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Cyclic arrangement of Universe

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There are two divisions of time in the form of Evolution (Utasarpiṇī) and Devolution (Avasarpiṇī) epochs in the Aryan section of Bharata region of Jambūdvīpa. The epoch, in which the life-span of human and sub-human beings, their body-height and prosperity etc. are gradually decreasing, is called Devolution (Avasarpiṇī) epoch. In contrast, there is gradually increasing order in the above properties in the Evolution (Utsarpiṇī) epoch. The duration of devolution period is 10 crore x crore (Kodā-Kodī) Sāgaras consisting of many Palya years (These units will be detailed in the Section 2 of this book). The duration of Evolution period is also the same. Both of these epochs combined make up a Kalpakāla (Aeon) with a total duration of 20 crore x crore (20 x 1014) Sāgaras. Each of the epoch of the Devolution and Evolution has six spokes or divisions.

Six Divisions or Spokes of Devolution Epoch (of time)

The six spokes of the Devolution epoch are : (1) Extreme plentitude (Suṣamā - Suṣamā), (2) Plentitude (Suṣamā), (3) Plentitude-cum-Penury (Suṣamā - Dūṣamā), (4) Penury-cum- Plentitude (Duṣamā - Suṣamā) (5) Penury (Duṣamā) and (6) Extreme penury (Duṣamā - Duṣamā). The Evolution epoch also has six spokes which are in the reverse order of these six ones. The word, ‘ṣamā’ means division of time. The prefixes ‘Su’ and ‘Du’ mean good and bad respectively. Thus, etymologically, the terms ‘Suṣamā’ and ‘Duṣamā’ signify the ‘good time’ and ‘badtime’ . Both these epochs run a revolving cycle of time like the dark & bright half of the months. They undergo a cycle starting from Devolution epoch followed by Evolution epoch and so on.

Out of these six, the first spoke of extreme plentitude (Suṣamā-Suṣamā) has a duration of four crore x crore Sāgaras (4 x 1014 Sāgaras). The second spoke has a duration of three crore x crore Sāgaras. The third spoke has a duration of two crore x crore Sāgaras. The fourth spoke has a duration of one crore x crore Sāgaras less by forty two thousand years (i.e. 1 crore x crore Sāgaras-42000 years). The fifth spoke has a duration of 21000 years and the sixth spoke also has a duration of 21000 years.

Changes of The Six Spokes of Time

(a) The First Spoke of Extreme Plentitude : In the first spoke of extreme plentitude, the land is devoid of sands, smoke, fire, ice and thorns etc. There are no deficient-sensed beings (Vikalatraya-having two, three or four senses) like conch, scorpion, ant, flies etc. during this epoch. There are divine sands and pleasantly smelling soil. There are five coloured grasses having a height of four Angulas (~ 5 cm.). There are many small water tanks (Vāpis), full of clean water with lotuses surrounded by groves of trees. There are high mountains, superb palaces and the earth with saphire gems (Indranīla maṇi). There are very charming rivers graced with gem-like sand. There are no non-instinctive (Asanjnī, without Mana) and mutually opponent beings. There is no difference of day and night there. There is no heat, cold or darkness during this spoke. There are also no bad habits (Vyasanas) of enjoying other’s wives and wealth etc. During this spoke, the men are bom in pairs (a male and a female). They have auspicious marks like Tila etc. and conch, wheel etc. on their bodies. They are devoid of the difference of master and servant. Their body height is 6000 Dhanuṣas (-three Koṡas or - 6 miles or - 10 kms.). They have a life-span of three Palyas (uncountable years). The men and women living during this spoke have two hundred and fifty six bones in the backside of their body. Their bodies do neither excrete urine nor faeces. They have good smelling respirations. The colour of their body is like heated gold. Their body configuration is Samacaturasra (symmetrical) and their bone joints are adamantinely nailed and wrapped i.e. Vajravṛṣabhanārāca Samhanana. The strength of everybody is equivalent to 9000 elephants. During this spoke, there is no other family member except the male and female bom in pair. There are no villages and towns etc. during this spoke. There are only ten kinds of Kalpa-vṛkṣas (wish-fulfilling trees) which offer the mentally desired materials to these pairs.

The Names of The Wish-fulfilling Trees (Kalpa-vrksas)

There are ten classes of wish-fulfilling trees during the first spoke which are as below : (1)Drinks - supplying Trees(Pānānga)

(2)Musical instmments supplying trees(Tūryānga)

(3)Ornament-supplying trees(Bhūṣanānga)

(4)Dress-supplying trees(V astrānga)

(5)Food-supplying trees (Bhojanānga)

(6)Residence-supplying trees(Alayānga)

(7)Tight-supplying trees(Dīpānga)

(8)Vessels - supplying trees(Bhājanānga)

(9)Garland-supplying trees(Mālānga)

(10)Tustre-supplying trees(Jyotiranga)

The class of drinks-supplying trees offer the thirty two kinds of sweet, tasty and nutritious six-taste drinks to the people of the lands of enjoyments (Bhoga-bhūmis). The musical instrument- supplying trees offer different kinds of musical instmments like - violin, dmm, kettle-drum and timbal etc. The Ornament supplying trees offer various kinds of ornaments like - bracelet, necklace and waist-band etc. The dress-supplying trees supply the dresses made of China silk, general silk and other kinds of fibres. The food supplying trees supply sixteen kinds of foods, sixteen kinds of condimented foods, fourteen kinds of pulses, one hundred eight kinds of solid edibles, three hundred sixty three kinds of tasty materials and sixty three kinds of juices. The residence supplying trees provide sixteen kinds of residential buildings with different shapes like Svastika and Nandyāvarta etc. The light-supplying trees supply the lamp-like lights through the branches, sprouts, shoots, fmits and flowers etc. of the trees. The vessels supplying trees offer small pitcher with a neck and a spout (Jhārī), pitcher (Gāgara), sacred water pot tKalasaj, fly whisk (Camara) and seats (Asana) etc. made of gold etc. The garland supplying trees offer garlands made of sixteen thousand types of flowers grown in creepers, climbers, clusters and trees etc. The lusture - supplying trees supply shines equivalent to the rays of the crores of suns in the mid-day and subjugate the shines of constellations, suns and moons etc.

These wish-fulfilling trees are neither plants (vegetation) nor any peripatetic deities. However, their specificity is that they offer the fruits of the sacred karmas of the living beings despite their being of the nature of earth (Pṛthvīkāyika).

Pleasure etc. in The Lands of Enjoyment (Bhogabhūmis)

The paired couples, in the lands of enjoyment, receive the materials offered by the wish- fulfilling trees and proteate themselves in many kinds of body (i.e. Vikriyā—assuming different body forms) and enjoy the various types of sensuals. They have an intake of food equivalent to the size of plum on every fourth day. These pairs do not have accidental or sudden death (Kadalīghāta Maraṇa) and they enjoy pleasures infinite-times more than the Cakravartīs. The males of the lands of enjoyment are more beautiful than the Lords of deities (Indra) in the heavens. The women there, are beautiful like the angels or nymphs.

Ornaments in the Lands of Enjoyment

There are sixteen ornaments of males in the lands of enjoyment. They are given below : (1) Ear-rings

(2) Necklace (Hāra)

(3)Bracelet (for arms)

(4) Specific bracelet (Kataka) 

(5)Two rings



(8)Anklets (Nūpura)

(9)Plate on forehead (Bhālapatta)

(10)Bracelet for upper arm

(11)Neck ornament

(12)Pendant pearl ornament (Prālamba)

(13)Sacred thread (Brahmasūtra)

(14)Ear-omament made from flowers

(15)Crown on the head (Mukuta)

(16)Waist-band (Mekhalā)

There are fourteen ornaments for females in the lands of enjoyment. They do not have sword and knife out of the above sixteen. Hence, they have only fourteen ornaments.

