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Jain Dharma and Lord Rishabhdev

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Written by - P. Ganinee Pramukh Shri Gyanmati Mataji
Translated by - Aryika Chandnamati


Where this "Jeev" (soul) wanders, goes round and round in four gatis, that is called as "Samsar" (Universe). This samsar is also called by the name of "Lok"- Where, Jeev (soul), Pudgal (substance), Dharma (medium of motion), Adharma (principle of rest), Akash (space) and Kal (time), these six dravyas are seen, that is called as Lok. That Lok is original, eternal and is made by its nature only i.e. it has not been made by anybody.

This ‘Lok’ is divided into 3 parts- Adholok (Lowest) Madhyalok (middle) Urdhva Lok (upper). The height of 3 Lokas is 14 Raju and a universe thickness is 7 Raju. The base of the 'Lok' the breadth is 7 Raju and upto Madhyalok its height is 7 Raju and above Madhyalok upto Sidha Shila, the height of Urdhva Lok is also 7 Raju. Deceasing from the base of Adholok, the breadth has been reduced to 1 Raju near Madhyalok, further increasing from Madhyalok the breadth has become 5 Raju upto Brahma swarga 3½ Raju; again decreasing upwards up to 3½ Raju Sidha Shila, it has been reduced to 1 Raju, this lok appears in the form of a human being (Purushakar), who is standing with his hands on the sides of his back and legs apart. Here, one probable doubt may crop up that in 14 Raju high Lok, there is Adholok in 7 Raju and Urdhvalok in next 7 Raju then what part the Madhyalok will have?

The answer to this query is that 1 Raju comprises innumerable yojans and in 14 Raju high Lok, lower 7 Raju contain hells (narkas) and upper 7 Raju have heavens (swargas). Between these two, there is Sumeru Parvat which is 1 lakh 40 yojans high. Mahyalok is actually in corresponding height with this Sumeru Parvat and it is some part of Urdhvalok and is almost negligible in comparsion with a Raju that's why it has not been described in 14 Raju height.


This Madhyalok is 1 Raju wide. In the middle of it, there is a 'Trasanali', measuring 14 Raju in height, 1 Raju in breadth and 1 Raju in thickness. Trasa jeevas having two to five Indriyas or senses in this 'Trasanali'. Madhyalok contains innumerable dweeps and samudras (islands and oceans).

Among these the first dweep is Jambudweep. It is rounded like a thali (plate), having a diameter of 1 lakh yojans (400000000 miles). Surrounding it, there is 'Lavansamudra' (salt ocean), with a diameter of 2 lakh yojans. Further surrounding it, there is dhatkikhand with a diameter of 4 lakh yojans; surrounding which there is Kalodadhi ocean. The next surrounding is of Pushkardweep. In the exact middle of it, there is the Manushottar Parvat, which is of the size of a bangle. Upto here, Jambudweep, dhatkikhand dweep and half Pushkardweep are known as adhaei (two and a half - 2½) dweep. Similarly due to being one dweep surrounded by one samudra (ocean), there are as many dweeps as many samudras (ocean). The succeeding dweeps - samudras are of double measurement than the preceding ones.


In the just middle of the Jambudweep, there is Sumeru Pravat, which is one lakh yojans height. Its foundation is one thousand (1000) yojans below the Chitra Prathvi and it is 99 thousand yojans above it, its vertex (peak) is 40 yojans high.

In this rounded dweep, from the South to the North,lengthened in the East-West direction, there are six Kulparvatas (mountains) are -

  1. Himvan
  2. Mahahimvan
  3. Nishadh
  4. Neel
  5. Rukmi
  6. Shikheri

There are 7 regions divided by these 6 parvats are as follows -

  1. Bharat
  2. Hemvat
  3. Hari
  4. Videh
  5. Ramyak
  6. Hairanyavat
  7. Aeravat

In each region there are two rivers as Ganga-Sindhu, Rohit-Rohitasya etc. Thus 14 mahanadis (large river) are also there.

Videh Kshetra

Due to the presence of Sumeru Parvat in the middle of Videh, there are Devkuru and Uttarkuru Bhogbhumis in its South and North respectively. And there are Purva Videh (East Videh) and Paschim Videh (West Videh) in the East and the West respectively. Sita Nadi (river) has divided East Videh into South and North regions, again in the South, 8 regions have originated by 4 Vakshar and 3 Vibhanga rivers have formed 8 region in both South & North sides thus a total of 32 Videh Kshetras (regions) have originated.

