or more than him, is non-imparting knowledge out of jealousy / envy (mātsarya).
Q.VI.10.5 What is meant by extending impediments to acquisition of knowledge (antarāya)?
A.VI.10.5 To cause obstacles in the learning or acquisition of knowledge, to others is ‘extending impediments to acquisition of knowledge’ (antarāya).
Q.VI.10.6 What is meant by disregard of knowledge (āsādana)?
A.VI.10.6 To cause obstacles or to stop the exposition of true knowledge by a learned person (due to disrespect for true knowledge) is ‘disregard of knowledge (āsādana).’
Q.VI.10.7 What is meant by disparagement of true knowledge (upaghāta)?
A.VI.10.7 Blaming or calling false the true knowledge is disparagement of true knowledge (upaghāta)’.
Q.VI.10.8 What is the implication of ‘tat’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.10.8 Knowledge and perception are indicated by the word ‘tat’.
Q.VI.10.9 What are the other causes of the influx of knowledge obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.9 To present knowledge on reality/ basic elements contrary to the meaning implied, disinterest in their exposition, to be lazy in understating the meaning in the aphorism (sutra); to sell religious texts with the intention of making money, to give (thinking himself as all knowing) false exposition of true knowledge, to read the holy texts at improper time, to be in contradiction with true preceptor /teacher and ascetic, not to believe in the true nature of reality, not to contemplate on reality, to cause obstacles in the expositions of the sermons of omniscient, to insult learned persons and to change the texts or methods of the meaning and practice of learning are some other causes for the influx of knowledge obscuring karma.
Q.VI.10.10 What are the other causes of influx of perception obscuring karmas?
A.VI.10.10 To cause injury to the eyes of other, to sleep for abnormal periods, to sleep during day time, to pick faults /short comings of others, to admire or support false teachers, to develop a feeling of hatred on seeing sky-clad ascetics and to develop atheist feelings are some other causes of influx of perception obscuring karmas.
Duh ̣kha-śoka-tāpākrandana-vadha-paridevanānyātmaparo bhaya-sthānānyasadvedyasya
Meaning: Extending misery, grief, agony, moaning, injury and lamentation in ownself, in others or in both, lead to the influx of karmas which cause unpleasant feeling i.e. attract misery producing karmas.
Q.VI.11.1 What is the cause of unpleasant feeling (asātā vedaniya) karmas?
A.VI.11.1 Misery (duh ̣kha), grief (śoka), agony (tāpa), moaning (ākraṇdana), injury (vadha) lamentation (paridevana), in ownself or in others or in both, lead to the influx of karma extending unpleasant feelings.
Q.VI.11.2 What is meant by suffering (duh ̣kha)?
A.VI.11.2 Feeling of misery is suffering.
Q.VI.11.3 What is meant by sorrow (śoka)?
A.VI.11.3 The feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful objects is sorrow.
Q.VI.11.4 What is meant by agony (tāpa)?
A.VI.11.4 The feeling of distress owing to disgrace is called agony.
Q.VI.11.5 What is meant by crying (ākraṇdana)?
A.VI.11.5 Weeping out loudly out of agony is crying.
Q.VI.11.6 What is meant by injury (vadha)?
A.VI.11.6 Depriving one or many of the life forces (senses, strength or vigour, respiration or lifespan) is called injury.
Q.VI.11.7 What is meant by lamentation (paridevana)?
A.VI.11.7 Crying /weeping out loudly to arouse sympathy /attention or help from others for self or others is called lamentation.
Q.VI.11.8 Who accrues the influx of unpleasant feeling karma?
A.VI.11.8 The one, who becomes unhappy / feeling of misery or makes others so, accrues unpleasant feeling karma.
Q.VI.11.9 How can we justify the activities; like pulling out hair, fasting and standing in the sun and so on and preach others also to do the same; of Jain ascetics?
A.VI.11.9 Since these activities of Jain ascetics are devoid of anger and other passions, therefore these activities do not cause influx of unpleasant feeling karmas. They preach these for the welfare of the others suffering from the miserys of transmigration
Bhūta-vratyanukampā-dāna-sarāgasayamādi-yogah ks āntih -śaucamiti sadvedyasya
Meaning: Compassion towards living beings in general and the devout in particular, charity, self-restraint with attachment etc, contemplation of mind, equanimity, purity etc are comes of influx of pleasant feeling karma.
Q.VI.12.1 What are the causes of the influx of pleasant feeling (sātā vedaniya) karmas?
A.VI.12.1 Compassion (anukampā), charity (dāna) towards living beings in general (bhūta) and the devout (vrati) in particular, self-restraint with attachment (sārāgasaṃyama), application / contemplation of mind (yoga), equanimity (ks.ānti), purity (śauca) are the causes of the influx of the pleasant feeling karmas.
Q.VI.12.2 What is meant by compassion (anukampā) towards living beings in general (bhūta)?
A.VI.12.2 Developing fellow feelings or distress at the sufferings of all other living beings and to consider their suffering as your own is general-compassion.
Q.VI.12.3 What is meant by compassion towards the devout (vrati) in particular?
A.VI.12.3 Developing special feelings or distress at the sufferings of householders practising minor vows (aṇuvratas) and the ascetics practising major vows (mahāvratas) and observing self control and to consider their suffering as own is devout-compassion in particular.
Q.VI.12.4 What is meant by charity (dāna)?
A.VI.12.4 Bestowing gifts or things owned by one self for the benefit of others (living beings in general and the devout in particular) is called charity.
Q.VI.12.5 What is meant by self-restraint with attachment (sārāgasaṃyama)?
A.VI.12.5 To restraint ownself from undesirable activities towards living beings and control own sensual inclinations and refraining from the killing of the six types of living beings though with attachment is called self-restraint with attachment.
Q.VI.12.6 What is meant by application/ contemplation of mind (yoga)?
A.VI.12.6 To observe the above activities i.e. (compassions for both general and devout), charity and self-control with attachment, with full application of mind and completely is yoga. Also yoga is said to be as performing flawless activities, meditation and samādhi with auspicious objectives.
Q.VI.12.7 What is meant by saṃyamāsaṃyama?
A.VI.12.7 Observance of minor vows by a householder with right belief (samyagdr.s.t.i) is saṃyamāsaṃyama. It is observation of vows in small measure.
Q.VI.12.8 What is meant by akāmanirjarā?
A.VI.12.8 To tolerate inflictions peacefully and with equanimity under the influence of others even though one is not willing is akāmanirjarā or dissociation with effort. Like sārāgasaṃyama, it is also a cause of pleasant feeling influx.
Q.VI.12.9 What is meant by false austerities (bālatapa)?
A.VI.12.9 To observe austerities without knowledge of spiritual purification (or by one with perverted views) is called false austerities?
Q.VI.12.10 What is meant by equanimity (ks.ānti)?
A.VI.12.10 Renunciation of anger and other passions and maintaining an attitude of forgiveness is equanimity.
Q.VI.12.11 What is meant by purity (śauca)?
A.VI.12.11 To give up greed is purity.
Q.VI.12.12 What is the implication of the word ‘ādi’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.12.12 It implies restraint cum non-restraint (saṃyamāsaṃyama), involuntary dissociation (akāmanirjarā) and observing austerities with perverted views (bālatapa) also as the causes of pleasant feeling influx.
Q.VI.12.13 What is the implication of the word ‘iti’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.12.13 It implies devotion to the omniscient and reverence to the ascetics.
Q.VI.12.14 What is the difference between compassion and pity (dayā)?
A.VI.12.14 Compassion is observed for the well being of others while pity is observed for self well being.
Meaning: Attributing faults to the omniscient, the scriptures, the congregation of ascetics, the true religion and the celestial beings leads to the influx of faith-deluding karmas.
Q.VI.13.1 What are the causes of faith deluding karmas influx?
A.VI.13.1 Attributing faults to the omniscient (kevalī), the scriptures (śruta), the congregation of ascetics (saṃgha), the true religion (dharma), and the celestial beings (devatā) leads to the influx of faith deluding (darśana mohanīya) karmas.
Q.VI.13.2 What is meant by the omniscient?
A.VI.13.2 The one who has attained perfect / infinite perception and perfect / infinite knowledge is called an omniscient.
Q.VI.13.3 What is meant by the scriptures?
A.VI.13.3 The sermons propounded by an omniscient; heard, memorized and composed as texts by ascetics with special attainments (called gaṇadharas) are called scriptures.
Q.VI.13.4 What is meant by the congregation of ascetics or religious order (saṃgha)?
A.VI.13.4 The group of ascetics endowed with right perception-knowledge-conduct is called congregation (saṃgha).
Q.VI.13.5 What is meant by the true religion (dharma)?
A.VI.13.5 Non violence, non-pride (mārdava) etc known as dasalaks.aṇa or the ten indicators of spiritual purification are called dharma.