Causes of Birth in the Lands of Enjoyment

The human and sub-human beings (Tiryancas) are bom in the lands of enjoyments. Despite the fact that they have wrongful volitions (Mithyātva), the human beings, who are weak passioned, renouncers of meat and honey etc., loyally devoted to the qualities of virtuous men or offering food to the possessionless (Nirgrantha) saints who weaken their body by fasting and approvers of such activities as animals etc. - are also bom in the lands of enjoyment. Many such right- faithed beings (Samyagdṛṣtī) also take birth there who have bonded human life-span karma in their earlier birth but later who have acquired the destructional right faith (Kṣāyika samyaktva) near Tīrthankaras.

Some ignorant persons leave the Jina guise and offer various types of donations to the heretics (kulingīs) involving themselves in deceitful practices. Such people are bom as subhuman beings in the lands of enjoyment.

When the life-span of the human and subhuman beings of the lands of enjoyment has to last only for nine months, the women conceive and there is birth of a pair of children-a male and a female at a time when the death of the parents is nearby. In other words, the parents die just after giving birth to a new pair. The males die with a sneeze and the females die with yawning. Their dead bodies immediately disappear totally like the autūmn clouds.

Where they are born after death

After death, the human and subhuman beings of the lands of enjoyment are reborn in the triad of mansional (Bhavanavāsī), peripatetic (Vyantara) or astral (Jyotiṣka) deities if they are wrong-faithed (Mithyadṛṣti). However, if they are right-faithed, they take rebirth in the first two heavens (Saudharma & Aisānaj.

The Growth of The Newly-born Pair in the Lands of Enjoyment

On birth in the lands of enjoyment, the newly bom pairs spend their first three days in sucking their thumbs on the birth- bed. Afterwards, they begin sitting, wavering movement, regular movement, learning of arts and crafts, acquiring youthhood and capacity of acquiring righteousness. Each of this development stage takes place in three days each. In other words, the pair becomes fully young and skilled in all kinds of arts by acquiring seven kinds of capacities as above in twenty-one days.

Causes of Righteousness (Samyaktva)

The living beings of the lands of enjoyment can acquire righteousness or right faith through many factors like (1) Memory of the past life (Jātismaraṇa), (2) Address by the deities (3) Listening to the sermons of the saints with supernatural powers (Ṛddhidhārī Munis) and the like. However, they can not have the vows and restraints related with the normal votaries (Ṡrāvakas).

Sub-human Beings Born in the Lands of Enjoyment

Many kinds of pairs of five- sensed subhuman beings are bom in the lands of enjoyment. They are as below :

















and the like.

They are mutually amicable, compassionate and weak-passioned. The land-moving animals like tiger etc. and sky moving birds like pigeon etc. have their foods in the form of divine grasses devoid of non-vegetarian foods.

As the time passes, the height of the body, life-span, strength, prodigy and radiance etc. of the living beings of this first spoke of four crore x crore Sāgaras have a gradual decrement. 

(b)The Second Spoke of Plentitude :

With the above kinds of gradual decrements in various spheres, the second spoke named as Suṣamā (Plentitude) begins. In the beginning of this spoke of time, the body height of men is 4000 Dhanuṣas (2 kosas or ~ 4 miles or ~ 6 kms.j, their life-span is two Palya and the colour of their body is white like the moon. They have two hundred twenty eight bones in the back-side of their body. They have a beautiful symmetrical body. They have a food-intake equivalent to the weight and size of Belleric myrabolan (Bahedā) every third day.

The pair- bom children in this spoke suck their thumbs for five days on their birth-bed. Afterwards, they spend five days each during the processes of sitting, wavering movement, steady movement, acquirement of learning of arts etc., youthhood and capacity for acquiring righteousness. Besides these specifics, the other descriptions of the living beings bom in this spoke are similar to those described in case of the spoke of extreme plentitude. The duration of this second spoke is three crore x crore Sāgaras. As it moves, the height, strength, prodigy, life-span and radiance etc. of the living beings there gradually decrease.

(c)The Third Spoke of Plentitude-cum-Penury :

After the passing away of three crore x crore Sāgara years, the third spoke of time - Suṣamā - Duṣamā commences. It has a duration of two crore x crore Sāgaras. In the beginning of this spoke, the height of men is 2000 Dhanuṣas (1 kosa or ~ 2 miles or ~ 3.2 kms.). Their life-span is one Palya and the body colour is white like the Priyangu fruit. The number of bones in the back-side of males and females of this spoke is sixty four. All the human have symmertical body. They have food - intake equivalent to the size and weight of a Myrabolan (Amlā) every alternate day.

The pair of infants bom during this spoke have a seven-days system. They suck their thumbs for seven days while on birth bed. Afterwards, they have each process of seven days duration like sitting, wavering movement, steady movement, acquirement of learnings, youthhood and capacity for being righteous. Every stage requires seven days for completion. Besides these specifics, the rest of the description about the pairs in this spoke is similar to that of the first spoke.

During all these three spokes of time, there are the lands of enjoyment and there are no thieves, enemies, six-occupations like weaponry and writing etc., cold, heat, hurricanes and rains etc. The period of three spokes are respectively known as the maximal (Uttama), medial (Madhyama) and minimal (Jaghanya) lands of enjoyment.

Birth of Kulakaras (Patriarchs, Family Founders)

The third spoke of devolution epoch was running in the Aryan section of this Bharata region. The Patriarchs or Kulakaras (Family founders, Ethical founders) begin to be bom when there remains the time-span of only one-eighth part (l/8th) of Palyopama (uncountable years) in the completion of this third spoke with gradual decrease in age, body height, prodigy, strength and radiance etc.

The first patriarch was ‘Pratiṡruti’ and his wife was named as ‘Svayamprabhā’. His body-height was 1800Dhanuṣas,D (0.9 koṡas or ~ 1.8 miles or ~ 2.988 kms) and his life span was one-tenth of a Palya. During his period, people of the lands of enjoyment saw the rising of moon in the eastern direction on the evening of the fifteenth day of the bright half of Aṣādha (June-July) and the setting of the Sun in the west. The residents of the lands of enjoyment thought, ‘This is an accidental calamity on us’, and they got terrified with fear. During that period, ‘Pratisruti’ was the most impressive and benefactor patriarch. He was counted as the most intelligent due to being clairvoyant by the latency of the earlier births. The enjoyment- landers approached him and enquired him of this calamity.

He said to the people, “O gentlemen, whatever you are seeing in the sky, are the planets named as Sun and Moon. The beams of rays of the lustre-producing wish-fulfilling trees have gone feeble due to passage of time. Hence, these planets have become visible. They are always moving in the sky but they were not visible by now as their lustre was subdued by the lustre- producing wish-fulfilling trees. You do not be afraid of them”.

The words of ‘Pratisruti’ convinced the people and they offered their respects to him. They eulogised him and worshipped him. After the patriarch Pratisruti left for heavenly abode and after the lapse of a period of eightieth part of a Palya (1/80 P), the second partriarch ‘Sanmati’ was bom. He had a golden shine. His body was 1300 D high and he had a life-span of numerable years equivalent to ‘Amama’ unit of time. In his times, the lustre-producing wish-fulfilling trees became virtually extinct. When the people saw that the setting of sun leads to darkness and the star- world has appeared causing dim light, they thought, “The darkness and dim light seem to be the signs of an unprecedented and fierce calamity.” They got worried and came to the patriarch Sanmati and requested him to safeguard them. Sanmati, then, assured them and said, “The darkness and the stars have become visible due to the extinction of lustre-producing wish-fulfilling trees. You need not be worried due to them. They were always there, but they were not visible due to the extreme radiance of these trees. These planets, stars, asterisms (Nakṣatras) and Sun-Moon etc. are always circumambulating the Sumem Mountain in Jambūdvīpa. The people were convinced by the words of the patriarch. They became fearless and began offering him their respects and worship.

