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Prof. Tikam Chand Jain (Jyotishacharya)

M. 84 Naveen Shahdra, Delhi- 110032
H.O.D. Centre for Jain Studies - T. M. U. ( mo. 07500566005 )

Mobile- 09810279707

Literally muhurta means a period of two ghatis or 48 minutes. But in actual use muhurta is a moment created by various positions of planets containing certain vibration or promises for any action, process or life, starting at that time. Like time of commencement of life, time of commencement of any activity will contain certain favourable and unfavourable promises for such activity. The study of muhurta is to study of that time of commencement. For finding muhurta is to decide the suitability or unsuitability of that moment for a particular action and for a particular individual. Relevance of muhurta can be seen in terms of self created short term destiny applicable to specific aspect of life.

Basic Components of Muhurta:-
There are various base of measuring time. Five elements of Panchanga i.e., Tithi, Nakshatra or Constellation, vaar or day, yoga and karna with certain other variables like solar and lunar months, Lagna or rising sign etc. decide in their various permutations and combinations the time suitable or unsuitable for a particular action .

Tithi is the name given to various angles formed by Sun and Moon. When Sun and Moon are together at the same degree it is called New Moon or Amavashya. As Moon moves away from the Sun at each 12 degree difference a new tithi is formed. To put it mathematically
Tithi = (Moon’s Longitude-Sun’s Longitude)/12
In all there are 30 tithis. Fifteen of the bright half i.e. shukla paksha, when Moon moves away from the Sun and fifteen in the dark half (Krishna Paksha) - when Moon moves towards the Sun. The names of various tithis are given in the table below:
Table: Difference in Longitude Of Moon & Sun

(Moon-Sun) Tithi (Bright half) (Moon-Sun) Tithi (Dark half)
0-12 degree Pratipada 1 180-192 degeee Pratipada 1
12- 24 degree Dwitiya 2 192-204 degeee Dwitiya 2
24- 36 degree Tritiya 3 204-216 degeee Tritiya 3
36- 48 degree Chaturthi 4 216-228 degeee Chaturthi 4
48- 60 degree Panchami 5 228-240 degeee Panchami 5
60- 72 degree Shashthi 6 240-252 degeee Shashthi 6
72- 84 degree Saptami 7 252-264 degeee Saptami 7
84- 96 degree Ashtami 8 264-276 degeee Ashtami 8
96- 108 degree Navami 9 276-288 degeee Navami 9
108-120 degree Dashami 10 288-300 degeee Dashami 10
120- 132 degree Ekadashi 11 300-312 degeee Ekadashi 11
132- 144 degree Dwadashi 12 312-324 degeee Dwadashi 12
144- 156 degree Triyodashi 13 324-336 degeee Triyodashi 13
156- 168 degree Chaturdashi 14 336-348 degeee Chaturdashi 14
168- 180 degree Purnima 15 348-360 degeee Amavashya 15

For muhurta purpose tithis are classified in to five groups as follows:
1. Nanda- 1st , 6th , 11th, - tithi of bright and dark half
2. Bhadra- 2nd, 7th, 12th, - tithi of bright and dark half
3. Jaya- 3rd, 8th, 13th, - tithi of bright and dark half
4. Rikta- 4th, 9th, 14th, - tithi of bright and dark half
5. Poorna- 5th, 10th, 15th/30th - tithi of bright and dark half

Rikta tithis are in general considered inauspicious
Tithi Kshaya- If a tithi start after sunrise and ends before next sunrise it is called loss of a tithi or tithi Kshaya and is to be avoided in all good elections.
Tithi Vriddhi- If a tithi prevails at two sunrise times or in other words if a tithi starts before one sunrise and ends after sunrise on next day it is called tithi vriddhi and it is also to be avoided in all good elections.

From the starting point of Nirayana Zodiac, if we divide the Zodiac in to 27 equal parts then one part will be of 13degrees20minutes and is called a Nakshatra. Starting from the 1st point of Nirayana Aries the names of 27 Nakshatras along with their Lord planets and Mahadasha period is given in the following table:

Nakshatra or Constellation Nakshatra or Constellation Nakshatra or Constellation Lord Planet Period in Years
1. Aswani 10. Magha 19. Moola Ketu 07
2. Bharani 11. Poorva Falguni 20. Poorvashada Venus 20
3. Kritika 12. Uttara Falguni 21. Uttarashada Sun 06
4. Rohini 13. Hasta 22. Sharvana Moon 10
5. Mrigshira 14. Chitra 23. Danishtha Mars 07
6. Ardra 15. Swati 24. Shatbhisha Rahu 18
7. Punarvasu 16. Vishakha 25. Poorva Bhadrapada Jupitar 16
8. Pushya 17. Anuradha 26. Uttara Bhadrapada Saturn 19
9. Ashlesha 18. Jyestha 27. Revati Mercury 17