Q.VI.13.6 What is meant by ‘attributing faults to faultless’ (avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.6 Attributing faults to faultless/ innocent (the ones mentioned in A.VI.13.2 to5) is called avarṇavāda.
Q.VI.13.7 What is meant by finding faults in the omniscient (kevalī avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.7 To say that omniscient eat through the mouth (i.e. kavalāhāri) is kevalī avarṇavāda as the omniscient, due to their attainment of nokarmāhāra (body i.e. capability to extract the nutrients required for the body from the environment).
Q.VI.13.8 What is meant by finding faults in the scriptures (śruta avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.8 To say ‘that to eat meat, to take alcohol, to eat at night, to indulge in sensual pleasures’ are all prescribed in the scriptures is finding faults in the scriptures.
Q.VI.13.9 What is meant by finding faults in the congregation (saṃgha avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.9 To find faults in the nirgrantha monks, nuns, laity, etc who is a part of congregation (and are detached from their body and worldly possessions and things) and say that they are not the real as prescribed in the scriptures is called finding faults in the congregation.
Q.VI.13.10 What is meant by finding faults in true religion (dharmaavarṇavāda)
A.VI.13.10 To denounce, find faults and say harmful for the nation’s cause, the religion based on non violence and as propounded by the omniscient is finding faults in true religion.
Q.VI.13.11 What is meant by finding faults in the celestial beings (devatā avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.11 To call the celestial beings as eaters of meat, consumer of alcohol and enjoying sex with other women is finding faults with the gods and goddesses.
Q.VI.13.12 What is inference of exceptions (apavāda), condemning (nindā) and finding faults in the faultless (avarṇavāda)?
A.VI.13.12 These are synonymous.
Q.VI.13.13 What happens by finding faultless in an innocent person?
A.VI.13.13 They accrue faith deluding karma influx.
Q.VI.13.14 Who is a bigger defaulter between the one who finds faults and the one who hears the faults of an innocent?
A.VI.13.14 The one who hears and accepts the faults of an innocent is a bigger defaulter than the one who finds faults and so has more potent influx of faith deluding karmas.
Meaning: Intense feelings induced by the rise of the passions cause the influx of the conduct-deluding karmas.
Q.VI.14.1 What is the cause of conduct deluding (cāritra mohanīya) karma?
A.VI.14.1 Intense feelings induced by the rise of the passions cause the influx of conduct deluding karmas.
Q.VI.14.2 What is meant by passions (kas.āya)?
A.VI.14.2 Those entities which obscure the fourfold nature (infinite perception, knowledge, energy and happiness) of the soul are called passions.
Q.VI.14.3 How many kinds of conduct deluding karmas are there?
A.VI.14.3 It is of two kinds primarily, namely with passion (kas.āya vedanīya) and with quasi passions (akas.āya vedanīya).
Q.VI.14.4 What is meant by ‘conduct deluding karmas with passions’?
A.VI.14.4 It implies the entity which makes one feel the miserys induced by the passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed).
Q.VI.14.5 What is meant by conduct deluding karmas with quasi-passions (akas.āya vedanīya or no-kas.āya vedanīya)?
A.VI.14.5 It implies the entity which makes one feel the slight miserys induced by the quasi-passions (jest /laughter, liking for certain objects, dissatisfaction, sorrow, fear, disgust, hankering after men/ women /neutral sexes).
Q.VI.14.6 What is meant by jest / laughter (hāsya)?
A.VI.14.6 Ridiculing right faith and the true religion, laughing at the distress or misery of others, making jokes at the expense of others, excessive laughter and the rest are meant by laughter.
Q.VI.14.7 What is meant by liking for certain objects (rati)?
A.VI.14.7 Desire for different and strange kinds of pleasures, not relishing the minor vows and other spiritually beneficent activities is called rati.
Q.VI.14.8 What is meant by dissatisfaction (arati)?
A.VI.14.8 Promoting dissatisfaction amongst others, destroying pleasures of others, association with the wicked are the activities implied by arati.
Q.VI.14.9 What is the difference between rati and arati?
A.VI.14.9 Rati implies rest and arati implies restlessness.
Q.VI.14.10 What is meant by sorrow (śoka)?
A.VI.14.10 Plunging others in sorrow or making merry at other’s sorrows is sorrow.
Q.VI.14.11 What is meant by fear (bhaya)?
A.VI.14.11 Frightening ownself or others is fear.
Q.VI.14.12 What is meant by disgust (jugupsā)?
A.VI.14.12 Disgust at ennoble deeds and virtuous conduct of others is disgust.
Q.VI.14.13 What is the cause of female gender feeling/ inclinations (str.ī veda) karmas?
A.VI.14.13 Speaking what is untrue, playing trick on others, prying into other’s faults or weaknesses, intense attachment etc cause the influx of female gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.14 What is the cause of male gender feeling /inclinations (purūs.a veda) karmas?
A.VI.14.14 Slight anger, mildness, contentment with one’s wife etc cause the influx of male gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.15 What is the cause of the neutral gender inclinations (napuṃsaka) karmas?
A.VI.14.15 Great or intense passion, extending injury to concealed parts/ organs, going for pleasure to other’s women etc are the causes of the neutral gender inclinations karmas.
Q.VI.14.16 What is the way to escape these deluding (mohanīya) karmas?
A.VI.14.16 To abstain from those inauspicious activities which cause the influx is the way to escape the deluding karmas.
Meaning: Virulent aggression and extreme possessiveness cause the influx of karma which leads to birth in the infernal regions.
Q.VI.15.1 What is the influx leading to infernal life (narakāyu) karmas?
A.VI.15.1 Excessive infliction of misery (ārambha) and excessive attachment (parigraha) to objects are the causes of influx leading to infernal life karmas.
Q.VI.15.2 What is meant by ārambha?
A.VI.15.2 Activity which causes excessive misery and suffering to other living beings is called ārambha.
Q.VI.15.3 What is meant by parigraha?
A.VI.15.3 Attachment to objects with a feeling that they belong to me is parigraha.
Q.VI.15.4 What are the other causes for the influx of karmas leading to infernal life?
A.VI.15.4 Perpetual cruel activity, appropriating others wealth, infatuation with sensual pleasures, intense pride, intense anger are like a line drawn on a stone rock / black coloration (leśyā) leading to the influx of karmas taking one to life in infernal destiny in the next birth.
Meaning: Deceitfulness causes the influx of life-karma leading to the animal and plant world.
Q.VI.16.1 What is the cause for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryaṃca) life?
A.VI.16.1 Deceitfulness (māyā) is the cause of influx of karmas leading to subhuman life.
Q.VI.16.2 What is meant by māyā?
A.VI.16.2 Deceitful disposition of the soul caused by a particular conduct deluding karma produces the influx of life-karma leading to the birth in sub human world.
Q.VI.16.3 What are the other causes for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryaṃca) life?
A.VI.16.3 The preaching of religion from a perverted attitude, lack of good conduct and propriety, desire for cheating others, blue and grey thought-colourations of the soul, mournful concentration during death which are the varieties of deceitful conduct, are the other causes of influx of karmas leading to sub human life.
Meaning: Slight injury and / or attachment cause the influx of life-karma that leads to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.17.1 What are the causes of influx of karmas leading to human life?
A.VI.17.1 Extending slight injury to others and developing mild attachment are the causes of the influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.17.2 What are the other causes of influx of karma leading to human life?
A.VI.17.2 Gentle disposition, humility; death free from distressful disposition; simple and straight forward indulgence in activities of mind, speech and body; inclination to perform charity and mild passions are the other causes of influx leading to birth in human realm.
Meaning: Being humble by nature (soft hearted nature) also leads to the same influx.
Q.VI.18.1 What is the other primary cause of influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm?
A.VI.18.1 Being of soft hearted nature (simple dispositions) also is the cause of influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm.
Q.VI.18.2 What is meant by simple disposition or being of soft hearted nature?
A.VI.18.2 Being of soft hearted nature or natural gentleness results in gentle disposition naturally. It cannot be caused by the teaching or instructions of anyone else.
Q.VI.18.3 What is the need to make this as a separate aphorism?
A.VI.18.3 Since natural gentleness also is the cause of influx of karmas leading to heavenly life, it is mentioned here separately also.
Q.VI.18.3 What is the implication of the word ca in the aphorism?
A.VI.18.3 The word ca is used to present a collection of causes for influx of karmas leading to birth in human realm i.e. not just the slight attachment but natural gentleness is also the cause for the same.
Niśśīla-vratatvaṃ ca sarvesām
Meaning: Non-observance of supplementary vows and etc. causes the birth in all the four kinds of beings (realms).
Q.VI.19.1 What is meant by ‘nih ̣śīla-vratatvaṃ ca sarveśām’ in the aphorism?
A.VI.19.1 Lack of observance of the seven supplementary (called śīlavrata) vows which include Deśavirati, etc and the five minor vows (aṇuvratas) are the causes of the influx of karmas leading to birth in all realms.