After the departure of the second patriarch for heaven and with a lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the third patriarch, Kṣemankara, was bom in this Bharata region. He was 800 D high, and he had a life span of ‘Atata’ (a larger time unit). He was golden in colour. His wife was ‘Sunandā’. During his period, the five-sensed sub-human beings like tigers etc. got cmel. Being afraid of them, the people went to the patriarch and requested, ‘O patriarch, these animals, whom we used to nurse in our laps, seem to kill us now with their horns without any cause. They are getting us afraid by opening and showing their cmel jaws to us. What should we do now ?’

The patriarch said, “O gentlemen, you should not rely on them, You should leave their company. They have become denatured due to the deflection in time.” Thus, the people got away from the company of animals with horns and jaws. They began keeping the company of animals like cows and buffaloes etc. who were calm and quite.

After the the third patriarch departed to heaven and on the lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the fourth patriarch-Kṣemandhara was bom. He was the leader of gentlemen. He had a life-span of ‘Tutika’ years (a large time unit) and he was 775 D high. He was golden coloured. His wife was Vimalā. During his time, the cmel animals like tigers etc. began eating the flesh of human beings. The patriarch instmcted the enjoyment landers to keep sticks and rods etc. to safeguard themselves from these cmel animals.

After his heavenly departure and after a lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the fifth patriarch -Sīmankara was bom due to the good fortunes of the people. He had a life-span of ‘Kamala’ years. He was 750 D high. He was golden in colour. His wife was Manoharī. During his period, the wish-fulfilling trees got scanty and they also began offering small amounts of fmits (desired objects) etc. This caused agitation in the minds of the people. When the patriarch saw the peoples’ plight this way, he fixed the limits of supplies from the wish-fulfilling trees and avoided the rivalry and friction among the people.

Penological System of the Lands of Enjoyment

The five patriarchs, as above, had a penological system of penalising the crimes of enjoyment landers through the words, ‘Alas, Alas, (Hā) you have done a bad deed! ’ (Hā-Kāra). By listening to these words only, the people got careful not to do any criminal acts again.

After the the fifth patriarch departed to heaven, and after the lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the sixth patriarch -‘Sīmandhara’ was bom. He had a life-span of ‘Nalina’ years. He was 725 D high. His wife was Yasodharā. During his period, the number of wish-fulfilling trees were reduced sufficiently and their power of supply also became scanty. This led to regular quarrels among the enjoyment landers. In response, the sixth kulakara marked the boundaries for the wish-fulfilling trees through many other trees and small bushes etc.

After his life ended and a lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the seventh kulakara -Vimala Vāhana was bom. He had a life-span of ‘Padma’ years. He was 700 D high. He was golden coloured. His wife was ‘Sumati’. During his period, the people were facing the problem of moving to and fro. On approaching the patriarch, he advised them to tame the animals and use them as means of transport by riding over them. Thus people could control the elephants, horses and other animals by the use of iron hooks (Ankuṡa) and saddles (Palāna) etc.

After the heavenly departure of the seventh patriarch and a lapse of an interval of innumerable crores of years, the eighth patriarch-Cakṣuṣmān was bom. He was 675D high. He had a life span of ‘Padmānga’ years. His wife was ‘Dhāriṇī’. The enjoyment landers before his times were not able to see the face of their newly bom pair of children because the parents died as soon as the pairs were bom. However, they began dying after seeing the face of their new-bom pair for a moment. This was a new fact. They became afraid of this phenomena. They turned to their patriarch. He advised them that the newly-boms are their children. You see their full- moon-like beautiful faces and enjoy them. Thus, the enjoyment-landers began to die after seeing the faces of their children.

After the eighth patriarch departed to heaven and after a lapse of an interval of crores of years, the ninth patriarch - Yaṡasvāna’ was bom. He had a life-span of ‘Kumuda’ years. He was 650 D high. His wife was named ‘Kāntimālā’. During his times, he advised people to name their children and hold festivity on this occasion. The emjoyment-landers began naming their children, blessed them and died after some time.

After the heavenly departure of the ninth patriarch and a lapse of an interval of crores of yeas, the tenth patriarch-Abhicandra was bom. He had a life-span of ‘Kumudānga’ years. He was 625 D high. His wife was Ṇrīdevī’. He instmcted how to check and control the weeping or crying of the children. He advised people, “you show the children the moon in the sky in the night and cause them to play and teach them how to speak. You protect them carefully.” On the basis of his advice, the enjoyment-landers began to behave with their children as advised by the patriarch. They began dying after such treatment with their children.

Penology During the Period of Sixth to Tenth Patriarchs

The above five patriarchs (6th -10th) advised the greedy people and prescribed the penal system of ‘Alas-ness’ and ‘Don’t do-ness’ (Hā-kāra and Mā-kāra). They did use the following sadness - expressing and injunctory words in penalty, “Alas, you have done a bad deed. Do not do this next time’. The people did not repeat crimes on the basis of these words.

After the heavenly departure of the tenth patriarch and a lapse of an interval of crores of years, the eleventh patriarch - Candrābha was bom. His life-span was ‘Nayuta’ years. He was 600 D high. His wife was ‘Prabhāvatī’. During his period, extreme cold, frostfall and hurricanes began to appear in the horizon. The people felt pains due to cold air and they could not see the astral world of moon etc. due to its obscuration by the frost. They approached the patriarch who advised them, “the land of action is appearing and the land of enjoyment is gradually disappearing. It is the effect of the change of time. The frost will disappear by the rays of the sun.” On listening to this advice, the enjoyment-landers began to get away from cold by the rays of the sun and began to live with their children for some time before their death.

After the heavenly departure of the eleventh patriarch - Candrābha and after a lapse of suitable interval of time later, the twelfth Kulakara - Marudeva was bom. He had a life-span of ‘Nayutānga’ years. He was 575 D high. His wife was ‘Satyā’. During his period, the clouds began raining with lightening and thunders. The people got afraid of seeing the muddy water flowing in rivers, not seen before. They approached Mamdeva. He told them that there are divisions of time and the period of land of action (Karmabhūmi) is fast approaching. He advised them, “You cross the rivers by boats, climb the mountains by constmcting steps towards them and use umbrella etc. during rains to safeguard yourself.” On the advise of the patriarch, people began to live with their children. They began crossing the rivers, climbing the mountains and safeguarding themselves with umbrella etc. during rains.

(According to Harivanṡa Purāṇa (p.144),

firstly the pair of children was bom in the lands of enjoyment, but Mamdeva begot a son named Prasenajita just to alleviate the process of birth in pairs. Before this period, the enjoyment landers had no sweating on body. But the body of Prasenajita looked beautiful with the drops of sweat. The patriarch Mamdeva also started the system of marriage and got Prasenjita married with a girl of a prominent family. After enjoying a fife-span of 1/107 Paly a, Mamdeva went to heaven after death. On his heavenly departure, his son Prasenjita became the thirteenth patriarch. He gave birth to a son named Nābhirāja with a life-span of one crore Pūrva. He was the fourteenth patriarch. He started the custom of cutting the navel - duct of newly bom children after birth. Prasenajita died after enjoying a life-span of 1/1013 Palya).

After the heavenly departure of twelfth patriarch and a lapse of a suitable interval of time, the thirteenth patriarch - Prasenajita was bom when the period of land of action was just approaching slowly. He had a life-span of one Pūrva. He was 550 D high. His wife was ‘Abhimatī’. During his period, the children were bom with placental covering. “What is this ?” cried the people.