“In a single Videh Desh, there are 96 crore grams (villages), 26 thousand nagars (cities), 16 thousand Khets, 24 thousand Kshetras, 4 thousand Madambs, 48 thousand Pattans, 99 thousand Drones, 14 thousand Samvah and 28 thousand Durgatavis. Each Videh contains one sub-ocean (Upsamudra), on which there is one island on each. There are 56 Aatradweeps, 26 thousand Ratnakars and these are the places for the business (purchase and sale) of jewels.

170 Karmabhumis

In Jambudweep, there are one Bharat, one Aeravat and 32 Videh Kshetras. And dhatkihand dweep has been divided into East dhatkihand and West dhatkihand, while Pushkaradhdweep has East - Puahkarardhdweep and West-Pushkarardhdweep such two parts. These contains four merus (pravat) are-

  1. Vijay
  2. Achal
  3. Mandar
  4. Vidyunmali

Due to being one Bharat, one Aeravat and thirty two Videh regions, there becomes 5 Bharats, 5 Aeravats and 32 ˣ 5 = 160 Videh regions. As each contains six parts, The middle Aryakhand has Karmahumi arrangement. Thus, these 170 Larmabhumis have been accepted to exist.

The Maximum Tirthankar are 170 while the Minimum are 20

In Aryakhand of these 170 Karmahumis, if there happens maximum Tirthankars or Chakravartis or Narayans, Pratinarayans and Balbhadras together, they can be maximally 170 and minimally in each Videh related with one meru, there remains 4 Tirthankars i.e. at least 4 ˣ 5 = 20 Tirthankars.

Tirthankars, Ardhchakris and sakalchakris are maximally 160 and minimally 20 in reference with Videh Kshetras. By adding from Baharat - Aeravat also, maximum becomes 170.

It is evident from this Gatha that Tirthankars like Shri Rishabhdev and Shri Mahavir Swami have been existed in infinite number in these Karmabhumis and will be existing in future also.

Accroding to this rule, there remains the Chaturth (fourth) Kal always in Videh Kshetras. No Shat Kal Parivartan (six-kal change) take place.

Where occurs Shat Kal Parivatan (Six-kal Changes)

In Bharat and Aeravat Kshetras, there happens increase and decrease in the age,height , happiness ect. Respectively by Utsarpini and Avsarpini, each having six Kals. Here, Bharat indicates all five Bharat Kshetras11 and Aeravat signifies all the Aeravat Kshetras.

Again, in Kshetras except these-

  1. Videh Kshetras
  2. Hemvat
  3. Hari
  4. Ramyak
  5. Hariranyavat

The arrangement remains as such. In Videhas, 160 Videh regions have been accepted Hemvat and Hairanvat have Jaghanyab (lowest quantity) bhogbhumi, Hari and Ramyak have madhyam (middle quantity) while Devkuru-Uttarkuru, which are in North-South of Sumeru, have the arrangement of Uttam (highest quantity) bhogbhumis consistently.

First Karmabhumi

In the middle of the Bharat Kshetras of Jambudweep, there happens six khands or parts by the rivers Ganga-Sindhu originating from Vijayardh Parvat, lengthened in the middle Aryakhand. In Avsarpini, there remains six Kals in series as Sushma-Sushma, Sushma, Sushma-Dushma, Dushma-Sushma, Dushma and extreme Dushma(Ati-Dushma) and in Utsarpini, the reverse series of 6 Kals continues from extreme Dushma to Sushma-Sushma. Among these, Sushma-Sushma etc. 3 Kals have Bhogbhumi arrangement while Dushma-Sushma etc.3 Kals have Karmabhumi arrangement.

According to this arrangement, the Karmabhumi which comes in the Aryakhand of the first Bharat Kshetra of the first Jamboodweep, is considered to be the first Karmabhumi.


In bhogbhumi, there remains 10 types of Kalpavrikshas, named as Madyang, Vaditrang, Bhusanang, Malang, Deepang, Jyotirang, Grihang, Bhojanang, Bhajnang and vastrang to provide the respective desired product.

Origin of Kulkars

In this present Avsarpini, in the Aryakhand of this Bharat kshetra, when the 8th part of the Palya remained in the third kal, then Kulkars started to exist bearing the names as-Pratishruti, Sanmati, Kshemankar, Kshemandhar, Seemankar, Seemandar, Vimalvahan, Chakshushman, Yashaswi, Chandrabh, Marudev, Prasenjit and Nabhiraj.