Q.VI.19.2 What is meant by śīla?
A.VI.19.2 Observance of the three guṇavratas (which intensify the impact of minor vows) and four śiks.āvrata (which teach or prepare the householder for monk-hood) along with giving up passions i.e. anger, pride etc is called śīla. In other words, the conduct which intensifies the practitioner of minor vows towards practice of major vows is śīla.
Q.VI.19.3 What is meant by vow (vrata)?
A.VI.19.3 Observing /practising Non-violence, truth speaking, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possession are the five vows.
Q.VI.19.4 What is nih ̣śīlavrata?
A.VI.19.4 It implies the non-observance of the five minor vows and seven supplementary vows.
Q.VI.19.5 What is implied by ca in the aphorism?
A.VI.19.5 It implies that slight injuries, mild attachment, non-observance of minor and supplementary vows are the causes of all influx leading to the birth in all the four realms also.
Q.VI.19.6 Which living beings attain birth as heavenly beings even without observing minor and supplementary vows?
A.VI.19.6 Human beings in paradise (bhogabhūmi) are born in heaven even without the observance of vows.
Q.VI.19.7 Which level of heavens can be attained by men from paradise and subhuman beings?
A.VI.19.7 They can go up to Aīśāna heaven.
Meaning: Self-restraint with attachment, partial-restraint (minor vows), involuntary dissociation of karmas and austerities with perverted faith (of misguided people), lead to birth in heavenly realms.
Q.VI.20.1 What are the causes of influx of karmas leading to birth in the heavens?
A.VI.20.1 Self-restraint with attachment (Sarāga saṃyama), partial-restraint (saṃyamāsaṃyama), involuntary dissociation (akāmanirjarā) and austerities with perverted views (bālatapa) are the causes of influx of karmas leading to birth in the heavenly realms.
Q.VI.20.2 What is meant by self-restraint with attachment?
A.VI.20.2 Practising self restraint /control with attachment is self control with attachment.
Q.VI.20.3 What is meant by partial-restraint?
A.VI.20.3 Giving up violence against mobile living beings and not giving up violence against stationery living beings is partial-restraint.
Q.VI.20.4 What is the characteristic of attachment?
A.VI.20.4 Attachment implies a person /living being that is keen to give up causes of transmigression but has not yet developed detachment in mind.
Q.VI.20.5 What is meant by self-restraint /control?
A.VI.20.5 Giving up inclinations of inauspicious sensual organs is called self-restraint.
Q.VI.20.6 What is meant by involuntary dissociation with effort (akāmanirjarā)?
A.VI.20.6 Dissociation which accrues without the specific objective so doing is involuntary dissociation e.g. enduring thirst, hunger, discipline etc. result in dissociation of karmas also.
Q.VI.20.7 What is meant by austerities with perverted views (bālatapa)?
A.VI.20.7 Observance of austerities by a person with perverted faith (without proper knowledge of reality and true nature of self) is called austerities with perverted views.
Q.VI.20.8 What is literal meaning of bāla and tapa?
A.VI.20.8 Bāla (literarily means child). Here it implies perverted faith. Tapa means Practising conduct which prevents spiritual downfall.
Q.VI.20.9 Observing austerities are the causes of achieving stoppage of influx and dissociation of karmas. Then why is austerities with perverted views the cause of transmigression?
A.VI.20.9 Austerities observed by a person with right faith are the cause of stoppage and dissociation of karmas. Austerities observed by a person with perverted faith are the cause of transmigression.
Meaning: Prior to ‘meditation’, these are of nine, four, ten, five and two types respectively.
Q.IX.21.1 How many types of first five internal austerities are there?
A.IX.21.1 Expiation is of nine types, reverence is of four types, nursing service is of ten types, self-study is of five types and renunciation is of two types.
Meaning: Criticise, repentance, both, discrimination, giving up attachment to the body, penance, suspension, expulsion and reinitiating.
Q.IX.22.1 How many types of expiation (prāyascitta) are there?
A.IX.22.1 Expiation is of nine types namely; criticise (ālocanā), repentance (pratikramaṇa), twofold (tadubhaya), discrimination (viveka), giving up attachment to the body (vyutsarga), penance (tapa), suspension (cheda), expulsion (parihāra) and re-initiation (upasthāpanā).
Q.IX.22.2 What is meant by criticising-expiation?
A.IX.22.2 To relate one’s transmigressions (errors) before the teacher /master by making one free from the ten flaws of criticising (mentioned later) is called criticising-expiation.
Q.IX.22.3 What is meant by repentance-expiation?
A.IX.22.3 To express in words (speech) the feelings /wish of renunciation of the transmigressions /errors i.e. ‘my deeds be condoned’, is called repentance-expiation.
Q.IX.22.4 What is meant by ‘twofold-expiation’?
A.IX.22.4 To observe both confession and repentance is called twofold expiation.
Q.IX.22.5 What is meant by discrimination-expiation?
A.IX.22.5 Separation of food, drinks and implements of self control is called discrimination-expiation.
Q.IX.22.6 What is meant by ‘giving up attachment to the body’-expiation?
A.IX.22.6 Standing at one place without any attachment to the body to perform austerities is called ‘giving up attachment to the body’-expiation.
Q.IX.22.7 What is meant by penance-expiation?
A.IX.22.7 Observing fast and other types of external austerities for purification of the flaws committed is called penance-expiation.
Q.IX.22.8 What is meant by suspension (cheda)?
A.IX.22.8 To observe the period of separation from the congregation and perform penance for one, two weeks for removing the flaws committed is called suspension (cheda).
Q.IX.22.9 What is meant by expulsion-expiation?
A.IX.22.9 To observe expulsion from the order /congregation for a week / fortnight /month etc for flaws committed is called expulsion-expiation.
Q.IX.22.10 What is meant by re-initiation-expiation?
A.IX.22.10 To reinitiate the expelled person once again in the order /congregation is called re-initiation expiation.
Q.IX.22.11 Which attributes in the preceptor, giving expiation to the ascetics are required?
A.IX.22.11 The teacher /preceptor should be in possession of the knowledge of the four part scriptural knowledge, practiser of five types of conduct; knowledge of the norms of practice according to place /time/substance/mode; ability to lead and serve the entire congregation, express effectively the knowledge of flaws and attributes of the three jewels of right belief-knowledge-conduct; benefactor, influential, able to protect the flaw of the disciples and to lead the others out of the cycle of transmigration.
Q.IX.22.12 What is meant by repentance (prāyascitta)?
A.IX.22.12 The word prāya means flaw /error/ transmigression and citta means purification. Therefore the word repentance means purification from the flaws / transmigressions.
Q.IX.22.13 Which are the ten flaws that can arise in criticize?
A.IX.22.13 These are inducing (ākampita), inferential (anumānita), visible (dr.s.t.a), gross (bādara), subtle (sūks.ma), hiding (pracchanna), obstructed by noise /sound (śabdākulita), disguising (bahujana- śakti), non-expressible (avyakta), and disguising (tatsevī).
Q.IX.22.14 What is meant by inducing (ākampita) flaw?
A.IX.22.14 To offer inducements to the preceptors (in the form of service or presenting implements like water pot or whisk etc) so as to have the duration of penance reduced.
Q.IX.22.15 What is meant by inferential (anumānita) flaw?
A.IX.22.14 To pause ownself as weak and sick so that the preceptor can reduce the penance imposed for the flaws committed is called inferential flaw.
Q.IX.22.16 What is meant by visible (dr.s.t.a) flaw?
A.IX.22.16 To conceal the flaws committed which have not been seen by anybody while being committed is visible flaw.
Q.IX.22.17 What is meant by gross (bādara) flaw?
A.IX.22.17 To hide the subtle flaws committed while telling the gross flaws only to the preceptor for repentance is called gross flaw.
Q.IX.22.18 What is meant by subtle (sūks.ma) flaw?
A.IX.22.18 To hide the gross flaw and tell only the subtle flaws for repentance to the preceptor due to the fear of severe punishment) is called subtle (sūks.ma) flaw.
Q.IX.22.19 What is meant by ‘hide (pracchanna) flaw’?
A.IX.22.19 To hide the secret flaws due to the fear of reprimand is called ‘hide (pracchanna) flaw’.
Q.IX.22.20 What is meant by ‘obstructed by noise /sound (śabdākulita) flaw’?
A.IX.22.20 To recite the flaw during repentance when there is lot of noise so that the preceptor does not listen to it properly is called ‘obstructed by noise /sound’ flaw.
Q.IX.22.21 What is meant by ‘indecisiveness (bahujana- śakti) flaw’?
A.IX.22.21 The doubt the punishment given by the preceptor and seek its justification from other ascetics is called ‘indecisiveness flaw’.
Q.IX.22.22 What is meant by ‘non-expressible (avyakta) flaw’?
