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The Great Personages (Salaka Purusas)
THE GREAT PERSONAGES (SALAKA- PURUSAS)
Prof. Tikam Chand Jain
M. 84 Naveen Shahdra, Delhi- 110032
After the Kulakaras, sixty three great personages are born in Bharata region due to its good fortune. These men are the best of men and renowned world-wide. The sixty three great personages are known by the following groups: (1) 24 Tirthankaras (Jaina Lords). (2) 12 Cakravartis (Universal Monarchs, Emperors). (3) 9 Balabhadras (4) 9 Narayanas. (5) 9 Prati-Narayanas (Anti-Narayanas). When the personality like a Tirthankara is conceived, the lord of wealth (Mammon, Kubera) showers 3.5 crores of gems daily by the order of the lord of deities (Indra) even before six months of his conception. Thus, there is rains of gems and gold for fifteen months- six months prior to conception and nine months of post conception. When there is conception, the mother sees sixteen dreams in the last Prehara-hours (3-4 a.m.) of the night. The mother comes to the royal court in the morning and tells her husband about the dreams. She asks about the interpretation of the dreams. The king interprets them through his clairvoyance (Avadhijnana) and tells her the interpretation.
The interpretation of Sixteen Dreams
The leader of the royal court i.e. the king points out that : 1) By seeing the Airavaeta eIephant, you will have a superb son. 2) By seeing the white superb bull, your son will earn name and fame throughout the word. 3) By seeing a lion, the son will have infinite strength. 4) By seeing a pair of garlands, your son will be a Tirthankara. 5) By seeing the goddess of wealth (Laxmi), your son will be anointed by the divinities on the top of the Sumeru mountain. 6) By seeing the moon, he will be offering pleasure to all the living beings. 7) By seeing the Sun, he will have shining radiance. 8) By seeing two sacred pitchers, he will acquire many kinds of treasures. 9) By seeing the pair of fish, he will be highly happy. 10) By seeing the pond, he will be enriched with many auspicious marks and meritorious qualities. 11) By seeing the Ocean, he will be the omniscient. 12) By seeing the throne, he will be the great teacher of the universe and will gain its kingdom. 13) By seeing the empyrean plane (Vimana), he will arrive from the heavens to be conceived. 14) By seeing the abode of Nagendra, he will have the vision of the clairvoyance. 15) By seeing the glittering heap of gems, he will be the treasure house of superb qualities. 16) By seeing the smokeless fire, he will be burning the karmic fuel by self. In addition, the entry of the bull in your mouth in dream means that the Venarable Tirthankara will be embodied in your womb.
Bowings to the twenty-four Tirthankaras who were born in Bharata region of Jambudvipa. They are: (1)Rsabhanatha (2) Ajitanatha (3) Sambhavanatha (4) Abhinandananath (5) Sumatinatha (6) Padmaprabhanatha (7) Suparsvanatha (8) Candraprabhanatha (9) Puspandantanatha (10) Sitalanatha (11) Sreyansanatha (12) Vasupujyanatha (13) Vimalanatha (14) Anantanatha (15) Dharmanatha (16) Santinatha (17) Kunthunatha (18) Ara/Arahanatha (19) Mallinatha (20) Munisuvratanatha (21) Naminatha (22) Neminatha (23) Parsvanatha (24) Vardhamana
First Tirthankara Lord Rsabhadeva became known as Lord Prajapati (Protector of people) because he instructed the people to earn livelihood by six-fold like wariorship, writing work and agriculture etc. Last and twenty fourth Tirthankara was Lord Mahavira. After he attended salavation the following Religious Order was continued for six hundred eighty three years.
(1) Omniscients (Kevali): The day Lord Mahavira attained salvation, his chief-disciple (Ganadhara) Gautama acquired omniscience. The day Gautama attained salavation, Sudharma Svami gained omniscience. On his salvation, Jambu Svami became omniscient. After the salvation of jambu svami, there was no adjunct omniscient (Anubaddha Kevali). The period between attaining the omniscience by Gautama and salvation of jambusvami is sixty two year. The last of the omniscient was Sridhara who attained salvation at Kundalagiri. The last sage with extraordinary power of sky movement was “Suparsva Candra”. Vajrayasa was the last of the Prajnasramana sages. The ascetic Sri was the last of the clairvoyants. The last of the crowned king who got Jinistic initiation (Jina Diksa) was Candragupta. Afterwards, no crowned king was initiated.