It has been written in 'Harivanshapuram' that the 12th Kulkar named as Marudev gave birth to the only son "Prasenjit", so from here the tradition of double birth(son's and daughter's birth together) had come to an end. The marriage of Prasenjit was performed with the girl of some main Kul.

From Prasenjit also, Nabhiraj was also born alone. Indra wedded him with Kumari Marudevi. Marudevi, was born in pure Kul(Lineage), became the wife of Raja Nabhiraj.

Formation of Ayodhya Nagari

When Kalpavrikshas became extinct at the place, made sacred by the presence of Marudevi and Nabhiraj then by their great punya, Indra formed a nagariand named it as 'Ayodhya'.

"When annihilation (final destruction of the universe) happens at the end of the sixth Kal, then here in Aryakhand, the land below upto 1000 yojans is destroyed. In that Kal, devas form 24 lotuses below the place indicating the position of Ayodhya Nagari".

On the basis of these symbols devtas again form Ayodhya Nagari on the same place. That's why "Ayodhya Nagari" has been considered to be eternal.

In Vedic literature also, Ayodhya has been given a lot of importance as- This Ayodhya Nagari of Devtas is beautified with 8 Chakras and 9 dwars (doors). In Rudrayamal Grantha, Ayodhyapuri has called as the forehed of Bhagwan Vishnu as-In Valmiki Ramayan, it has been considered 12 yojans in length, formed by Manu.

In Harivanshapuran, the palace of Raja Nabhiraj has been described as 81 floors in height, made of jewels and called as "Sarvatobhadra".

Descent of Shri Rishabh Deva from heaven

Knowing that Bhagwan Rishabh Deva is about to come here in the womb of Mata Marudevi after being detached from "Sarvartha Siddhi" Viman after six month, Saudharama Indra ordered Kuber-Oh Dhanpate! Start showering jewels in the courtyard of Mata Marudevi in Ayodhya. From the same day, Kuber started the showering of 3.5 crores best Panchvarni (five coloured) jewels each day.

One day Maharani Mahadevi saw Aeravat Hathi (White elephant) etc. sixteen best dreams in the phase of night, in the morning, listening from her husband that "Tirthankar son will descend in your womb", she was filled with great joy.

When 84 lacs Purva, 3 years and 8.5 months remained in the third Kal of Avsarpini, then on Asharh Krishna Dwitiya, Bhagwan came in the womb. At the same day, knowing this by his Divyagyan, Indra along with his innumerable Devas, celebrated the Garbhakalyanak Mahostsava (festival of coming in womb) by doing the Abhishek (showering of water) and welcoming with garments, jewellery etc. of Maharaja Nabhiraj and Maharani Marudevi. By the permission of Indra, shree, Hree etc. Devis started serving Mata.

If Bhagwan incarnates

According to Jain Dharma, no Bhagwan incarnates again and again but any wordly person like you and me, by gradually upgrading self, attain Nirvana or Moksha by receiving Tirthankar Prakriti and attainig Panchkalyanaks ( five major phases of life). They never incarnate in this world again as by reading the description of ten bhavs (births) i.e. "Dashavatar", the "Garbhavatar" (coming in womb) episode of Bhagwan Rishabhdeva becomes clear.

In the Videh Kshetra of this Jamboodweep in the Vijayardha series of Gandhila Desh, there was was a Vidyadhar king named "Mahabal". Once he accepted the Jain religion through his minister 'Swayambuddha' and dying with Sallekhna ( method for accepting death according to Jain Aagam or Shastra) attained the dev form named 'Lalitang' in heaven. Detached from there, he became king 'Vajrajangh' in Videh Kshetra, where once he, along with his wife'Shrimati', gave Ahardan (giving meals according to the method of Jain Shastra) in a forest to a pair of Munis ( Jain Digambar Sadhus). As a consequence of it, he became "Arya" in Uttam Bhogbhumi. There he accepted Samyakdarshan by the address of Charanriddhidhari Munis and became "Shridhar Dev" in Second swarga (heaven) dying at the end of his life. Being detached from there, he became 'Raja Suvidhi' in Suseema Nagari of Videh Kshetra.

Here also, after adopting Shravak Dharma ( Religious practices mentioned in Jain Shastras for a family person) and Ksullak Deeksha and then becoming a 'Muni' and leaving the body by samadhi (according to Jain shastras), he again became 'Indra' in sixteenth swarga. Coming from there, he became 'Varjranabhi' Chakravarti in Pundarkini Nagari of Videh of Jamboodweep. In this bhav ( birth) also, becoming Mahamuni, in the holy feet of Father Tirthankar Bhagwan Vajrasen, by adopting the feelings of Solahkaran ( sixteenth specific bhavnas) in heart, he received Tirthankar Prakriti. Consequently, at last dying by Samadhidhyan, he became "Ahmindra" in Sarvaethasiddhi.

