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Necessity for adoption of Right Conduct (Part III)

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NECESSITY FOR THE ADOPTION OF RIGHT CONDUCT PART III

मोहतिमिरापहरणे दर्शनलाभादवाप्तसंज्ञानः।

रागद्वेषनिवृत्र्ये चरणं प्रतिपद्यते साधुः।।४७।।


To whom Right Knowledge has accrued by virtue of the ac¬quisition of Right Faith, on the destruction of the darkness of faith obstructing infatuation, that excellent soul begins to practise the rules of Right Conduct, to be rid of personal likes and dislikes [that is, to attain to the state of desirelessness].

रागद्वेषनिवृत्ते हिंसादिनिवर्तना कृता भवति।

आनपेक्षितार्थवृत्तिः कः पुरुषः सेवते नृपतीन्।।४८।।


From the destruction of the elements of love and hatred are destroyed the five kinds of sin, himsa and the like, for no one would ever be found serving kings who has no desire to earn his living. Explanation.- Desire, which assumes the form of attachment and aversion [or love and hatred] is the cause of himsa and other kinds of sin; hence, he who destroys the element of desire in his soul does not commit sin, just as no one who does not wish to earn his living ever enters the service of kings.

हिंसानृतचैय्र्येभ्यो मैथुनसेवा परिग्रहाभ्यां च।

पापप्रणालिकाभ्यो विरतिः संज्ञस्य चारित्राम्।।४९।।


Himsa, falsehood, theft, unchastity and attachment to wordly goods-the stopping of these five channels of sin is the conduct suitable for him who is endowed with Right knowledge.

सकलं विकलं चरणं तत्सकलं सर्वसङ्गविरतानाम्।

अनगाराणां विकलं सागाराणां ससङ्गानाम्।।५०।।

Right Conduct is of two kinds : sakala (perfect or unqualified) and vikala (imperfect or qualified) : of these the unqualified is observed by ascetics who have renounced all things, and the qualified by laymen still entangled in the world.

गृहिणां त्रेधा तिष्टत्यणुगुणशिक्षाव्रतात्मकं चरणम्।

प´चत्रिचतुर्भेदं त्रयं यथासङ्कामाख्यातम्।।51।।

The conduct prescribed for a layman is three kinds and assumes the form of anu, guna and siksha vratas (vows), which comprise five three and four kinds each, respectively.

प्राणातिपात वितथव्याहरस्तेयकाममूच्र्छेभ्यः।

स्थूलेभ्यः पापेभ्यो व्युपरमणमणुव्रतं भवति।।५२।।


Anu (minor) vratas (vows) consist in the avoidance of the gross forms of himsa, falsehood, theft, unchastity and love of possessions.

स्ङ्कल्पात्कृतकारित मननाद्योगत्रयस्य चरसत्वान्।

न हिनस्ति यत्तदाहुः स्थूलवधाद्धिरमणं निपुणाः।।५३।।


Refraining from injuring living beings having two or more senses, with a deliberate act of mind, speech or body, in any of the three ways, krita, karita, and mananat, is called ahimsa anu vrata by the wise. Explanation – The layman who has taken the vow of refraining from himsa does not intentionally injure any form of life above the class of one-sensed beings (vegetables and the like), by an act of mind, speech or body (krita); nor does he incite others to commit such an act (karita), nor even approve of it subsequent to its commission by others (mananat or anumodana).

छेदनबन्धनपीडन मतिभारारोपणं व्यतीचाराः।

आहारवारणापि च स्थ्लवधाद्व्युपरतेः प´च।।५४।।


Piercing, binding, causing pain, overloading and starving or not feeding at proper times, are the five faults appertaining to ahimsa anu vrata Explanation – The layman who wished to observe the ahimsa vrata should avoid these five kinds of faults also.

स्थूलमलीकं न वदनि न परान् वादयति सत्यमपि विपदे।

यत्तद्वदन्ति सन्तः स्थूलमृषावादवैरमणम्।।५५।।


Refraining from uttering oneself, and from caucing others to utter, gross falsehood, as well as truth which causes affliction to others, that is called satyanu vrata (the minor vow of truthfulness) by the saints. Explanation – The ascetic's vow of truthfulness, it may be stated here, is of unbending rigidity : but as the present work is only concerned with the layman's duties in life, it does not describe the nature of the more austere vows. The use of the word 'gross' in connection with this vrata enables the householder to avoid its breach by relating stories, writing works of fiction, diplomacy and the like. The reason why truth with a tendency to cause affliction is be avoided needs no explanation. There are many occasions when speaking out truth cauuses unmerited suffering to others and clearly silence would be golden in all such cases.

परिवादरहोभ्याख्या पैशून्यं कूटलेखकरणं च।

न्यासापहारितापि च व्यतिक्रमाः प´च सत्यस्य।।५६।।


Spreading false doctrines, revealing the secrets and deformities of others, back-biting, making false documents, not returning in full a deposit made by another [on his asking for less through forgetfulness], these are the five transgressions of the vow of truthfulness of a layman.