A.IX.22.22 To tell the transmigressions committed to other fellow ascetics and not the preceptor is called non-expressible flaw.
Q.IX.22.23 What is meant by ‘disguising (tatsevī) flaw’?
A.IX.22.23 To tell the preceptor the transmigression committed by self as committed by others and seek repentance is called disguising flaw.
Meaning: Reverence to knowledge, faith, conduct and the custom of homage.
Q.IX.23.1 How many types of reverence (vinaya) are there?
A.IX.23.1 It is of four types, namely: knowledge (jñāna), faith (darśana), conduct (cāritra) and custom of homage (upacāra).
Q.IX.23.2 What is ‘reverence to knowledge’?
A.IX.23.2 Acquiring, Practising and remembering knowledge with reverence is called ‘reverence to knowledge’.
Q.IX.23.3 What is meant by ‘reverence to faith’?
A.IX.23.3 Belief in the nature of the reality without doubt, hankering and opposition is called ‘reverence to faith’.
Q.IX.23.4 What is meant by ‘reverence to conduct’?
A.IX.23.4 Absorption in right conduct with full knowledge and faith is called ‘reverence to conduct’.
Q.IX.23.5 What is meant by reverence to ‘custom to homage’?
A.IX.23.5 Rising up, offering welcome and making obeisance to the presence of the preceptor / head of the congregation, to other ascetics and other great ones, and to praise the ford makers, the scriptures and the preceptor by mind, body and speech constitute ‘reverential custom to homage’.
Meaning: Nursing service to the Head (ācārya), the preceptor, the ascetic, the disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged saints, the congregation of disciples of a common teacher, the fourfold congregation (monks, female saints, votarymen and votarywomen), the long-time ascetic and the saint of high reputation.
Q.IX.24.1 How many types of nursing service (vaiyāvrata) are there?
A.IX.24.1 Nursing service is of ten types, namely that given to: the head of congregation (ācārya), the teacher ascetic (upādhyāya), the penances (tapasvi), the disciple (śaiks.a), the ailing ascetic (glāna), the congregation of aged ascetics (gaṇa), the congregation of the disciples of one teacher /preceptor (kula), congregation of the four orders of monks, nuns, votary men and votary women (saṃgha), the long time ascetic (sādhu) and the saint of high reputation (manojña).
Q.IX.24.2 Who is called the head of congregation (ācārya)?
A.IX.24.2 An ascetic who is a practiser of five types of specific conduct himself and guides other ascetics to do the same is called the head of congregation.
Q.IX.24.3 Who is a teacher ascetic (upādhyāya)?
A.IX.24.3 An ascetic who is himself well versed with the Jain canonical texts himself and teachers other ascetics to learn the same is a teacher ascetic.
Q.IX.24.4 Who is a penancer (tapasvi)?
A.IX.24.4 A person who observes the major vows and observes the twelve fold strenuous external and internal austerities is called a penancer.
Q.IX.24.5 Who is a disciple (śaiks.a)?
A.IX.24.5 A person who is a willing learner and practiser of the Jain canonical texts is called disciple.
Q.IX.24.6 Who is an ailing ascetic (glāna)?
A.IX.24.6 An ascetic who is sick is called an ailing ascetic.
Q.IX.24.7 What is meant by the congregation of aged ascetics (gaṇa)?
A.IX.24.7 The group of senior and aged ascetics is called the congregation of aged ascetics.
Q.IX.24.8 What is meant by the congregation of the common disciples (kula) of one teacher /preceptor?
A.IX.24.8 The lineage of disciples initiated into the monk-hood by the same head of the congregation called the congregation of the disciples of one teacher /preceptor.
Q.IX.24.9 What is meant by the four fold congregation of the monks, nuns, votary men and votary women (saṃgha)?
A.IX.24.9 Congregation of the four folds /orders namely monks, votary men, votary women and nuns is called saṃgha. Alternatively congregation of r.s.is, yatis, munis and totally detached from the household (anagāra) is called congregation or holy-gathering.
Q.IX.24.10 Who is called the ‘long-time ascetic’ (sādhu)?
A.IX.24.10 An ascetic who had been initiated into monk-hood for quite some time is called ‘long-time ascetic’.
Q.IX.24.11 Who is called the saint of high reputation (manojña)?
A.IX.24.11 An ascetic who commands respect for his scriptural knowledge, oratory skills and Practising the path of spiritual purification is called saint of high reputation.
Q.IX.24.12 What is meant by nursing service (vaiyāvrata) austerity?
A.IX.24.12 Nursing service to cleanse the external and internal dirt of the ten types of people on purification path namely,: the head of congregation, the teacher ascetic, the ascetic (tapasvi), the disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged ascetics, the congregation of the disciples of one teacher /preceptor, congregation of the four orders of monks, nuns, votary men and votary women, the long-time ascetic and the saint of high reputation is called ‘Nursing service austerity’.
Meaning: Teaching, questioning, reflection, recitation and preaching (are five types of self study austerity).
Q.IX.25.1 How many types of self-study (svādhyāya) austerities are there?
A.IX.25.1 Teaching (vācāna), questioning (pracchanā), contemplation (anupreks.ā), recitation (āmnāya) and preaching (dharmopadeśa) are the five types of self study austerities.
Q.IX.25.2 What is meant by teaching (vācāna)?
A.IX.25.2 To teach the disciples is called teaching.
Q.IX.25.3 What is meant by questioning (pracchanā)?
A.IX.25.3 To seek clarifications regarding the text or the verses /commentaries being studied /taught is called questioning.
Q.IX.25.4 What is meant by contemplation (anupreks.ā)?
A.IX.25.4 To mentally recite and contemplate the meanings of the texts / verses taught is called contemplation.
Q.IX.25.5 What is meant by recitation (āmnāya)?
A.IX.25.5 To memorize or recite repeatedly correctly and clearly is called recitation.
Q.IX.25.6 What is meant by preaching (dharmopadeśa)?
A.IX.25.6 To preach the Jain doctrine to remove the misconceptions concerning the metaphysical nature of reality, path of spiritual purification and to provide the knowledge of Jain doctrine is called preaching. It can also be said as narrating the religious principles and related stories.
Meaning: Giving up external and internal attachments.
Q.IX.26.1 How many types of renunciation (vyutsarga) are there?
A.IX.26.1 There are two types namely; giving up the external objects of attachment and giving up the internal objects of attachment.
Q.IX.26.2 What is meant by vyutsarga?
A.IX.26.2 It means to give up.
Q.IX.26.3 What is meant by giving up external objects of attachment?
A.IX.26.3 Objects like money, physical assets, family etc are called external objects of attachment. To give up such objects is called giving up external objects of attachment.
Q.IX.26.4 What is meant by giving up internal objects of attachment?
A.IX.26.4 To give the passions (anger, deceit, greed and pride) which are the perverted states of the soul is called giving up internal objects of attachment.
Q.IX.26.5 These are included in renunciation-expiation also. Then why are these included here also?
A.IX.26.5 As expiation, it is performed or cleaning up a misdeed / transmigression committed. Here it is voluntary and done with on wish to attain the purer state of the soul.
Meaning: Concentrating of thought on one particular object is meditation. In the case of a person with the best physical structure or constitution its period is under one Indian-hour.
Q.IX.27.1 What is meant by meditation (dhyāna)?
A.IX.27.1 Concentrating of thoughts on one object for a maximum of one Indian-hour by an ascetic with perfect body structure (uttama sahanana śarira) is called meditation.
Q.IX.27.2 Who can meditate properly and for how long?
A.IX.27.2 An ascetic with perfect body structure can meditate properly for a maximum period of intra-Indian-hour (48 minutes approx).
Q.IX.27.3 Which are the prefect body structures?
A.IX.27.3 The first three types of body structures namely vajravr.s.abha-nārāca, vajra-nārāca and nārāca are best body structures and can attain correct meditation which leads the practitioner to liberation.
Q.IX.27.4 What is the duration of meditation?
A.IX.27.4 The minimum duration of meditation essential for achieving liberation is one intra-Indian-hour.
Q.IX.27.5 What is Indian-hour?
A.IX.27.5 An Indian-hour is equal to two ghadī.
Q.IX.27.6 What is ghadī?
A.IX.27.6 A ghadī equals 24 minutes.
Q.IX.27.7 What is intra-Indian-hour (antaramuhūrta)?
A.IX.27.7 The time period which lies within an Indian-hour.
Q.IX.27.8 Why the duration of meditation is said to be intra-Indian-hour?
A.IX.27.8 As concentration of mind on one object becomes difficult after Indian-hour.
Q.IX.27.9 What are the benefits of meditation?
A.IX.27.9 It annihilates all karmas bonded with the soul. A correct meditation for an intra-Indian-hour can destroy all obscuring karmas and enable the practitioner to become an omniscient.
Q.IX.27.10 What are the essential components for a proper meditation?