They got afraid of this phenomena and approached their patriarch. He advised them to remove away the placental-covering. On his advice, after the removal of placental-covering the people began to safeguard their children with efforts. It is only after this period that the fourteenth patriarch Nābhirāja was bom. He had a lifespan of one crore Pūrva. He was 525 D high. His wife was ‘Marudevī’. During his times, the navel-duct of children used to be longer. He, therefore, advised the people to cut away this navel-duct. The enjoyment landers followed his advise. During the period of this fourteenth patriarch, the wish-fulfilling trees got totally disappeared, the clouds began thundering and raining and many kinds of medicinal and grain plants began to be seen growing on the earth naturally. Slowly, the grains and plants grew without sowing all round the earth. The people did not understand their use and got worried due to pains of hunger on disappearance of the wish- fulfilling trees. They approached the patriarch Nābhirāja and said, “O patriarch, how could we sustain ourselves without the wish-fulfilling trees. We have become helpless and unfortunate. Please tell us what are the edibles and what are the non-edibles out of the trees, branches, sprouts, fruits and seeds etc. which have started growing on the earth?”

Nābhirāja listened to them calmly and then, said, “O, gentlemen, the trees are suitable for you but toxic trees are not suitable for you. You eat the grains, have milk from cows and drink it. There are trees of sugarcane. Peel them through your teeth or machine and drink their sweet juice.”

Thus, Nābhirāja pointed out many methods of sustaining the life and livelihood of the people and made them happy. He also gave them some vessels made from clay on the temples of the elephants and also taught them how to do so. During the period of Nābhirāja, the wish- fulfilling trees got totally disappeared. It was only Nābhirāja who was the tme benefactor of the people. He was, thus, serving the people like the wish-fulfilling trees. (Please see Table-1 for details of patriarchs in the end of this book and Table-Numerable Time Units for details about time units in section two of this book)1. 1. Tiloypannatti-mentions the life-span of patriarchs in terms of one-tenth, one-hundredth etc. of Palya and their interval in terms of one-eightieth, one-eight hundredth etc. of Palya. In contrast, Mahāpurāna has mentioned the life-span of the first patriarch as one-tenth of Palya. The life-span of later patriarchs has been stated to be in time units of Amama, Atata etc. Similarly, their interval has also been mentioned in terms of innumerable and numerable crores of years etc. These views have been elaborated in Table-1 in the end of this book. The time units are defined in section- 2 on Exposition of Cosmology and Sciences (Karanānuyoga) of the book.

Wherefrom Did the Fourteen Patriarchs Arrive

All the fourteen patriarchs from the first ‘Pratisruti’ to the fourteenth 'Nābhirāja' were princes in the royal families of Videha region in their earlier birth. Even before acquiring right faith, they bonded the life-span of human destinity of the land of enjoyment through sacred-eaming deeds like donation to the worthy persons and practicing various vows in that birth. Afterwards, they acquired destructional (kṣāyika) right faith and scriptural knowledge in the vicinity of the Lord Jinas in Videha region. It is because of all this, that they were bom in Bharata region after completing their fife-span there. While many of these patriarchs had the memory of their previous births, many others had the vision of clairvoyance. That is why, they instmcted the beneficial duties to the people of their own times. They were called ‘Manus’ as they knew the fives of the people. They were called ‘Kulakaras’ (Patriarchs) because they instmcted the people to five jointly like a family. They were called’ Kuladharas’ (family founders) because they established many families or lineages. They were also called ‘Yugādi-puruṣa’ (First Men of the Epoch).

Penology of Eleventh to Fourteenth Patriarchs

There was the three word penological system in the days of 1 l1h- 141h patriarchs. These words were— (1)‘Hā’ (Alas),

(2) ‘Mā’ (Don’t do) and

(3) ‘Dhik’ (What a shame, Disdain).

The words mean ‘It is regrettable’, ‘Don’t reapeat the crime’ and ‘Shame on you that you did crime even after instmctions ’.


After the Kulakaras, sixty three great personages are bom in Bharata region due to its good fortune. These men are the best of men and renowned world-wide. The sixty three great personages are known by the following groups : (1)24 Tīrthankaras (Jaina Lords).

(2)12 Cakravartīs (Universal Monarchs, Emperors).

(3)9 Balabhadras.

(4)9 Nārāyaṇas.

(5)9 Prati-Nārāyaṇas (Anti-Nārāyaṇas).

Twenty-four Tīrthankaras

Bowings to the twenty-four Tīrthankaras who were bom in Bharata region of Jambūdvīpa. They are:

























They chop off the tree of the world of the liberatable beings (Bhavyas) by the axe of their knowledge.

Twelve Cakravartīs (Universal Monarchs or Emperors)

In Bharata region the following twelve universal monarchs have been bom who were the victors of the six-sections of this earth (Bharata Kshetra) and whose glory pervaded in the whole universe: (1) Bharata



(4) Sanatkumāra



(7) Ara



(10) Hariṣeṇa


(12) Brahmadatta

Nine Balabhadras or Baladevas

There have been the following nine Balabhadras in the Bharata region :









(9)Padma (Baladeva)

Nine Narayanas

There have been nine Nārāyaṇas in Bharata region. They are said to be the Viṣṇus. They are as below :








(8)Nārāyaṇa (Taxmaṇa)

(9)Ṡrī Kṛṣṇa

Nine Prati-Nārāyanas

There have been nine Prati-nārāyaṇs in the Bharata region. They are as below :










All the above are known as 63 great personages.

Tord Ṛṣabhadeva was bom to Marudevī, the chief queen of the last patriarch Nābhirāja. He was admitted as the first Tīrthankara as well as the 15"1 patriarch too. The queen Yasasvatī of Ṛṣabhadeva gave birth to Bharata, who was Cakravarti as well as a patriarch too. Thus, there has been a tradition of sixteen patriarchs also (as against the tradition of the fourteen one).

Penology of Bharata Cakravarti

During the days of Bharata Cakravarti, people began to err and commit crimes in large numbers. The three-word penology could not serve the purpose to check them. He, therefore, began the system of awarding physical penalties like binding and killing etc.

First Tīrthankara in the Third Spoke of Time

When the duration of the third spoke had to last only for 84 lac Pūrvas, three years and eight and-a-half months, the chief queen of the last patriarch Maharaja Nābhirāja gave birth to Lord Ṛṣabha. When Vṛṣabhadeva became young, his father got him married with two beautiful girls named Yasasvatī and Sunandā with the permission of the Lord of deities (Indra). Lord Ṛṣabhadeva had one hundred & one sons named Bharata and Bāhubalī etc. and two daughters named ‘Brāhmī’ and ‘Sundarī’. The Lord taught the alphabetical scripts like ‘A, A’ etc. to Brāhmī and mathematics of units, tens etc. to Sundarr. Afterwards, he made all of his sons skilled in all kinds of learnings, sacred texts and science of arms etc.

Lord Ṛṣabhadeva became known as Lord Prajāpati (Protector of people) because he instructed the people to earn livelihood by six-fold professions like warriorship, writing work and agriculture etc. The Lord established a similar system of work in his times as was there in Videha region. He established three groups of people named as (1) Kṣatriyas (Warriors) , (2) Vaiṡyas (Businessmen) and (3) Ṡūdras (Labourers, Menials). He also started the system of marriage etc. He instructed about the royal or political system to four persons like Akampana and others and appointed them on the position of Mahārājā (Great king). It is due to all this that he was called by the name of Adi-Brahmā (The first Creator), Yugādi-puruṣa (the first Creator of the era), Vidhātā (God) and so on.

