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Lesson 3: Six Substances and Five Existent Corporales
Lesson 3: Six Substances and Five Existent Corporales
Distinguishing Features of Substances
(1) Sad-dravya Lakshanam=Sat is the distinguishing feature of
sat? What is Sat? The substance in which creation, usages,
and permanence or stability are found is known as Sat.
(2) Utpada= The creation of something new is called utpada. As for example, Jin is the creation of the modes of the gods.
(3) Vyaya- The destruction of the aforesaid modes and the emerging of the new mode is called vyaya. For example the destruction of human modes of the lina.
(4) Dhrauvya- The destruction of the aforesaid parytiya (mode) and the creation of the new mode and the nature of the continuance for long, is called Dhrauvya. As for example Jivatva resides in both the human as well as the divine modes -equally. These three situations remain at one and the same time.
(5) The Other Symptoms of Dravya- The combination of gunas and the paryayas (modes) is called the Dravya. Those which are limited with Dravya are called gunas . As one finds the existence of Jiva or wisdom or knowledge. The gunas are of two types viz.: special and ordinary.
(6) The Ordinary Gunas-: The guna which is found in all the dravya equally, it is called ordinary guna. As for example, the guna of existence is found in all the dravyas equally. Existence-present situation.
(7) The Special Gunas= The gunas , which are not found universally in all they are called special gunas . For example-the forms of Jfiana-Darsana and Pudgala besides the rasa etc. Those which are arranged in sequence they are called paryayas which are of two formsviz.: Artha (mode) and the vyafijana (indistinct things).
(8) Artha Parytiya=-Dravya is but an entity which changes continually. The subtle transformation that occurs every moment is called artha paryaya, which is beyond the reach of the mind and the speech.
(9) Vyajana Paryaya= The Jiva and matter have the gross mode which have the gross mode. As for example, the human and Jiva, Devas and categories besides the matter, the book and the matter are gross. Dravya has six divisions-llva, Material Substance, Dharma, Adharma, ~ and the ~atl! (Time).
(10) Symptoms of Jiva (Soul)- The symptoms of Jiva is its utility having two parts viz.: Jtianopayoga and Darsanopayoga. The former has eight parts. Known as mati (sensory cognition), &laa (hearing), Avadhi (limit), Manahparyaya (development of brain), and Kevala (omniscience). In addition to these five jnanas, there are three ignorances known as Kumati (evil advice), Kusruta (evil hearing) and Kuavadhi (evil limits).
(11) Darsanopayoga is divided into four parts, viz.: (a) Caksu- darsana (ocular perception), (b) Acaksu-darsana (perception through non-visual senses), (c) Avadhi-darsana and (d) Kevala-darsana.
(12) Symptoms of Pudgala (Matter)- The element in which multiplication and melting is found is called Pudgala. It has two parts, viz.: Atom and Molecules. The smallest part of Pudgala which cannot be further divided is called Atom. The ball of atoms made of two, three or more atoms is called Molecule. There are four qualities of Pudgala, touch, juices, fragrance, complexion, which are further divided into twenty. The touch has eight divisions, viz.: light, heavy, hard, soft, dry, slippery, cold and hot. The juices has five parts-sour, sweet, bitter and biting sour, besides astringent. The smell has two parts; viz.: fragrance and odour. The complexion has five parts,viz.: black, yellow, blue, red and white. These are the twenty gW1aS of Pudgala.
(13) Symptoms of Dharma Dravya- The jiva which cooperates with movement of Pudgala (matter) it is called dharma dravya as the water serves for the swimming of the fish.
(14) Symptoms of Adharma Dravya- The one which cooperates in the stay of the matter the jiva, it is called adharma dravya.
(15) Symptoms of Sky Dravya (Substance)-« The one which provides space to all the dravyas (substances) and it is divided in two parts, viz.: Lokakasa and Alokakasa. The jiva in which there are five substances like Pudgala, Dharma, Adhartna, Kala (death) it is called Lokakasa. The outer sphere of the same is called unending Alokakasa.
(16) Symptoms of Kala Dravya (Substancet= The element which is instrumental in the transformation ofthe substances, it is called as Kala Dravya. It has two parts-Niscaya Kala (deterministic time) and Vyavahara Kala (practical time).
(17) The Number of Dravyas (Substancesi= The jiva substances are innumerable in number. The Pudgala substances are also innumerable in number. The Dharma substances, , Adharma substances and the Sky substances are individual and are united. The Kala Dravyas are beyond counting.
(18) How many Regions have a Dravya or a Substance-Every Jiva Dravya, Dharma, Adharma and Lokakasa possess numerous regions. Pudgala has numberless regions. Alokakasa has also numerous regions, while Kala Dravya has a single region.
(19) What is Astikaya-JIva and the four Ajivas, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma and Akasa (sky) have the KayO. (body) and are known as Paficastikayas (the five Asti-kayasy, Kala-though Ajiva, has no body. It is Akaya or without body. As they exist, they are called asti, by the great Jlvas and since they have many Pradesas, they are called Astikayas. In the world, the Jiva Dravyas remain personified in the worldly conditions, but appear in invisible forms in liberated conditions. The Pudgala substance is personified and the remaining four are without forms.
Questions: (1) What is the time taken in the formation of Utpada, JODI vyaya and Dhrauvyal
(2) What is the other symptom of Dravya (substance)?
(3) Highlight the symptoms of Artha Paryaya of Dravyas (substances)?
(4) Describe the divisions of Upayoga (utility)?
(5) What is Skandha and what is the number of its GU~1Qs?
(6) Describe the symptoms of Jiva, Dharma, Kala and Dravya?
(7) What is Astikaya] Why is Kala Dravya not Astikayal
(8) Is Jiva Dravya personified or not?
(9) Is the Astikaya Dravya
or not?, discuss.