A.IX.27.10 The four things, namely: the one who meditates, the process of meditation, the object of meditation and the period of meditation are the four components of the proper meditation.
Meaning: The miseryful, the cruel, the virtuous (righteous) and the pure.
Q.IX.28.1 What are the four types of meditation?
A.IX.28.1 The four types of meditation are: ārta pan based or mournful, raudra or cruel, dharmya or virtuous and śukla or the pure.
Q.IX.28.2 What is meant by pan based mournful-meditation?
A.IX.28.2 The meaning of ārta is misery. Concentrating the mind on the miseryful- disposition /experience is mournful -concentration. Concentration at object of mournful and cruel types of meditations is distinguished as inauspicious.
Q.IX.28.3 What is meant by cruel-concentration?
A.IX.28.3 Raudra means cruel temperament. The concentration caused by cruel temperament is called cruel-concentration.
Q.IX.28.4 What is meant by virtuous-meditation?
A.IX.28.4 Concentration on thoughts on the auspicious activities or the right conduct or the nature of the omniscient lord etc is called virtuous-meditation.
Q.IX.28.5 What is meant by pure-meditation?
A.IX.28.5 Śukla means pure or clean. So, to concentrate the thoughts without any passions on an object is called pure-meditation.
Q.IX.28.6 Which are the auspicious and inauspicious types of meditation?
A.IX.28.6 The virtuous and the pure meditations are auspicious and the mournful and cruel concentrations are inauspicious concentrations.
Q.IX.28.7 Why miseryful and cruel concenraations are inauspicious?
A.IX.28.7 As they are the cause of transmigration, they are called inauspicious.
Q.IX.28.8 Why the virtuous and pure meditations are called auspicious?
A.IX.28.8 Since these two types of meditation are capable of kārma annihilation, they are called auspicious.
Meaning: The last two are the causes of liberation.
Q.IX.29.1 Which meditations are the causes of transmigration and which are the causes of liberation?
A.IX.29.1 The miseryful and cruel meditations are the causes of transmigration while the virtuous and the pure meditations are the causes of liberation.
Q.IX.29.2 Which is the direct or clear cause of liberation?
A.IX.29.2 Pure meditation is the direct cause of liberation.
Q.IX.29.3 Which type of mediation is traditionally considered as the cause of liberation?
A.IX.29.3 The virtuous mediation is the traditional cause of liberation.
Ārtamamanojñasya samprayoge tadviprayogāya smrti-samanvāhārah ̣
Meaning: On the contact of disagreeable objects, thinking again and again for their removal is the first kind of sorrowful concentration.
Q.IX.30.1 What is meant by amanojña?
A.IX.30.1 ‘Disagreeable’ is the literal meaning of the word amanojña. Here it means the disagreeable objects like poison, prickly thorns, enemies, weapons, etc as they are obstacles to our agreeable temperament.
Q.IX.30.2 How many types of disagreeable objects are there?
A.IX.30.2 These can be classified as sentient and insentient.
Q.IX.30.3 What are sentient disagreeable objects?
A.IX.30.3 The body emitting stench odour, snake etc are sentient disagreeable objects.
Q.IX.30.4 What are the insentient disagreeable objects?
A.IX.30.4 Arms, prickly thorns, poison etc are insentient disagreeable objects.
Q.IX.30.5 What is meant by smr.ti samanvāhāra?
A.IX.30.5 Repeated recollection of an object by digressing from other objects of thoughts is called is called smr.ti samanvāhāra.
Q.IX.30.6 What is the state of thoughts of the person engaged in deep worryful -meditation caused by disagreeable objects?
A.IX.30.6 On the contact of such disagreeable objects, the person is engrossed in ways and means of removing them.
Meaning: The contrary in the case of agreeable objects.
Q.IX.31.1 What is meant by ‘mournful-concentration caused by the loss of contact of agreeable objects’?
A.IX.31.1 On the loss of contact of agreeable objects, the person is engrossed in ways and means of making that contact again. This is called ‘deep worryful-concentration’ caused by the loss of contact of agreeable objects’.
Meaning: In the case of suffering from misery also.
Q.IX.32.1 What is mournful-concentration induced by suffering from misery?
A.IX.32.1 To continuously think on ridding the misery caused by a disease or illness is called mournful-concentration induced by sufferingfrom misery.
Q.IX.32.2 What is meant by vedanā?
A.IX.32.2 The literal meaning of the word vedanā is experiencing the misery and pleasure.
Meaning: The wish for enjoyment also.
Q.IX.33.1 What is meant by ‘sting or intense anxiety’ (nidāna) mournful-concentration?
A.IX.33.1 To be engrossed in achieving pleasure (not attained till now) in future is called ‘sting or intense anxiety’ mournful concentration.
Q.IX.33.2 Why is ca used in the aphorism?
A.IX.33.2 It means that besides the three types of mournful concentration discussed earlier, this is also the fourth type of such mediation.
Q.IX.33.3 What is the nature of ‘sting or intense anxiety’ mournful concentration?
A.IX.33.3 Wishing and thinking repeatedly (intense anxiety) is the nature of this concentration.
Meaning: These occur in the case of laymen with and without minor vows, non-volary, partial votary and non-vigilant ascetics.
Q.IX.34.1 Who are the avirata (who do not observe small vows or non-votary) living beings?
A.IX.34.1 The laymen / women who do not observe the small vows (aṇuvratas) even though they may have the right belief are called non-votary. All living beings up to the fourth stage of spiritual purification belong to this category.
Q.IX.34.2 To which stages of spiritual purification (guṇasthāana) do non-votaries belong?
A.IX.34.2 The aviratas belong to the first four i.e. up to asaṃyata samyagdr.s.t.i.
Q.IX.34.3 To which stage of spiritual purification do partial-votaries (deśaviratas) belong to?
A.IX..34.3 The lay householders belong to the fifth stage of spiritual purification as they do observe the small vows and are the right believers.
Q.IX.34.4 Which living beings are called as self-restraint with laxity (pramatatasaṃyata)?
A.IX.34.4 The non vigilant monks, who perform their duties but are subject to flaws associated with laziness/pride.
Q.IX.34.5 In which stages of spiritual purification, the practiser can have mournful- concentration?
A.IX.34.5 The mournful-concentration can occur in the first six stages of spiritual purification i.e. up to self-restraint with laxity stage.
Q.IX.34.6 Which monks cannot have sting-mournful concentration?
A.IX.34.6 The monks in the sixth stage of spiritual purification cannot have this sting-mournful concentration.
Q.IX.34.7 In which stages of spiritual purification the practitioer cannot have bondage of karmas leading to subhuman realms?
A.IX.34.7 The kārma bondage leading to the birth in subhuman realms cannot take place in fourth to sixth stages of spiritual purification as the mournful-concentration in these stages is very subtle.
Meaning: Cruel-concentration relating to injury, untruth, stealing and safeguarding of possessions occurs in the case of laymen with and without partial vows.
Q.IX.35.1 What is raudra or cruel-concentration?
A.IX.35.1 Concentration which is induced by thoughts of violence, untruth, stealing or safeguarding own possession is called raudra or cruel concentration.
Q.IX.35.2 In which stages of spiritual purification can this cruel concentration occur?
A.IX.35.2 It can occur up to the fifth stage of spiritual purification but cannot occur to the monk in the sixth stage else he is not a monk and falls to lower stages.
Q.IX.35.3 What are sub types of cruel concentration?
A.IX.35.3 It is of four types namely violence enjoying (hiṃsānandī), untruth enjoying (mr.s.ānandī), and theft-enjoying (cauryānandī) and possession enjoying (parigrhānanadī).
Q.IX.35.4 What is meant by violence enjoying (hiṃsānandī) concentration?
A.IX.35.4 Thinking of violence as a source of pleasure, to be engrossed in planning and organizing violence is called violence enjoying concentration.
Q.IX.35.5 What is meant by untruth enjoying (mr.s.ānandī) concentration?
A.IX.35.5 Thinking of speaking lies as a source of pleasure, to be engrossed in planning and organizing untruth activities is called untruth concentration.
Q.IX.35.6 What is meant by stealing (cauryānandī) concentration?
A.IX.35.6 Thinking of stealing as a source of pleasure, to be engrossed in planning and organizing stealing is called stealing concentration.
Q.IX.35.7 What is meant by possession enjoying (parigrhānandī) concentration?
A.IX.35.7 Thinking of wealth and its possession as a source of pleasure, to be engrossed in planning and organizing the accumulation and safeguard of the wealth is called possession enjoying concentration.
Q.IX.35.8 What are the results of miseryful and cruel concentrations?
A.IX.35.8 The mournful (ārta) concentration results in subhuman realms and the cruel (raudra) concentration results in infernal /hellish realms.
Q.IX.35.9 What are the peculiarities in the cruel concentration of avirata and of deśavirata lay-householders?