Later on, he became a Digambara Muni (naked i.e. possessionless ascetic) to manifest and attain salvation (from the world). When he got initiated, 4000 kings also got initiated along with him. But they got demoralized because they could not bear the troubles of hunger and thirst etc. They, then, started many heretic systems. After some time, Cakravarti Bharata created a new group in the society by the name of Brāhmana. These four groups are called classes or castes (Varna or Jāti) which are prevalent even today.

Lord Ṛṣabhadeva has been followed by twenty three other Tīrthankaras from Lord Ajitanātha to Lord Mahāvīra making up a series of twenty-four Tīrthankaras. Because of the defect of the epoch of extra-ordinary events (Hundāvasarpiṇī), Lord Ṛṣabhadeva was born in the third spoke. The rest of the Tīrthankaras were born in the fourth spoke.

(d)Commencement of the Fourth Spoke of Penury-cum-Plentitude

The fourth spoke of time named Duṣamā-Suṣamā (penury-cum-plentitude) commenced when three years and eight and-a-half months had elasped after the liberation of Lord Vṛṣabhadeva. In the beginning of this spoke, the life-span was one Pūrva-koti and the number of bones in the back-side of the body was forty-eight. The height of the body was 525 D. The duration of this spoke was one kodā-kodī Sāgara less by forty two thousand years.

After the salvation of Lord Ṛṣabhadeva and after a lapse of fifty-lac crore Sāgaras the second Tīrthankara Lord Ajitanātha attained liberation. After his salvation and with a gap of thirty lac crores of Sāgaras the third Tīrthankara Lord Sambhavanātha attained salvation. The fourth Tīrthankara Lord Abhinandananātha attained salvation with a gap of ten lac crores of Sāgaras after the salvation of Tīrthankara Lord Sambhavanātha. The fifth Tīrthankara Lord Sumatinātha attained salvation with a gap of nine lac crores of Sāgaras after the salvation of the fourth Tīrthankara . Afterwards, the sixth Tīrthankara Lord Padmaprabhanātha attained salvation with a gap of ninety thousand crores of Sāgaras. This was followed by the salvation of the seventh Tīrthankara Lord Supārṡvanātha with a gap of nine thousand crores of Sāgaras. The eigthth Tīrthankara Lord Candraprabhanātha attained salvation after a gap of 900 crore Sāgaras.The ninth Tīrthankara Lord Puṣpadantanātha attained salvation after a gap of ninety crore Sāgaras. The tenth Tīrthankara Lord Sītalanātha attained salvation after a gap of nine crore Sāgaras. The eleventh Tīrthankara Lord Sreyānsanātha attained salvation after a gap of 3373900 Sāgaras (or after one crore Sāgaras less by sixty six lac twenty six thousand hundred Sāgaras). This followed the salvation of the twelfth Tīrthankara Lord Vāsupūjyanātha after a gap of 54 Sāgaras. The thirteenth Tīrthankara Lord Vimalanātha attained salvation after a gap of thirty Sāgaras. After a lapse of nine Sāgaras, the fourteenth Tīrthankara Lord Anantanātha attained salvation. The fifteenth Tīrthankara Lord Dharmanātha attained salvation with a gap of four Sāgaras after it. The sixteenth Tīrthankara Lord Sāntinātha attained salvation with a gap of three Sāgaras less by 3/4 Palya after the salvation of his predecessor. Lord Kunthūnāthā attained salvation with a gap of half-a-Palya on attaining the salvation by his predecessor. The eighteenth Tīrthankara Lord Arahanātha attained salvation with a gap of one-fourth of Palya less by one crore of years. Lord Mallinātha attained salvation after a lapse of one thousand crore years followed by the salvation of Lord Munisuvratanātha after a lapse of 54 lac years. The twenty-first Tīrthankara Lord Naminātha attained salvation after a gap of six lac years of salvation of his predecessor. The twenty-second Tīrthankara Lord Neminātha attained salvation after a gap of five lac years on attaining salvation by his predecessor. The twenty-third Tīrthankara Lord Pārṡvanātha attained salvation after a gap of 83750 years on salvation of his predecessor. This followed the salvation of Lord Mahāvīra - the twenty-fourth Tīrthankara after a gap of 250 years on attaining the salvation by his predecessor. At this time, a period of three years and eight-and-half months were there for the commencement of the fifth spoke.

The Period of Uprooting or Interception (Vyucchitti) of the Religious Order

There has been the absence of the religious order during the period of seven Tīrthankaras starting from the ninth Tīrthankara Lord Puṣpadantanātha and ending upto the fifteenth Tīrthankara Lord Dharmanātha. The tradition of religion has been continuously running during the periods of the remaining seventeen Tīrthankaras (i.e. from 1-8 and from 16-24). During the religious order of Lord Puṣpadantanātha, there has been absence of religiosity for a period of quarter of a Palya. In other words, there were no people for initiation resulting in the setting of the sun of the religion. There has been uprooting of religion for a period of-

(i)Half-a-Palya during the religious order of Lord Ṡītalanātha.

(ii)Three-quarters of Palya during the religious order of Lord Ṡreyānsanātha.

(iii)One Palya during the religious order of Lord Vāsupūjyanātha.

(iv)Three quarters of a Palya during the religious order of Lord Vimalanātha.

(v)Half a-Palya during the religious order of Lord Anantanātha and

(vi)A quarter of a Palya during the religious order of Lord Dharmanātha.

There have been the above seven uprooting periods of the religious order due to the effect of the epoch of extraordinary events (Hundāvasarpiṇī).

(e)The Fifth Spoke of Penury

The fifth spoke of time-wheel commenced after three years and eight and-a-half months on attaining salvation by Lord Mahāvīra. It is named as the spoke of Penury (Duṣamā). In its beginning, the people have a life-span of one hundred and twenty years. Their body height is seven Hastas, H (1 H ~ 1.5 ft.; 10.5 ft ~ 320.50 cm). There are twenty four bones in the back side of the body.


(1)Omniscients (Kevalī): The day Lord Mahāvīra attained salvation, his chief-disciple (Gaṇadhara) Gautama acquired omniscience. The day Gautama attained salvation, Sudharmā Svāmī gained omniscience. On his salvation, Jambū Svāmī became omniscient. After the salvation of Jambū Svāmī, there was no adjunct omniscient(Anubaddha Kevalī). The period between attaining the omniscience by Gautama and salvation of Jambūsvāmī is sixty two years.

The last of the omniscients was Ṡrīdhara who attained salvation at Kundalagiri. The last sage with extraordinary power of sky movement was ‘Supārsva Candra’. Vajrayasa was the last of the Prajnāṡramana sages. The ascetic Ṡrī was the last of the clairvoyants. The last of the crowned king who got Jinistic initiation (Jina Dīkṣā) was Candragupta. Afterwards, no crowned king was initiated.

(2)Five Scriptural Omniscients (Srutakevalis):

In the ford of Mahāvīra and after the salvation of Jambūsvamī, there have been five ‘fourteen pre-canon-proficients ’ (Caudaha Pūrvī). They had full knowledge of Dvādaṡānga (twelve prime or primary scriptures) also and, thus, were scriptural omniscients. They are: (i) Nandi, (ii) Nandimitra, (iii) Aparājita, (iv) Govardhana and (v) Bhadrabāhu. Their total period is one hundred years.

(3)Eleven Ten-Pre-Canonists (Daṡapūrvis):

There have been eleven saints who were proficient in eleven primary canonical scriptures (Angas) and ten pre-canons. They are, thus, called ‘ten-pre-canon-proficients.’ They are : (i) Visakhācārya, (ii) Proṣthila, (iii) Kṣatriya, (iv) Jaya, (v) Nāgasena, (vi) Siddhārtha, (vii) dhṛtisena, (viii) Vijaya, (ix) Buddhila, (x) Ganga deva and (xi) Dharmasena. Traditionally, their total period is one hundred eighty two years. There were no Ten-pre-canonists after them due to change of times.