On the basis of information given in the above table and applying some mathematical formulas, mahadasha, anterdasha, pratyantar dasha etc may be calculated and favourable and un favourable time for a particular individual may be known. Some times we use 28th nakshatra. Last quarter of Uttarasada and first four ghatis of Sharvana (1/15 portion of Sharvana) is called Abhijit nakshatra. Thus from 6 degree 40 minutes of Capricorn to 10 degree 53minute and 20 seconds of Capricorn is the measure of Abhijit nakshatra. The duration of a nakshatra is 60 ghatis or 24 hours. 28 Nakshatras including Abhijit are grouped into seven categories, which are given below with their suitability for various types of activities.

(1) Dhruva (Fixed) Sthira (Constant)
Uttara Falguni, Uttarashada, Uttara bhadrapad, Rohini and Sunday are placed in this category. Works of fixed nature are done in these nakshatras like foundation laying, digging a well, house building, upnayana, agriculture, starting service etc.
(2) Char-Chala (Movable)
Swati, Punarvasu, Sharvana, Dhanishtha Satbhisha and Monday are movable in nature. All movable activities like riding on vehicles, horses, elephants and journeys and any other act needing motion can be done in these nakshatras.
(3) Ugra-Kroora (Aggressive Cruel)
Poorvaphalguni, Poorvashada, Poorva bhadrapad, Bharani, Magha and Tuesday are aggressive in nature and suitable for works involving use of the fire, research on poisonous medicines, purchase, sale and use of arms, surgical operations, obtaining licence of a gun etc.
(4) Mishra- Sadharana (Mixed & Ordinary)
Vishakha and Kritika and Wednesday are mixed ordinary. These are good for fire works, welding, melting, gas works, fabrications, preparing medicines, Agnihotra etc.
(5) Kshipra- Laghu (Short and dynamic)
Hasta, Ashwini, Pushya, Abhijit and Thursday are short and dynamic and are suitable for construction & starting a shop, selling, starting education, making and wearing ornaments, fine arts, learning & display of art etc. All acts done under Char-Chala (Movable) nakshatra can also be done in these.
(6) Mridu- Maitra (Gentle Friendly)
Mrigshira, Revati, Chitra, Anuradha these four and Friday are Gentle and Friendly. Singing, learning, music, making & wearing clothes, playing, learning game skills, making friends, making & wearing ornaments can be done in these. (All acts mentioned in Dhruva sthira can also be done in these nakshatras.)
(7) Teekshna- Daruna (Ferocious & Bitter)
Moola, Jyestha, Ardra, Ashlesha these four nakshatras and Saturday are called “Teekshna- Daruna” and are good for starting tantric acts.

Day is from one sunrise to another sunrise. Each day is allotted to a planet e.g. Sunday to Sun, Monday to Moon, Tuesday to Mars, Wednesday to Mercury, Thursday to Jupitar, Friday to Venus and Saturday to Saturn.
Out of these Tuesday and Saturday are wholly malefic and Sunday is partially malefic. These are also classified like Nakshatras as follows.
Sunday- Dhurva-Sthira (Fixed and Constant)
Monday- Char-Chal (Movable)
Tuesday- Ugra-Kroora (Aggressive and Cruel)
Wednesday- Mishra (Mixed)
Thursday- Kshipra-Laghu (Short & dynamic)
Friday- Mridu Maitra (Gentle and Friendly)
Saturday- Tikshna-Darun (Volatile)
The days are suitable for all acts for which the nakshatras of the same category are suitable like Sunday for task of fixed nature, Monday for acts requiring movement or motion and so on.

Yoga is formed by relative position of Sun and Moon in the Zodiac. To put it mathematically
Yoga= (Moon’s Longitude + Sun’s Longitude) / 13degree20mt
This will give us the yoga number. The yogas are 27 in number. Their numbers and names are given below.
1. Vishkumbha
2. Preeti
3. Ayushmaana
4. Saubhagya
5. Shobhana
6. Atiganda
7. Sukarma
8. Dhriti
9. Shoola
10. Ganda
11. Vriddhi
12. Dhruva
13. Vyaghata
14. Harshana
15. Vajra
16. Siddhi
17. Vyatipaata
18. Variyana
19. Prigha
20. Shiva
21. Siddha
22. Sadhya
23. Shubha
24. Shukla
25. Brahma
26. Indra
27. Vaidhriti

The names are suggestive of their nature. Malefic yogas No. 1. (Vishkumbha), 6. (Atiganda), 9. (Shoola), 10. (Ganda), 13. (Vyaghat), 15. (Vajra), 17. (Vyatipaata), 19. (Parigha) and 27. (Vaidhriti) are particularly avoided in elections.