Thus, by elevating step in nine births i.e. 1. Mahabal 2. Lalitangdev 3. Raja Suvidhi 4. Bhogbhumij Arya 5. Shridhar Dev 6. Raja Suvidhi 7. Achyutendra 8. Vajranabhi Chakravarti 9. Ahmindra, by the Patronage of Jain Dharma, this jeev (soul) of Ahmindra being detached from Sarvarthasiddhi came in the womb of Mata Marudevi. When Bhagwan Rishabhdeva will attain Nirvan or Moksha, he will never incarnate in this world again.

Janmakalyanak ( Birth) Mahotsav

After jewel showering for fifteen months by Kuber, on Chaitra Krishna Navmi, at the time of Sun-rise, Mata Marudevi gave birth to a son. At that moment only, the Asan ( throne) of Indras in heaven started shaking, their crowns bowed down, flowers started being showered from Kalpavrikshas and musical instruments were being sounded themselves in the living places of all the four types of Devas As-

Bells started ringing at the places of Kalpavasi devas, bugle sound started at the places of Bhawanvasi devas, Simhnad ( roar of lion) started on Jyotishka devas places and bheri ( kettledrum) started ringing on the places of Vyantar deavs. All this happened at the birth of whom, he was actually Jin Bhagwan.

As today, the switch of a Television or a radio is made on, sight and music from thousand of kilometers come in view but there was no need to push any button of such type because instead of it, the switch of the punya of Tirthankar Prakriti was pushed on itself and Atishaya ( Amazements) became prevalent in heaven, placed at a height of more than 40 crore milles. At the same mmoment only, Saudharma Indra came in Madhyalok along with innumerable dev families and performed the Janmabhishek ( bathing at the time of Birth) by 1008 kalashas (veshose sels) by taking the new born baby on Sumeru Parvat.

Some scholars usually say that those Tirthankars were common persons like us but the truth is not this, they can be considered common till they received Tirthankar Prakriti but after receiving such Prakriti, special amazements (Atishayas) appeared in them, that's why Shri Samantra Bhadra Swami has said- "Oh Nath! you have, however, taken birth as a humanbeing but yo have superseded the human nature, so you are the devta above devtas or you are the Paramdevta. Oh Jindharma Tirthankar! Please be happy on us for our upliftment".

Karmabhumi Arrangement by Shri Rishabh Deva

Shri Nabhiraja married Bhagwan with Yashaswati and Sunanda with the permission of Indra. Yashaswati gave birth to Bharat etc. 100 sons and Brahmi daughter, while Sunanda had son Bahubali and the daughter Sundari.

Bhagwan made his daughters and sons perfect in all vidyas and arts.

At the prayer of the pblic, he taught them the way to live life by giving the knowledge of six basic activities as Asi (Warefare), Masi (Writing), Krishi (Agriculture), Vidya (Education), Ship (Craftwork) and Vanijya (Business). He initiated Varna arrangement of Videh Kshetra by Avadhigyan. So he was also called as Prabhu Shrashta, Vidhata, Brahma etc.

Deeksha Kalyanak

One day Bhagwan developed the feeling of non attachment with the world (asceticism) seeing the completion of the age of Neelanjana while dancing. He reached Siddhartha Van (forest) sitting in palkhi brought by Indras and there, after performing his Keshlonch, took up the Digamberi Deeksha (Jain Muni Deeksha) and that place became famous by the name Prayag. After one year and 39 days in Hastinapur, Yuvraj Shreyans became Daantirthpravartak (who initiated the tradition of daan according to Jain norms) by giving the juice of sugarcane (Ikshuras) in Ahar on Vaishakh Shukla 3.

Kevalgyan Kalyanak

After the penance of one thousand years , Prabhu Rishabhdeva got Kevalgyan. At the same moment only, Bhagwan reached in the mid sky, 5000 Dhanush - 20000 Hands above Earth and within Ardhnimish only, Kuber formed the "Samavasaran" (a unique peaching assembly place of Jain Tirthankars). It was a circle of 12 yojans- 96 miles.