(4)Five Eleven-Canonical Scripturists (Angadhāris):

There have been five Acāryas who were proficient in eleven primary canonical scriptures. They are : (i) Nakṣatra Muni, (ii) Jaipāla, (iii) Pāndu, (iv) Dhruvasena and (v) Kansārya. Their total period is 220 years. There has been no eleven-canonical scripturists after them.

(5)Four Acārānga-proficients (Proficient in the Text on Monastic Conduct):

There have been four saint-scholars who were proficient in the first primary canonical scripture of Acārānga. They are : (i) Subhadra, (ii) Yasobhadra, (iii) Yasobāhu and (iv) Lohārya. Their total period is 118 years. There has been no pre-canon-proficient or canonical scriptures-profi- cient after the samādhī of the last of these Acāranga-proficients.

The total period from Gautama to the last Acaranga - proficient is 683 years as below : 62 + 100 + 183 + 220 + 118 = 683.

After these saint scholars, the other saints were proficient only in part of the eleven primary canonical scriptures and fourteen pre-canons.

The Religious Order by the End of the Fifth Spoke of Time Wheel

The scriptural tradition, which is the root cause of maintaining religiosity, will continue upto 20,317 years in the fifth spoke. It will be uprooted afterwards due to the change of times. This means that the fifth spoke of time has a duration of 21000 years (20317 + 683). The Jaina religion will continue upto 20,317 years obtained by deducting 683 years from the total of 21000 years. During this remaining period, there will the continuity of the Caturvidha Sangha (a group of four types of Jaina ascetics-Muni, Aryikā, Ṡrāvaka, Ṡrāvikā). The people of these times will be mostly non-humble, ill-talented, jealous, full of seven fears and eight prides, quarrelsome, cmel, angry, passioned and associated with three stings (Ṡalyas—deceit, wrongness and future desires) and three prides (Gāravas) of prosperity, pleasure and calumny.

The Royal Tradition / Successions

When Tord Mahavira attained salvation, Pālaka - the son of Avantī was coronated. His rule lasted for sixty years. Afterwards, the kings of Vijaya lineage ruled for 155 years. They were followed by the rule of the kings of Marunda lineage for the next forty years. Puṣyamitra, then, ruled for thirty years. He was followed by the rule of Vasumitra and Agnimitra for sixty years. Then, Gandharva ruled for one hundred years, Narvāhana ruled for forty years and the Andhras (Bhṛtyas) ruled for two hundred forty two years. Tater, the kings of Gupta lineage ruled for two hundred and thirty one years.

Birth of Kalki and His Deeds

After the rule of the above lineages, the king Kalki was bom. He was the son of the king Indra. Kalki was named as ‘Caturmukha’. He had a life-span of seventy years and the period of his mle was forty-two years. Thus, the period between the salvation of Tord Mahāvīra and the mle of Kalki turns out to be one thousand years as below :

60 + 155 + 40 + 30 + 60 + 100 + 40 + 242 + 231 + 42 = 1000 years.

Kalki was coronated two hundred seventy five years after the period of Acārānga proficients: 683 + 275 + 42 = 1000 years.

When six hundred five years and five months were elapsed after the salvation of Lord Mahāvīra, there has been a Ṡaka king named ‘ Vikrama’ as per Trilokasāra verse 851. The first Kalki was bom after the lapse of 394 years and seven months after Vikrama :

605 + 394 + 1 (5+7 months) = 1000 years.

The king Kalki mastered over his Janapadas (Districts) of the kingdom and became greedy and unjust - so much so that he began to demand the first morsel offered to the saints in their Ahāra (food) as a tax. Under this condition, the saints moved without food by offering the tax and taking the point that ‘it is the time of obstmctions (antrāyas).’ At that time, one of the saints acquires clairvoyance. Afterwards, some Asurakumāra (Mansional) deity learns through his clairvoyance that the saints are being inflicted upon. He presumes that the king is anti- religious, so he kills Kalki. The son of Kalki, Ajitanjaya requests the deity to protect him and bows to him by falling on his feet. The deity protects him and asks him to mle religiously. Afterwards, there is right religious prosperity for a period of two years. It goes on decreasing gradually due to the effect of the change of times.

Thus, there is one Kalki after every one thousand years and an Upa-Kalki after each five hundred years. During the period of each Kalki, a saint of the fifth spoke acquires clairvoyance and there is gradual decrease in the strength of Caturvidha Sangha. During the period of Kalki, many kinds of people are seen who have bonded the sinful karmas in their prebirth. They are Candālas, Ṡabaras, Ṡvapcas, Kirātas etc. (aboriginals) and also poor, helpless, cmel, infested with many kinds of diseases, holding alms-bowls and worried by movement to other countries.

The Birth of the Last Kalki and His Deeds

There is a gradual decrease in religiosity, life-span and body height in the fifth spoke of time wheel. In the end, there is the birth of the twenty first Kalki of anti-religious nature. There will be a saint named 'Vīrāngaja', a Jaina female ascetic (Aryikā) named ‘Sarvasn’, and a votary (Ṡrāvaka) and votaress (Ṡrāvikā) named as Agnidatta and Pangusrī, respectively in his period. The Kalki will master over his sub-ordinate Janapadas and ask his ministers, “Is there any person in my kingdom who may not be under my subjugation ?”

The Ministers will, then, respond, “O Lord, there is one saint who is not subdued to you.”

The Kalki will, then, ask the ministers,” “Tell me who is that arrogant saint?”

The ministers will, then, say, “ O Lord, the saint follows the vows of non-violence etc. totally, he does not have any possessions. He takes the particular purified (prāsuka) food in his hand bowl unobstructively in the mid-day time in the houses of others to sustain his body (and life).” On hearing this, the Kalki will ask, find out personally, where does that sinful saint avowed with non-violence go for taking food? You take his first morsel (mouthful, grāsa) of food as a tax for me.

Afterwards, the saint will immediately offer the first mouthful to the minister when demanded and will go away without taking food presuming this point as an interruption (antrāya) in food. He will also acquire clairvoyance. The saint will, then, call Aryikā 'Sarvasn', the votary ‘Agnidatta’ and the votaress, ‘Pangusrī' and tell them with pleasure, “O great souls, the end of the fifth spoke of time-wheel is very near. The life-span of yours and mine is to last only for three more days and this is the last Kalki of this spoke.” Then, all the four people will renounce the four-types of foods and other possessions for life-long and undertake the vow of holy death (samādhr). They will have their holy death on the fifteenth day of the dark half of the month of Kārtika (Oct.-Nov.), when the sun will rise in the constellation of Svāti.

After holy death, the saint Vrrāngaja will be bom in the Saudharma heaven with a lifespan of one Sāgara. The rest of the three will also be bom there with a life-span of a little more than a Palya. The same day, an Asurakumāra (Mansional) deity of better class, getting angry over the incident, will kill the king Kalki in the noon. The fire will also be destroyed at the sun-set.

Thus, the twenty one Kalkis and the same number of Upakalkis take rebirth in the first hell of Ghammā (Ratnaprabhā) with a life-span of one Sāgara due to their anti-religious minds and actions.