A.IX.35.9 The deśavirata lay-householders cannot accrue the hellish realms due to the potency of right belief possessed by him /her even though he is doing cruel concentration. On the other hand cruel concentration of avirata can lead him /her to the hellish destiny.
Meaning: To concentrate on the objects of revelation, misfortune or calamity, fruition of karmas and the structure of the universe is virtuous meditation.
Q.IX.36.1 What is meant by virtuous (Dharmya) meditation?
A.IX.36.1 Meditation accompanied by spiritual values /virtues is called virtuous meditation.
Q.IX.36.2 How many types of virtuous meditation are there?
A.IX.36.2 It is of four types, namely concentrating on objects of i.e. revelation (ājñāvicaya), misfortune / calamity (apāyavicaya); fruition of karmas (vipākavicaya); and structure of the universe (saṃsthānavicaya).
Q.IX.36.3 What is meant by concentrating on objects of revelation?
A.IX.36.3 To accept the reality of an entity, even though the same cannot be explained by examples or logic, but supported by the valid knowledge of the scriptures (based on the sermons of the omniscient) is called concentrating on objects of revelation.
Q.IX.36.4 What is meant by concentrating on objects of misfortune / calamity (apāyavicaya)?
A.IX.36.4 To contemplate on the sufferings of self and others and the ways and means of getting rid of them is called concentrating on objects of misfortune / calamity.
Q.IX.36.5 What is meant by contemplation on objects of fruition of karmas (vipākavicaya)?
A.IX.36.5 To contemplate on the modes and types of results of the karmas with reference to substance, place, time and modes is called contemplation on objects of fruition of karmas.
Q.IX.36.6 What is meant by contemplation of objects of structure of the universe (saṃsthānavicaya)?
A.IX.36.6 To contemplate on the form, size and the constituents of the universe is called contemplation of objects of structure of the universe.
Q.IX.36.7 How many types of contemplation on objects of structure of the universe (saṃsthānavicaya) are there?
A.IX.36.7 It is of four types namely contemplation on the body (piṃdastha), contemplation on the word / aphorism (padastha), contemplation on a form (rūpastha) and contemplation on formless self (rūpātīta).
Q.IX.36.8 What is meant by ‘contemplation on the body’ (piṃdastha)?
A.IX.36.8 Contemplation on own soul (and its virtues) by concentrating on own body, standing (khadgāsana) or sitting (padamāsana) in a solitary and calm /clean place with clean and pure body, mouth and thoughts is called contemplation on the body.
Q.IX.36.9 How many types of retentions (dhāraṇā) of the contemplation on the body are there?
A.IX.36.9 There are five types of retentions namely seat / place /earth (pārthivī), fire /energy (āgneyī), air (pavana), water (jala) and pure virtuous existence (tatvarūpavatī). Each of these retentions occurs after the earlier retention has been completed sequentially.
Q.IX.36.10 What is the imagery namely seat / place /earth (pārthivī)?
A.IX.36.10 The retention namely seat / place / earth (pārthivī) contemplation on your body consists of your sequential contemplation on
• Existence of a milky ocean in the centre of the middle worldof cosmos (madhyaloka).
• A shining golden lotus of the size of Jambudwīpa in the centre of the milky ocean.
• A yellow conical pillar of the height of Mount Sumeru in the centre of the lotus.
• A throne of transparent glass crystal at the top of the yellow conical pillar.
• Yourself sitting on that throne in absolutely pure form.
Q.IX.36.11 What is the fire /energy (āgneyī) retention?
A.IX.36.11 This is the continuation of pārthivī imagery and involves the following additional and sequential steps. Sitting at the throne as indicated above, you contemplate:
• On your navel, sixteen petals (each with one of sixteen vowels of Hindi written on it) white lotus flower blooming upwards and the word hr.m written in the centre.
• There is another smaller eight petals white lotus half blooming just at the centre of your heart. Think of each petal representing one of the eight types of karmas.
• There is a flame of fire along with smoke emanating from the centre of the lager lotus at the navel rising upwards. It starts burning the lotus petalsat the heart as if burning the material karmas and moves up to the brain.
• This flame of fire from the brains moves down along the sloping surface surrounding the body forming a pyramid shape. On the three lines of the triangular pyramid, the words raṃ, raṃ, raṃ are written.
• Each corner of triangle has a swastika of the form of fire on which words aum raṃ are written.
• This flame has burnt life determining karmas internally, and the body externally before it cools down as ashes.
• The flame subsidea at the same place from where it emanated.
Q.IX.36.12 What is air (pavana) retention?
A.IX.36.12 After the fire retention, contemplate that of air his surrounded the body. The winds are blowing away the ashes of material karmas and of the nokarma (body particles). Then it settles down. This is called air retention.
Q.IX.36.13 What is meant by water (jala) retention?
A.IX.36.13 After the air retention contemplate that the area above the brain is covered with a thick shield of clouds. It has started drizzles as large water droplets all over you. This washes away even the stains left behind by the ashes of karmas and body particles leaving behind just pure and clean soul. This is called water retention.
Q.IX.36.14 What is meant by pure virtuous existence (tatvarūpavatī) retention?
A.IX.36.14 After the water retention, contemplate further on the soul completely free from physical and psychic body particles. This pure soul is similar to siddha with infinite vision-knowledge-bliss-energy-quard along with the other characteristics of the pure soul. This is called pure virtuous existence (tatvarūpavatī) retention.
Q.IX.36.15 What is meant by meditation on the word / aphorism (padastha)?
A.IX.36.15 The practices of this type of meditation contemplates on a word or an aphorism of his choice; e.g. on each of the right petals of the lotus at the heart, he writes one of the following eight aphorisms namely namo arahantāṇam, namo siddhāṇam, namo āyariāṇam, namo uvvajjhāyāṇam, namo loye savva sāhuṇam, right belief, right knowledge and right conduct. He visits each petal again and again concentrating on their meanings. Similarly self study, reciting slowly (jāpa) some aphorisms etc also is called meditation on word / aphorism (padastha).
Q.IX.36.16 What is meant by ‘contemplation on a form (rūpastha)’?
A.IX.36.16 The practiser of this type of meditation thinks that he is attending the religious congregation (samośaraṇa) of the fordmaker who is sitting on a golden throne on the top of the lotus surrounded by the eight auspicious elements (prātihāryas) or he is himself sitting on the thrown as ford maker. Another type of this meditation is to contemplate on the idol /image of a fordmaker and enshrine that in his brain to contemplate on his virtues.
Q.IX.36.17 What is meant by contemplation on formless self (rūpātīta)meditation?
A.IX.36.17 The practiser of this type of meditation considers himself like a pure formless siddha and then contemplates on the virtues of the siddha only.
Śukle cādye pūrvavidah
Meaning: The first two types of pure meditation are attained by the saints well-versed in the pūrvas.
Q.IX.37.1 Which are the first two types of śukla or the pure meditation which can be realized by saints (pūrvavid) well versed in pūrvas (scriptures by omniscient existing prior to Mahāvīra)?
A.IX.37.1 Pr.thaktvavitarkavicāra and Ekatvavitarkavicāra are the first two types of pure meditation which can be realized by the saints well versed in the scriptures given by the omniscient.
Q.IX.37.2 What is implied by pūrvavid?
A.IX.37.2 A śr.utakevalī (scriptural-omniscient); i.e. a saint who knows completely the scriptures based on the sermons of the omniscient lords. The scriptures prior to Mahāvīra are called pūrvas.
Q.IX.37.3 Who is a śr.utakevalī (scriptural-omniscient)?
A.IX.37.3 A person who knows the 11 limbs of 12 limbs of Jain canons and 14 pūrvas is called śr.utakevalī (scriptural-omniscient).
Q.IX.37.4 What is the meaning of the word ca in the aphorism?
A.IX.37.4 The word ca implies that in the 11th (complete self-restrain with suppressed passions) and 12th (complete self-restrain with eliminated passions) stages of spiritual purification, the person can have both virtuous meditation as well as the first two types of pure meditation.
Q.IX.37.5 In which stages of spiritual purification do the first two types of pure meditation possible?
A.IX.37.5 The first type i.e. Prthaktvavitarkavicāra is possible in 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th stages of spiritual purification (guṇasthānas) which are respectively known as ‘gross passions with novel experiences’ (apūrvakaraṇa), (anivrtikaraṇa), ‘subtle flickering greed passion’ (sūks.masāmparāya) and ‘suppressedpassions’ (upaśāntakasāya). The second one i.e. Ekatvavitarkavicāra can occur in the twelfth stage of spiritual purification as known as ‘complete self-restrain with eliminated passions’.
Pare kevalinah ̣
Meaning: The last two arise in the omniscient.
Q.IX.38.1 To who are the remaining two types of pure meditation possible?
A.IX.38.1 The third type of pure meditation known as subtle infallible physical activity (sūks.makriyā-pratipāti) is possible to the omniscient with activities (sayoga-kevalī) in the 13th stage of spiritual purification. The last i.e. the fourth type of pure meditation, known as irreversible stillness of the soul (Vyuparatakriyā-nivarti), is possible to the omniscient without activities (ayoga-kevalī) in the 14th stage of spiritual purification.