Brief description of Samavsaran

There remains 8 bhumis an 3 katnis in Samavasaran and 4 roads surrounding from 4 sides. In the midst of these roads, in the beginning only, there are 4 Manasthambas, one in each of four directions. These are 12 times higher than the height of Bhagwan. As the heigth of Bhagwan Rishabhdeva was 500 Dhanush or 2000 hands, so 2000*12=24000 hands was the height of Manasthambas. By the darshan of these Manasthambas, the proud of a proudy individual used to be washed out and by being converted into a pious soul-Samyakdrishti, he used to minimise his world wandering to the least.

In this Samavasaran, from one head above the earth, there remain 20 thousand steps of stair, each one hand high. By ascending these, human beings, tiryanchs (animals) etc. all pious creatures- younger ones, old aged, patients, blinds, etc. handicaps used to reach upstairs only in 48 minutes, this Atishaya was of Bhagwan only.

There remain 8 bhumis in the space interval of 4 Perkotas (surroundings) and 5 Vedis (where Bhagwan is consecrated) as a serial arrangement of Dhulisal Perkota, Chaityaprasadbhumi Vedi, Khatikabhumi Vedi, Latabhumi Perkota, Upvanbhumi Vedi, Dhwajabhumi Perkota, Kalpavrikshabhumi Vedi, Bhawanbhumi Perkota, Shrimandapbhumi Vedi. Further going 16 steps up, first Katni, second Katni afetr 8 further steps and again after 8 steps, Bhagwan remains seated in Gandhkuti on third Katni.

In each Parkota and Vedi, in all the four directions, one Gopur dwar (gate) was present. In these, there were placed theatre halls, Mangalghat, Dhupghat and Navnidhi Bhandar on both the sides; the defenders of there gates were devas.

In first bhumi, there were 5 prasads (palaces) one each in between two Jinmandirs. In second bhumi, there were swans, ducks and lotuses etc. in pure water. In third bhumi, flowers of all six seasons were blooming. In fourth bhumi, in four directions, there were the forests of Ashoka, Saptachhad, Champak and Mango repectively in these, in all four directions, idols of Jinendra Bhagwan remain placed on one Chaityavriksha in each. In fifth bhumi, there were flags (Dhwajas) having ten types of symbols each. In sixth bhumi, there were ten types of Kalpavrikshas and the idols of Siddha Bhagwans were placed on Siddhartha Vrikshas namely Nameru, Mandar, Santanak and Parijaat respectively in four directions. In seventh bhumi, Bhawans were made and 9 stupas (pillars) with the idols of Arhant and Siddha Bhagwans on both sides each.In eighth bhumi, twelve sabhas (Assemblies) were made.

Serially, these 12 sabhas used to sit down. They were as follows

1. Munis 2. Kalpavasini Devis 3. Aryikas and Shravikas 4. Jyotishi Devis 5. Vyantar Devis 6. Bhawanwasini devis 7. Bhawanwasi devas 8. Vyantar Devas 9. Jyotishi deavs 10. Kalpavasi Devas 11. Human Beings and 12. Tiryanchas (animals) used to sit down.

The effect of Samavasaran in such that animals like lion, deer, cow, tiger, snake, mongoose etc., which have natural behavioral enemity, leave the same and by becoming fiendly for each other, listen to the preachings of Bhagwan together.

In the world, the Samavasaran of Tirthankar Bhagwan is the only place where a Kotha (sitting place) is also settled for Tiryanchas similary as for devas and humanbeings.By sitting in that Kotha, numerous animals-birds are benefitted in real sense by listening to the sarmon of Bhagwan. Lacs os animals reach heaven after death by adopting Ahimsanuvrata, Satyanuvrata, Achoryanuvrata, Brahamcharya-anuvrata and Parigrahparimanuvrata and Dikkumaries place mangal dravya in their hands.

By the movement of Bhagwan, there appears a phase of plenty and prosperity in about an area of 800 miles around.

Moksha Kalyanak

Bhagwan Rishabh Deva moved around for lacs of years and saturated innumerable creatures with dharma. Later, by performing Yog-nirodh (stopping of all his yogas) after going on Kailash Parvat, attained Nirvan at the end of his lifetime. When 3 years and eight & a half months were remaining in the third kal, Bhagwan attained Moksha. Due to the defect of Hundavasapini, the first Tirthankar was born at the end of third Kal and attained Nirvan in the third Kal only. There he will remain immersed in absolute pleasure for infinite time to come and will never incarnate on this earth again.

Even on passing of hundreds of Kalpakals, it is not possible that the souls, who have attained Nirvan, migrate into the world again, no matter suah a tumult occurs as to produce disturbance in all the three lokas.