(f)The Sixth Spoke of Extreme Penury

The sixth spoke of time-wheel of extreme penury (Ati-duṣamā) begins after three years, 8.5 months of the above incident. This spoke is highly rough i.e. unfavourable. In the beginning of this spoke, the height of the body is 3-3.5 Hastas (5-6 ft.), the number of bones in the back side of the body is twelve and maximum life-span is twenty years. The foods of the people in this spoke are roots, fmits and fish etc. The people are unable to see clothes, trees and houses etc. Hence, all the people are naked and have no houses to live in. They move in forests. They have a smoky colour of their body. They behave like animals. They are cmel, deaf, blind, one-eyed, dumb, poor, full of anger, ugly, miserable and uncivilised. They have irregular (Hunadaka Sansthāna), hunch-backed and dwarf configurations of their body. They are always worried with many types of diseases and pains. They are highly passioned, deluded and most sinful by their agitating nature. They do not have family, friends, sons and wives etc. Their body is foul-smelling. Their hairs are infested with many kinds of small insects as lice etc. They are highly foolish.

In this spoke, only those beings take birth here who arrive from their pre-birth of infernal and sub-human destinity. Also, they are reborn in terrific hells and sub-humans after death. The life-span, body height & strength etc. gradually decrease with the passage of time here. Who is capable of describing their miserable life in words ?

The Time of Dissolution of the Universe (Pralaya Kāla)

When twenty one thousand years less by forty nine days are passed in this sixth spoke, the period of fierce and terrific destruction of the living beings commences. At that time, there blows a deep-sounding and terrific hurricane for a week which results in destroying and uprooting of trees, mountains and rocks. Their uprooting causes deep sadness among the human and subhuman beings and they begin pathetic weeping for clothes and residence.

During this period, numerable differently and total seventy two pairs enter the area between the platforms of the rivers of Gangā and Sindhu and Vijayārdha forests. Besides, the deities and Vidyādharas (proficient in various superpowers by birth) feel compassion for human and sub-human beings and carry numerable of them to the protected places like the above.

Seven Kinds of Rains

At the end of the sixth spoke of time-wheel, the clouds pour out the rains of vile things like (1) very cold water, (2) alkaline water, (3) toxic fluids, (4) smoke (5) dust, (6) thunderbolt and (7) fire-flames to be seen with difficulty each for a seven-day period. Thus, the rains of the mattergies transformed into the above seven forms continue for forty-nine days.

These rains destroy the remaining human beings etc. in the world. The earth infested with toxic fluids and burnt by the rains of fire-flames gets powdered up to one Yojana below the surface level as per Tiloya Paṇṇatti, Chap-4 verse 1551.

Thus, one Yojana of land located over the Citra earth in the Aryan section of the Bharata region gets burnt and destroyed due to the above kinds of rains. The upper part of the land of the Aryan section turns into non-aggregated form due to the rains of thunderbolt and fire and flies away up to the end of the universe.

When this happens, the Aryan section starts shining as mirror plane like the other lands and it gets devoid of dust and mud. The human beings present there (protected in the caves of Vijayārdha mountain etc.) have a height of one Hasta (~1.5 ft.), life-span of 15-16 years and a gradually decreasing potency etc.

Thus, the description of the six spokes of time-wheel of the devolution epoch concludes here.

Present Period

At this time, there is the fifth spoke of the devolution epoch of time wheel at this Bharata Kṣetra of Aryakhand. More than two thousand five hundred years have elapsed since the salvation of the last Tīrthankara Tord Mahāvīra. There are eighteen thousand and five hundred years still to go. Afterwards, there will be the beginning of the sixth spoke of time wheel.

Changes in the Six Spokes of Time Wheel in the Evolution Epoch (Utsarpinī Epoch)

After the completion of all the six spokes of devolution epoch, the pleasing epoch of Evolution will begin. It also has six spokes namely (1) Extreme Penury, (2) Penury, (3) Penury-cum-plentitude, (4) Plentitude-cum-penury, (5) Plentitude and (6) Extreme Plentitude. This epoch also has a duration of ten Kodākodi Sāgaras like the devolution epoch. During this epoch, the height, life-span and potency of the living beings gradually increase every day.

The Spoke of Extreme Penury (Ati-dusamā)

At the beginning of the Evolution epoch, the Puṣkara clouds shower down the comfort producing water on earth, parched with fire flames and thunderbolts, for seven days. This rain results in its cooling. The Kṣira meghas (Milky clouds), then, shower down the milky water for seven days resulting in the earth being full of it with good shine. Afterwards, the Amṛta- meghas (Nectar-clouds) shower down the sweet water or nectar on the earth for seven days resulting into the growth of plants like creepers and clusters. Later, the Rasa-meghas (clouds of juice) shower down the divine juices on earth for seven days resulting in plants etc. being tasty. At this time, the juicy earth becomes full of grainy and medicinal plants and varied kinds of taste and smell appear in them.

When the protected human and subhuman beings begin enjoying this good and cold smell, they come out of their caves. At that time, they are naked and behave like animals. When they become worried with hunger, they eat the fruits, roots and leaves etc. of the trees. The life-span in the first part of this spoke is 15-16 years, the height is oneHasta (~1.5 ft.). Afterwards, their age etc. begin gradually increasing with the change of times. The life-span, radiance, intelligence, arms-strength, body-height and qualities of patience and forbearance etc. gradually and naturally begin improving every time. Thus, when twenty one thousand years are passed, the spoke of extreme penury gets completed in this Bharata region.

The Spoke of Penury (Dusamā)

On completion of the first evolution spoke, the second spoke of penury commences. During this spoke of time, upto the period of 20,000 years, the food intake of the human and subhuman beings is similar to the fifth spoke of devolution epoch. At the beginning of this spoke of time, the maximum life-span of the living beings is twenty years, their height is 3-3.5 Hastas (-5-6 ft.).

The Birth of Patriarchs (Kulakaras)

When one thousand years are to go for completion of this spoke there will be the beginning of the birth of fourteen Kulakaras at Bharata Kṣetra. Their names will be : (1) Kanaka,

(2) Kanakaprabha, (3) Kanakarāja, (4) Kanakadhvaja, (5) Kanakapungava, (6) Nalina, (7) Nalinaprabha, (8) Nalina-rāja, (9) Nalinadhavaja, (10) Nalinapungava, (11) Padmaprabha, (12) Padmarāja, (13) Padmadhvaja and (14) Padma-pungava. Out of these, the first patriarch will have a height of 4 Hastas (~ 6 ft.) and the last patriarch will have a height of seven Hastas (~ 10.5 ft.).

In the period of these Patriarchs, there is no good fire despite many kinds of grains and medicinal plants. On being approached by the humble people, the patriarchs advise them, ‘ ‘You prepare fire by mbbing and cook the grains on the fire. Also, you get married and enjoy your family and friends at your will’ ’. The people, whom the patriarchs advise in the above way, are highly uncivilised. It has to be noted here that the custom of marriage starts in the days of the partiarch Padmapungava.

The Spoke of Penury-Cum-Plentitude (Dusamā-Susamā)

After the end of the second spoke, the third spoke of penury-cum-plentitude appears. In the beginning, the height of the people is seven Hastas (-10.5 ft.) and the life-span is one hundred twenty years. At this time, bones of the back side are twenty four. The human beings have bodies of five colours. They observe humility, shame and propriety of conduct. They are fully satisfied and well-off people. In this spoke only, there are twenty four Tīrthankaras. Out of them, the first Tīrthankara is the son of the fourteenth patriarch. From his times, there is a development of tendency like that existing in Videha region or the fourth spoke of the devolution epoch.

Names of Twenty four Tīrthankaras of the Future

There will be twenty four Tīrthankaras in the future epoch of time. There names are as below:

























Out of these, the first Tīrthankara will have a body height of 7 H (~ 10.5 ft.) and a lifespan of 116 years, while the last Tīrthankara will have a body height of 500 D and the life-span of a Pūrva-koti years.