Meaning: (The four types of pure meditation are: separatory contemplation, unitary Contemplation, subtle infallible physical activity and irreversible Stillness of the soul.
Q.IX.39.1 What is the meaning of pure (śukla) meditation?
A.IX.39.1 It is just pure contemplation.
Q.IX.39.2 How many types of pure meditation are there?
A.IX.39.2 It is of four types, namely: separatory contemplation (pr.thaktv-avitarkavīcāra), unitary contemplation (ekatvavitarkavīc-āra), subtle infallible physical activity (sūks.makriyā-pratipāti), and irreversible stillness of the soul (vyuparatakriyā-nivarti).
Q.IX.39.3 What is the meaning of ‘separatory contemplation pure meditation’?
A.IX.39.3 Pr.thaktva means separateness; vitarka means detailed or special examination or scriptural knowledge and vīcāra means shifting or moving from one to another. Thus in this type of contemplation, the practitser, based on the scriptural knowledge, moves/ shifts his thoughts from one substance /mode/ /word /number to another substance /mode/word/number and so on, or from one activity (of mind /body /speech) to another activity till he gets one subject concentrating/ contemplating.
Q.IX.39.4 What is the meaning of ‘unitary contemplation pure meditation’?
A.IX.39.4 Ekatva means oneness. So in this type of meditation, the practitioner, without surfing from one to another substance /mode/word /number and based on scriptural knowledge contemplates on one subject only.
Q.IX.39.5 What is the meaning of ‘subtle infallible physical activity pure meditation’?
A.IX.39.5 Giving up gross bodily activity, and depending upon slight bodily activity but not being detracted by it, the practitser ascends / embraces the contemplation on just the soul.
Q.IX.39.6 What is the meaning of ‘irreversible stillness of the soul pure meditation’?
A.IX.39.6 Vyuparatakriyā-nivarti pure meditation is when after making the duration of all the four non-obscuring karmas equal and through subtle bodily activities embraces the meditation on pure soul to destroy all activities (mind, body and speech) completely.
Meaning: The pure meditation is accompanied by three activities, one activity, bodily activity and no activity.
Q.IX.40.1 With how many activities existent can the practitioner attain the first pure meditation?
A.IX.40.1 Multiple-contemplation, the first type of pure meditation can be acquired by a saint with all the activities of mind, body and speech.
Q.IX.40.2 With how many activities existent can the practitser attain the second pure meditation?
A.IX.40.2 Unitary-contemplation, the second type of pure meditation can be acquired by a saint with anyone of the three types of activities only.
Q.IX.40.3 With how many activities existent can the practitser attain the third pure meditation?
A.IX.40.3 Subtle infallible physical activity, the third type of pure meditation can be acquired by a saint with body activities only.
Q.IX.40.4 With how many activities existent can the practitser attain the fourth pure meditation?
A.IX.40.4 Irreversible stillness of the soul, the fourth type of pure meditation is possible only to omniscient without any activity.
Q.IX.40.5 What is the meaning of triyoga?
A.IX.40.5 Vibrations of the space points of the soul caused by the activities of mind, body and speech is called triyoga.
Q.IX.40.6 What is the meaning of eka-yoga?
A.IX.40.6 It means the vibrations of the space points of the soul caused by any one of the three activities (i.e. of mind or body or speech).
Q.IX.40.7 What is meant by kāyayoga?
A.IX.40.7 Vibrations of the space points of the soul caused by the activities of the body are called kāyayoga.
Q.IX.40.8 What is meant by ayoga?
A.IX.40.8 It implies absence of the vibrations of the space points of the soul in an omniscient without activities.
Ekāśraye savitarka-vīcāre pūrve
Meaning: The first two types are based on one substratum (particular substance as their object) and are associated with scriptural knowledge and shifting.
Q.IX.41.1 How are the first two types of pure meditation said to be based on one substratum?
A.IX.41.1 They are called as they can be acquired only by a scriptural omniscient (śr.utakevalī).
Q.IX.41.2 What is the peculiarity of the first type of pure meditation?
A.IX.41.2 The peculiarity of the first type of pure meditation called Multiple-contemplation is that it involves scriptural knowledge (vitarka) and shifting of the subject (vīcāra).
Meaning: The second type is free from shifting.
Q.IX.42.1 What is the implication of this aphorism?
A.IX.42.1 Unitary contemplation, the second type of pure meditation involves scriptural knowledge but is devoid of shifting (vīcāra).
Vitarkah ̣ śrutam
Meaning: Vitarka is scriptural knowledge.
Q.IX.43.1 What is the meaning of the word vitarka?
A.IX.43.1 Scriptural knowledge is called vitarka i.e. knowledge which is free from contradictions /doubts/ arguments.
Q.IX.43.2 Why are the first two types of pure meditation i.e. multiple -meditation and unitary contemplation, called savitarka?
A.IX.43.2 Since both these types of meditation are possible only to a saint with scriptural knowledge, they are called savitarka.
Meaning: Vīcāra is shifting between the objects, words and activities.
Q.IX.44.1 What is meant by shifting (vīcāra)?
A.IX.44.1 Shifting is with regards to objects (artha), words (vyanjana) and activities (yoga).
Q.IX.44.2 What is meant by object (artha)?
A.IX.44.2 The subject of meditation is object. The object includes substance and modes.
Q.IX.44.3 What is meant by shifting of objects?
A.IX.44.3 Shifting of objects means passing/moving contemplation from substance to modes and from modes to substances. It is also called artha saṃkrānti.
Q.IX.44.4 What is meant by word (vyanjana)?
A.IX.44.4 Word stands for the scriptural term.
Q.IX.44.5 What is word ‘shifting’?
A.IX.44.5 Word ‘shifting’ is passing from one scriptural term to another and from that to another.
Q.IX.44.6 What is meant by activities (yoga)?
A.IX.44.6 Actions of mind, body and speech are called yoga.
Q.IX.44.7 What is meant by yoga saṃkrānti?
A.IX.44.7 It is changing from body activity to activities of mind or speech and then again to body activities and so on.
Q.IX.44.8 What is meant by saṃkrānti?
A.IX.44.8 It means changing or passing or shifting.
Samyagdrsti-śrāvakaviratānantaviyojaka-darśanamoha-ksapakopaśama-kopaśāntamoha-ksapaka-ksīṇamoha-jināh ̣kramaśo (a) samkhyeyaguṇanirjarāh
Meaning: The dissociation of karmas increases innumerable-fold from stage to stage in the ten stages of the right believer, the householder Practising vows partially, the ascetic Practising major vows, the separator of the passions leading to infinite births, the destroyer of faith-deluding karmas, the suppressor of conduct-deluding karmas, the saint with quiescent passions, the eliminator of delusion, the saint who has eliminated delusion and the spiritual victor (Jina).
Q.IX.45.1 Which stages of spiritual purification have manifold increase (uttrottara) in dissociation (nirjarā) of karmas?
A.IX.45.1 The dissociation of karmas increases innumerable fold from stage to stage in the ten stages (4th to 13th stages of spiritual purification) of right believer, householder with minor vows, ascetic with major vows, the separator of passions leading to infinite births, the destroyer of faith deluding karmas, the suppressor of conduct deluding karmas (chapaka śr.eṇī), the saint with subtle passions, the destroyer of delusion and the kevalī or omniscient.
Q.IX.45.2 The word nirjarā implies the right believer in the aphorism. Which type of right belief is implied here?
A.IX.45.2 Prathamopaśamsamyagdr.s.t.i is the type of right belief implied here. A living being having perverted views from beginning-less time acquires this type of right belief in the first instance. At that stage only, he accrues innumerable times dissociation of karmas compared to his earlier state.
Q.IX.45.3 The second position in dissociation of karmas is assigned to a householder. Which type of householder is implied here?
A.IX.45.3 The householder, who is not able to observe complete self restraint due to the rise of mild (which hinders abstinence) passions but is able to observe partial vows due to the rise of intense (which disturbs complete self restraint), passions is implied here.
Q.IX.45.4 What is meant by detached (virata)?
A.IX.45.4 The ascetics in the sixth and seventh stages of spiritual purification are implied here.
Q.IX.45.5 What is the implication of the word anantānubandhi viyojaka in the aphorism?
A.IX.45.5 The practitser in the 4th to 7th stages of spiritual purification, who starts destruction of the faith deluding karmas wand destroys the virulent (which leads to infinite births) passions is inferred here.
Q.IX.45.6 What does anantānubandhi viyojaka do?
A.IX.45.6 He first performs the three worthy actions/ duties (karaṇas) in the 4th, 5th and 6th stages of spiritual purification destroying the seven kārma tendencies and then destroys the virulent four passions.