2) Five Scriptural Omniscients (Srutakevalis) : In the ford of mahavira and after the salvation of jambusvami, there have been five “fourteen pre-canon-proficients” (Caudaha Purvi). They had full knowledge of Dvadasanga (twelve prime or primary scriptures) also and, thus, were scriptural omniscients. They are : i) Nandi, ii) Nandimitra, iii) Aparajita, iv) Govardhana and v) Bhadrabahu. Their total period is one hundred years.
3) Eleven Ten-pre-Canonists (Dasapurvis): There have been eleven saints who were proficient in eleven primary canonical scriptures (Angas) and ten pre-canons. They are, thus, called “ten-per-canon-proficients”. They are: i) Visakhacarya, ii) Prosthila, iii) Ksatriya, iv) Jaya, v) nagasena, vi) Siddhartha, vii) dhrtisena, viii) Vijaya, ix) Buddhila, x) Ganga deva and, xi) Dharmasena. Traditionally, their total period is one hundred eighty two years. There were no Ten-pre-canonists after them due to change of times.
4) Five Eleven-Canonical Scripturists (Angadharis) : There have been five Acaryas who were proficient in eleven primary canonical scriptures. They are : i) Naksatra Muni, ii) Jaipala, iii) Pandu, iv) Dhruvasena and v) Kansarya. Their total period is 220 years. There has been no eleven-canonical scripturists after them. 5) Four Acaranga-proficients (Proficient in the text on Monastic Conduct) : There have been four sain-scholars who were proficient in the first primary canonical scripture of Acaranga . they are : i) Subhadra, ii) Yasobhadra, iii) Yasobahu and iv) Loharya. Their total period is 118 years. There has been no pre-canon-proficient or canonical scriptures-proficient after the Samadhi of the last of these Acaranga-proficients. The total period from Gautama to the last Acaranga- proficient is 683 years as below : 62 + 100 + 183 + 220 + 118 = 683. After these saint scholars, the other saints were proficient only in part of the eleven primary canonical scriptures and fourteen pre-cannons.
Twelve Cakravartis (Universal Monarchs of Emperors)
In Bharata region the following twelve universal monarchs have been born who were the victors of the six-sections of this earth (Bharata Kshetra) and whose glory pervaded in the whole universe: 1) Bharata 2) Sagara 3) Maghava 4) Sanatkumara 5) Santi 6) Kunthu 7) Ara 8) Subhauma 9) Padma 10) Harisena 11) Jayasena 12) Brahmadatta
Nine Balabhadras or Baladevas
There have been the following nine Balabhadras in the Bharata region : 1) Vijaya 2) Acala 3) Sudharma 4) Suprabha 5) Sudarsana 6) Nandi 7) Nandimitra 8) Ramcandra 9) Padma (Baladeva)
There have been nine Narayanas in Bharata region. They are said to be the Visnus. They are as below : (1)Triprstha (2) Dvi-prstha (3) Svayambhu (4) Purusottama (5) Purusa-simha (6) Pundarika (7) Datta (8) Laxmana (9) Sri Krisna
Nine Prati Narayanas
There have been nine Prati-narayans in the Bharata region. They are as below: 1) Asvagriva 2) Taraka 3) Meraka 4) Madhu-kaitabha 5) Nisumbha 6) Bali 7) Praharana 8) Ravana 9) Jarasandha All the above are known as 63 great personages.
In the first spoke of extreme plentitude, the land is devoid of sands, smoke, fire, ice and throns etc. There are divine sands and pleasantly smelling soil. There are only ten kinds of Kalpa-vrkasas (wish fulfilling trees) which offer the mentally desired materials.
The Names of The wish– fulfilling Trees (Kalpa – vrksas)
1) Drinks – supplying Trees - (Pananga) 2) Musical instruments supplying trees - (Turyanga) 3) Ornament-supplying trees - (Bhusananga) 4) Dress-supplying trees - (Vastranga) 5) Food-supplying trees - (Bhojananga) 6) Residence-supplying trees - (Aalayanga) 7) Light-supplying trees - (Dipanga) 8) Vessels- supplying trees - (Bhajananga) 9) Garland-supplying tree - (Malanga) 10) Lustre-supplying trees - (Jyotiranga)
These wish fulfilling trees are neither plants (vegetation) nor any peripatetic deities. However, their specificity is that they offer the fruits of the sacred karmas of the living beings despite their being of the nature of earth (Prthvikayika).