Names of the Future Tīrthankaras in their Third Earlier Rebirth

The venerables, binding the world-round praiseworthy karmic nature of Tīrthankara physique-making karma in the third earlier birth, had their names as below :

















(17) Balarāma

(18) Bhagali


(20) Dvīpāyana

(21) Māṇavaka


(23) Surūpadatta

(24) Satyakiputa(Rudra)

All of them were bom in royal families.

Twelve Cakravartīs of the Future

The twelve Cakravartīs, who will take birth during the period of the future Tīrthankaras' period, will be named as below :













Nine Balbhadras of the Future

There will be nine Balabhadras in the future named as below :










The persons are bom as Balabhadras due to the earning of sacred karmas (puṇya) without any future desires (Nidāna) in their earlier birth.

Nine Nārāyanas of the Future

There will be nine Nārāyanas in the future named as below :










They will be younger brothers of Balabhadras.

The Nine Prati-Narayanas of the Future

There will be nine Prati-Narayanas in the future who are named as below :










They will be the enemies of the Narayaṇas. The above sixty-three Ṡalākā Puruṣas will be bom in this third spoke of the evolution epoch which has a duration of one Kodākodī Sāgaras less by 42000 years. In the end of this spoke, the life-span of the people will be one Pūrva-koti years. Their height will be 525 D. They will have sixty four bones in the back-side of the body. The males and females of this spoke of time will be as beautiful as male and female divinities.

Plentitude-cum-Penury Spoke of Time (Susamā-Dusamā)

After the third spoke is over, the fourth spoke of plentitude-cum-penury begins. In the beginning of this spoke, the people have a life-span of one Pūrva-koti years. Their height is 500 D. Their life-span, height and strength gradually increase as the time passes. The wish-fulfilling tress (Kalpavṛkṣas) also start growing in this spoke.

At this time, the earth is known as ‘minimal land of enjoyment’ (Jaghanya Bhoga-bhūmi). In the end of this kind of land of enjoyment, the men have a life-span of one Palya, they have a body height of one Kosa (~2 miles) and the colour of their body is like the Priyangu fmit. The wish-fulfilling trees yield the materials for enjoyment. The lands of enjoyment have been described while giving the details of the devolution epoch. The duration of this fourth spoke is 2 Kodākodi Sāgaras.

The Fifth Spoke of Plentitude (Susamā)

After the end of the fourth spoke, the fifth spoke of plentitude starts. At the beginning of this spoke, the life-span etc. of the human and sub-human beings is similar to that of the people of medial (Madhyama) lands of enjoyment. In other words, the life-span starts from one Palya and gradually increases upto two Palya. Similarly, the body-height also increases from one Kosa to two Kosas (~ 4 miles) in the end. These males and females have a face like full moon, they are extremely humble and well-in-conduct observance. They have one hundred twenty eight bones in the back side. The duration of this spoke is three Kodākodī Sāgaras.

The Sixth Spoke of Extreme Plentitude (Susamā-Susamā)'

The sixth spoke of extreme plentitude starts after the end of the fifth spoke of time. In the beginning of this spoke, the life-span etc. of the people are as per early descriptions. Because of the change of times, the life-span of the human and subhuman beings goes on increasing up to three Palyas & height becomes 3 Kosas, their body colour is like the rising sun and the bones of their back side increase up to two hundred and fifty six. At that time, the earth becomes known as supreme or maximal (Uttama) land of enjoyment. The enjoyment landers are enriched with the power of proteation (Vikriyā) to create large family and enjoy their lives. The duration of this spoke is four Kodākodī Sāgaras.

Thus, the changes in the six spokes of the Evolution epoch get completed. This follows the epoch of devolution and so on in a regular cyclic way.

The Regions of Six-fold Time- Spoke Changes'

There are infinite-times-infinite six-spoked epochs of Devolution and Evolution in the Aryan section of the Bharata and Airāvata regions of Jambūdvīpa like the maxim of Persian wheel of water pots for drawing water from the well. (Persian wheel, Araha-ghatikā Nyāya).

The Epoch of Extra-Ordinary Events (Hundāvasarpinī)

There appears an epoch of extraordinary events after the lapse of the tradition of innumerable devolution and evolution epochs or Aeons. The epoch of extraordinary event is marked by the following special events:

(1)There are rains etc. and birth of the deficient-sensed beings even when there is some more time to go for completion of the third spoke of devolution epoch.

(2)In the same third spoke, there is the loss of the wish-fulfilling trees and beginning of activities related with the lands of action (Karmabhūmis).

(3)In the same period, the first Tīrthankara and the first Cakravartī are also bom.

(4)Due to the effect of this epoch, there is break in the victory mission of the Cakravartīs.

(5)The Cakravarti also creates a new caste of P>rah man as in the society in this spoke.

(6)In this spoke of this epoch, there are only fifty-eight Ṡalākā Puruṣas (instead of 63 as in normal third spoke of devolution epoch). (7)There is discontinuity of religiosity in the religious order of seven Tīrthankaras from ninth to sixteenth in this spoke.

(8)In this spoke, eleven Rudras and quarrel-loving nine Nāradas are also bom.

(9)In this epoch, there are inflictions on the seventh, twenty-third and the last twenty- fourth Tīrthankaras.

(10)In the third, fourth and fifth spokes of this epoch, the varied kinds of people also become visible. They are cmel and sinner false gods (Ku-deva) and falsely guised beings (Ku- lingī). They are trouble-shooters for good religiosity.

(11)There are many low status aboriginal castes like Candālas, Ṡabaras, Kirātas and Ṡvapacas etc. taking birth in this epoch. There are 42 Kalkis and Upa-Kalkis.

(12)There are many varieties of calamity like overrains, no-rains, earthquakes, thunderbolt falls and the like in the epoch of extraordinary events.

Eleven Rudras

The eleven Rudras having proficiency in primary canonical scriptures have taken birth during the periods of different Tīrthankaras. Their names are given below :












The first of these Rudras was born during the period of the first Tīrthankara Tord Vṛṣabhanātha. Jitasatru-thc second was bom during the period of second Tīrthankara Tord Ajitanātha. The later seven Rudras were bom serially during the periods of the seven Tīrthankaras from Tord Suvidhinātha onwards. The tenth Rudra was bom during the period of Lord Ṡāntinātha and the last Sātyakiputra was bom during the period of Lord Mahāvīra. All the Rudras got derailed from their austerities due to sensualism during their studies of the tenth pre-canon. They got devoid of the gem of righteousness and went to terrific hells. Please see the details about the Rudras in Table-9 in the end of the book.

Nine Nāradas

The nine Nāradas are :










All these Nāradas are terrific and make troubles and cause weeping to others. They are the treasure house of sins. All the Nāradas are fond of quarrels and wars. That is why, they have gone to hells like the Vāsudevas.

Twenty four Kāma-devas (Cupid-like Men)

There have been twenty four Kāma-devas during the period of twenty four Tīrthankaras. They have an incomparable face and personality. Their names are as below :

(1)Lord Bāhubalī
















(17)Nala, the king








Out of them, Sanatkumara was a Cakravarti, while Ṡantinatha, Kuntunatha, Arahanatha were Tīrthankaras as well as Cakravartīs.

It is admitted that the Tīrthankaras (24), their parents (48), Cakravartīs (12), Balbhadras (9), Nārāyaṇas (9), Rudras (11), Nāradas (9), Kāmadevas (24) and Patriarchs (14) are liberatable personages and they attain salvation either in the same birth or in few rebirths. The Tīrthankaras attain salvation in the same birth as a rule. There is no such rule for other categories of the above personages.

Upto here, there are the details of the cyclic arrangement of Universe as per Jaina System. This is the subject of the Exposition of Cosmology and Sciences (Kamānuyoga) with respect to the change of eras. However, it is also included in the exposition of Biographies to understand it properly.