निहितं वा पतितं वा सुविस्मृतं वा परस्वमविसृष्टं।

न हरति यन्न च दत्ते तदकृ“ाचैर्यादुपाहरणम्।।५७।।


He who does not appropriate to himself, nor give away to any one else, the property of another [whether] placed, dropped, forgotten or deposited [by him], is said to observe the laymen's vow of non-stealing.

चैरप्रयोगचैरार्थादानविलोपसद्दशसन्मिश्राः।

हीनाघिकविनिमानं प´चास्तेये व्यतीपाताः।।५८।।


Imparting instruction on the method of committing theft receiving stolen property, evading law, adulteration and keeping false weights and measures are the five aticharas (faults) of the layman's vow of non-stealing.

न तु परदारान् गच्छति न परान् गमयति च पापभीतेर्यत्।

सा परदारनिवृत्तिः स्वदार सन्तोषनामापि।।५९।।


He who neither, 'visits' nor causes any other person to 'visit' another man's wife from fear of sin-that man is said to observe the anu vrata, known as the renunciation of the wife of another and contentment with one's own.

अन्यविवाहाकरणनङ्गक्रीडा विटत्सविपुलतृषः।

इत्वरिकागमनं चास्मरस्य प´च व्यतीचाराः।।६०।।


Match-making (i.e., bringing about marriages), unnatural gratification, indulging in lewd or vouluptuous speech, excessive passion even for one's own wife, and visiting an immoral women, are the five faults peculiar to the layman's vow of chastity.

धनधान्यादिग्रन्थं परिमाय ततोऽधिकेषु निस्पृहता।

परिमितपरिग्रहः स्यादिच्छापरिमाण नामापि।।६१।।

Having fixed the measure of one's wordly possession, cash, grain and the like, to desire for no more is called the parigraha parimana (possession-limiting) vow, also known as the ichcha-parimana (desire-limiting)

आतिवाहनातिसङ्ग्रह विस्मयलोभातिभारवहनानि।

परिमितपरिग्रहस्य च विक्षेपाः प´च लक्ष्यन्ते।।६२।।


Keeping a larger number of vehicles than required, accumulating even necessary articles in large numbers, expressing wonder at the pomp or prosperity of another, excessive greed and over loading animals, are described as the five faults of the parigraha parimana vow.

प´चाणुव्रतनिधयो निरतिक्रमणाः फलन्ति सुरलोकं।

यत्रावधिरष्टगुणा दिव्यशरीरं च लभ्यन्ते।।६३।।


The observance of the five minor vows of the layman, with, out committing transgressions thereof, bears friut in the shape of a brith in the heavenworlds where [the soul] acquires clairvoyance1 (avadhi jnana), the eight kinds of miraculous powers2 and a divine body.

मतङ्गो धनदेवश्च वारिषेणस्ततः परः।

नीली जयश्च संप्राप्ताः पूजातिशयमुत्तमम्।।६४।।


The low caste Yampala [in respect of the first], Dhanadeva [in respect of the second], then Varisena, Nili and Jayakumar [in respect of the third, fourth and fifth vows respectively] have risen to high, worshipful status.

धनश्रीसत्यघोषौ च तापसारक्षकावपि।

उपाख्येयास्तथा श्मश्रुनवनीतो यथाक्रमम्।।६५।।


Dhanasri, Satyaghosa and Tapasi, the police officer [Yamadanda], and in the same way Smasrunavanita have attained to notoriety, in the order of enumeration. Explanation – These two verses give the names of those who have attained to fame and notoriety by the observance and non-observance respectively of the five minor vows of the Jaina house holder. Their biographies can be learnt from the Jaina Puranas. Those who acquired fame by self-control are mentioned in the first of these gathas, while those who attained to notoriety for their uncontrolled vice are named in the second. The order in which their names are given bears reference to the enumeration of the five anu vratas, with respect to the observance of which fame was acquired in the one case, and whose non-observance in the extreme was the cause of notoriety in the other.

1.The word clairyoyance, it may be pointed out, does not convey the exact idea of avadhi jnana which embraces a knowledge of some of the past lives of the soul; but in the absence of a more suitable word its use is not open to objection in a work like this.

2.These include such wonderful powers as anima (the power to become very small), laghima (the power to become surpassingly light), mahima (the power to become very large), and the like.

मद्यामांसमधुत्यागैः सहाणुव्रतप´चकम्।

अष्टौ मूलगुणानाहुग्र्रहिणां श्रमणोत्तमाः।।६६।।


The [observance of the] five anu vratas and refraining from the use wine, flesh and honey, are regarded as the eight fundamental virtues of a householder by holy saints.

Explanation – Honey is objectionable because it contains such objection able things as excrement of bees, and because its obtainment involves himsa. Thus ends the third part, descriptive of the householder's vow's of the Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, composed by Sri samantabhadra Swami.