LENGTH OF YOJANA
Paramanu is the smallest invisible particle having no length and breadth and undetectable by sense-organsA.Table of Length-Units
| Anantananta parmananu = 8 Uvasannasanna
8 Uvasannasannas =1Sannasanna
8 Yavas =1 Angula
Thus one maha yojana has 2000 kosas.
There are three types of angulas which are described as under:
1.Utesdhangula:It denotes the length of angula as determined in terms of balagras,likhas etc.as depicted in aforesaid table. It is used in the measurement of the hight of bodies of devas(gods)human beings,tiranchas(SUB-HUMAN BEINGS)and residents of narkas(hells),dimensions of the living places of the four types of devas and dimensions of towns etc.
2.Pramanangula:500 Utsedhangulas make one pramanangula.It equales the finger-width of first Bharat Cakravarti during the period of Avasarpini. It is used to measure the dimensions of islands,oceans,mountains,vedi,rivers,kunda or water tank jagati and rsgions of Bharata etc. (see Tiloyapannatti,iii)The yojana determined in terms of paramanangulas is mahayojana or big yojana equal to 2000 kosas.
3.Atmangula:The finger width of a human beings at any time in the regions of Bharata and Airavata is known as atmangula at that time. It used to measure the dimensions of pitcher,kalasa,mirror,venu,bheri,yuga,bed,cart,plough,musala,sakti,tomara,throne,arrow,nali,aksa,camera,dundubhi,pitha,(back),chatra,living places of human beings,towns,orchards etc.(see Tiloypannatti page 13)
Now we may easily see that-
1 Mahayojana=2000 kosas =16000000(therefore 1 kosa=2000 dhanusas 1 dhanusa-4 hastas)
supposing presently one yard equal to 2 hastas,we see-
1 mile =1760 yards =3520 hastas
1 Mahayojana =16000000/3520 miles=4545.5/11miles =4545.45 miles
(see also L.C.Jaina'sItroduction to Jambudivpa Pannatti)
Presently many people are confused over the lengths of a kosa and a yojana respectively.But pondering over the interrelationship of differant length-units;it may be easily seen that balagra(front portion of a hair)of Karmbhumi is eight times the balagra of jaghanya bhogbhumi.With passage time,now in the fifth period of wheel of time,the balagra of today must have become thicker than before.This would surely affect the lenghts of subsequent units viz.angula,pada,hasta,and,yojana etc.A deeper insight into this problem will surely rectify several doubts of the researchers.The length of a balagra of karmbhumi varies,as determined by modern microscopes,from 1/400 inch to 1/200 inch.Consequently,the length of a yojana would also be fluctuated accordingly.However,taking the balagra as equal to 1/500 inch and 1/300 inch,the yojana becomes equal to 49648.48 miles and 74472.72 miles respectively.The number of miles in yojana still increases if a balagra is consideredequal to 1/200 inch.In this light it is advisable to cosider the authenticity of relationship between a yojana and miles,4545.45miles making a yojana.This relationship will be frequently used in the subsequent pages.
It is worth noticing here that the dimensions of towns like Ayodhya,Hastinapur etc.were measured in terms of atmangulas,the length of which depending upon the finger-width of the then Cakravarti.The finger width of a cakravarti varied from that of another cakravarti,Thus the magnitudes of dimensions of a town appear to have varied at different times due to the afore-said variation in the length unit of an atmangula.Therfore,at the time of Lord Mahavira,his atmangula should be employed to measure the dimensions of Kundalpura,the birth place of Lord Mahavira.
Whereas the dimenensions of real islands,oceans,regions,rivers,water tanks etc.have always been measured in terms of pramanangulas,so their magnitudes remain unchanged with the passage of time.So it is obligatory upon everyone of us to penetrate into the depth of relationships between different length-units at different times and different places.Only then we can rigthly estimate the physical concept of the length of a mahayojana.