Karana is one half of a tithi. There are eleven Karanas out of which four are fixed and seven are movable. Four fixed Karanas are (I) Shakuni (II) Chatuspada (III) Naga and (IV) Kintughna. Second half of 14th tithi in dark half (Krishna Chaturdashi) is Shakuni Karana. 1st half of Amavashya is Chatushpada and 2nd half is Naga Karana. First half of first tithi of bright half (Shukla Pratipada) is allocated of Kintughna. These four Karanas are considered inauspicious.

Seven movable Karanas are (i) Bava, (ii) Balava, (iii) Kaulava (iv) Taitila, (v) Gara, (vi) Vanija and (vii) Vishti. Starting from the 2nd half of 1st tithi in the bright half they come in order and each Karana comes eight times in a lunar month. Various Karanas and parts of the tithis ruled by them are given in table 2.9

Bright half Bright half Bright half Dark half Dark half Dark half
Tithi 1st half of tithi 2nd half of tithi Tithi First Half of Tithi Second Half of Tithi
1. Kintughna Bava 16. Balav Kaulava
2. Balav Kaulav 17. Taitila Gar
3. Taitila Gar 18. Vanija Vishti*
4. Vanija Vishti* 19. Bav Balav
5. Bav Balav 20. Kaulava Taitila
6. Kaulava Taitila 21. Gar Vanija
7. Gar Vanija 22. Vishti* Bav
8. Vishti* Bav 23. Balava Kaulava
9. Balava Kaulava 24. Taitila Gar
10. Taitila Gar 25. Vanija Vishti*
11. Vanija Vishti* 26. Bav Balava
12. Bav Balav 27. Kaulava Taitila
13. Kaulava Taitila 28. Gar Vanija
14. Gar Vanija 29. Vishti* Shakuni
15 Vishti* Bav 30. Chatushpada Naga

When Vishti Karana prevails it is called Bhadra and is considered inauspicious in election. As is evident from the table, Bhadra will be there in 2nd half of 4th, 11th, 18th, 25th tithi and first half of 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th tithi in a lunar month.
Bhadra- Nivas (Resident of Bhadra)
When moon is placed in 4, 5, 11, 12 rashis and at the same time there is Bhadra then Bhadra is said to reside on Earth (mrityuloka). When moon is placed in 1, 2, 3, 8 rashis at the same time of Bhadra then Bhadra is said to reside Heaven (Swarg loka). When at the time of Bhadra moon is in 6, 7, 9, 10 rashis Bhadra is said to reside in Patala. Bhadra is said to give bad results in that loka only where it resides. From the above it can be inferred that Bhadra is inauspicious only when the moon is in 4, 5, 11, 12 signs because then only it will reside in Mrityu loka or Earth.

Kshaya and Adhika months are avoided for all such acts which are avoided when Jupiter and/or Venus are Combust. i.e for all sanskaras after Annaprasana (First Feeding), for all construction activities, for entering into a house, for first visit to holy place or a foreign country, for starting fasts and for Deva- Pratishtha.
After Sun’s entry into Capricorn till it enters Cancer it is called Uttarayana (i.e Sun placed in signs from Capricorn to Gemini.) Uttarayana is considered generally favourable for all auspicious muhurtas. When Sun is placed in signs from Cancer to Saggitarius it is called Dakshinayana, which is generally unfavourable for starting auspicious acts.

Ascendant is one of the most important components of muhurta. Choice of proper lagna and placement of planets will differ with change in the nature of activity to be started. But following general points must be kept in mind.
Nature of activity should be matched with nature of signs. Choose fixed signs (2/5/8/11 rashis) for activities of fixed nature like construction, coronation, entering in to a new house, marriage and the like; choose movable signs (1/4/7/10 rashis) for activities needing motion e.g., journey, riding, driving, starting business and so on.
Similary male signs (odd signs) are preferred as lagnas for conception, punsavan, acts needing aggression (because male signs are cruel as well) and like. Female signs (even signs) can be used for sober activities, fine arts, making and wearing cloths and ornaments and such other activities.In a muhurta lagna benefics placed in kendras (1/4/7/10 houses) Trikonas (5/9 houses) and malefics placed in 3/6/11 houses are considered auspicious. Strength of lagna, and strength of the house to which the activity relates must be ensured.