Q.IX.45.7 What is meant by visaṃyojanā?
A.IX.45.7 It is the transformation of virulent four passions into the 12 passions at the levels intense (which hinders abstinence), mild (which disturbs complete self restraint) and gleaming /subtle of the four (anger, pride, greed and deceit).
Q.IX.45.8 Who is darśanamoha chapaka?
A.IX.45.8 The practitser who destroys the seven tendencies namely; existence of four passions at virulent level along with perverted views /beliefs, mixed (right and perverted) and right belief slightly clouded by wrong beliefs is called darśanamoha chapaka.
Q.IX.45.9 Which living beings are referred by upaśamaka (subsidence oriented)?
A.IX.45.9 Here the word upaśamaka refers to the practitser in the 8th to 10th stage of spiritual purification that use subsidence method to attain their spiritual purification and achieve subsidence of the 21 tendencies of conduct-deluding karmas.
Q.IX.45.10 Who are referred by upaśānta moha?
A.IX.45.10 It refers to the practitser in the 11th stage of spiritual purification.
Q.IX.45.11 Who are referred by chapaka?
A.IX.45.11 The practitser in the 8th to 10th stage of spiritual purification that use destruction method to attain their spiritual purification and achieve destruction of the 21 tendencies of conduct-deluding karmas.
Q.IX.45.12 Who are referred by the word jina here?
A.IX.45.12 The practitioner in the 13th stage (omniscient with activities) and 14th stage (omniscient without activities) of spiritual purification are referred here.
Meaning: Husk (Pulāka), the tainted (bakuśa), and the imperfect or with unwholesome disposition (Kuśīla), the unbound (Nirgrantha) and successful (Snātaka) are the passionless saints.
Q.IX.46.1 How many kinds of ascetic (nirgraṇtha muni) are there?
A.IX.46.1 The ascetics are of five kinds namely; husk, the tainted, imperfect or unwholesome disposition (kuśīla), the unbound (nirgraṃtha) and successful (snātaka).
Q.IX.46.2 What is meant by husk?
A.IX.46.2 Pulāka literally means empty or shelled grain. The saint, whose mind is devoid of the practice of even observance of secondary vows (of the ascetic) and who sometimes lapses (at some places or times) in perfect observance of even the primary vows (of the ascetic) is called husk.
Q.IX.46.3 What is meant by ‘the tainted’?
A.IX.46.3 Bakuśa literally means spotted. The saint who observes the primary vows without any flaws but have the inclination /tendencies to adore their body or implements of self restraint are called the tainted.
Q.IX.46.4 What is meant by ‘the imperfect or with unwholesome disposition’?
A.IX.46.4 They are of two types namely pratisevana kuśīla and kas.āya kuśīla.
Q.IX.46.5 Who are pratisevana kuśīla?
A.IX.46.5 The ascetics who observe both the primary and secondary vows completely but are occasionally lax in secondary vows due to attachment with their body and implements of self restraint are called pratisevana kuśīla.
Q.IX.46.6 Who are kas.āya kuśīla?
A.IX.46.6 The ascetics who have conquered the first three levels of passions but not the fourth (gleaming /subtle) level of passions yet are called kas.āya kuśīla.
Q.IX.46.7 What is meant by ‘the unbound’?
A.IX.46.7 The passionless ascetic, who has rising karmas like the line drawn in the water, i.e. the passions are extremely week and are soon going to disappear, is called nirgraṃtha.
Q.IX.46.8 What is meant by ‘successful’?
A.IX.46.8 The omniscient, which has destroyed the four obscuring karmas completely are called ‘successful’.
Q.IX.46.9 Why are all these five kinds of ascetics also called passionless (nirgraṃtha)?
A.IX.46.9 The five types of ascetics are with right belief and are free from all possessions. However they are classified differently due to different levels of the practice of vows. Being free from possessions and with right belief, they are also collectively called as passionless.
Samyama-śruta-pratisevanā-tīrtha-liṃga-leśyopapādasthāna-vikalpatah ̣ sādhyāh
Meaning: They are fit to be described (differentiated) on the basis of differences in self-restraint, scriptural knowledge, transmigression, the period of ford-maker, the sign, thought-colouration, birth by descent and the state or condition.
Q.IX.47.1 What are special classifications on the basis of which the ascetics can be further distinguished /differentiated?
A.IX.47.1 Each of the five types of ascetics (aphorism 46) can be further sub classified in seven sub categories namely self-restraint, scriptural knowledge, transmigression, the period of the fordmaker (tīrtha), the sign (liṃga), the thought-colouration (leśyā), birth by descent (upapāda) and the state /condition (sthāna).
Q.IX.47.2 What type of self-restraint is practiced by husk, the tainted and the ‘imperfect or with unwholesome disposition’ ascetics?
A.IX.47.2 These kinds of saints dwell in the first two types of conduct i.e. equanimity (sāmāyika) and re-initiating (chedopasthān).
Q.IX.47.3 What type of self-restraint is practiced by kas.āya kuśīla ascetics?
A.IX.47.3 These kinds of ascetics dwell in the first four types of conduct namely: equanimity (sāmāyika), re-initiating (chedopasthānīya), purity of non injury (parihāraviśśuddhi) and subtle passion (sūks.ma sāmparāya).
Q.IX.47.4 What type of self-restraint is practiced by unbound and the successful ascetics?
A.IX.47.4 They practice perfect (yathākhyāt) conduct and self control only.
Q.IX.47.5 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to scriptural knowledge?
A.IX.47.5 The husk, the tainted, and pratisevana kuśīla ascetics have knowledge of ten pūrvas maximum. The kas.āya kuśīla and unbound ascetics can have knowledge of all 14 pūrvas. At the minimum level the knowledge of husk ascetic can be of the first limb of inner corpus of Jains, namely: Ācārāṃga, while those of the spotted (bakuśa) and pratisevana kuśīla ascetics the minimum knowledge and practice of the five attitude of self-control (samitis) and three attitudes of restraint (guptis) called collectively eightfold alphabet of scriptures (mātrakāpada) is essential.
Q.IX.47.6 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to transmigression?
A.IX.47.6 The husk ascetics can, under the severe influence of others, commit flaws in the practice of five major vows and eating at night.The tainted ascetics are of two types namely implements-spotted and body-spotted. The implement-spotted tend to develop infatuation with their implements like whisk or water pot and indulge in making them more attractive and beautiful. The body-spotted develop infatuation with their body and indulge in beautifying the same. Pratisevana kuśīla ascetics tend to develop flaws in their secondary vows. Kas.āya kuśīla, unbound and successful ascetics do not have transmigression.
Q.IX.47.7 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to the period of the ford-maker (tīrtha)?
A.IX.47.7 All the five types of ascetics are found during the period of each fordmaker.
Q.IX.47.8 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to the sign (liṃga)?
A.IX.47.8 With reference to the psychic signs, all the five types of ascetics are Bhāva- liṃga (have psychic signs as they are all with right faith and practice self-control. With reference to physical signs, all ascetics barring successful ascetics have the whisk and the water pot even though all of them are sky clad unbound ascetics.
Q.IX.47.9 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to the colouration (leśyā)?
A.IX.47.9 The husk ascetics can have three auspicious colourations. The tainted and Pratisevana ascetics can have all the six thought-colourations due to their infatuation with body and implements. Kas.āya kuśīla ascetics can have four colourations except the black and blue. The unbound and successful ascetics have only pure (śukla) colouration while the ayoga kevalī does not have any colouration.
Q.IX.47.10 What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to the birth by descent (upapāda)?
A.IX.47.10 The highest celestial birth of the pulāka ascetics is in Sahasrāra kalpa among devas of maximum lifetime. The next two kinds of ascetics are born in Araṇa and Acyuta kalpas with the lifetime of twenty two ocean-measured-periods. The imperfect ascetics of the second type and the passionless ascetics are born in Sarvārthasiddhi with the lifetime of thirty three ocean-measured-periods. The lowest birth of all these kinds of ascetics is in Saudharma kalpa with the lifetime of two ocean-measured-periods. The perfect ascetics attain liberation.
Q.IX.47.11 What is the meaning of state /condition (sthāna) here?
A.IX.47.11 Here it implies the state of self-restraint.
Q.IX.47.12 How many states of self-control are there?
A.IX.47.12 There are innumerable states of self-control induced by passions.
Q.IX.47.13 How can the passion induced states of self control be innumerable?
A.IX.47.13 The continuous upgrade/ increase or downgrade /decrease of the passions cause innumerable states of passions. As self controlled is directly affected by passions, the states of self control also become innumerable due to the state of the passions.
Q.IX.47.14 What is the state of husk and kasāya kuśīla ascetics?
A.IX.47.14 They have the minimum states attained.
Q.IX.47.15 What is the meaning of lowest state of attainment?
A.IX.47.15 The lowest state of self control found in husk and kasāya kuśīla ascetics is called the lowest state of attainment.