From 14th to 24th September 2018, World Peace Mahavir Vidhan will be held at Rishabdevpuram Mangitungi.
Chapter 10 Q-A
- 1 Mohaksayājjñānadarśanāvaraṇāntarāyaksayācca kevalam
- 2 Bandhahetvabhāva-nirjarābhyāṃ krtsna-karmavipramokso moksah
- 3 Aupaśamikādibhavyatvānāṃ ca
- 4 Anyatrakevalasamyaktvajñānadarśanasiddhatvebhyah
- 5 Tadanantaramūrddhvam gacchatyālokāntāt
- 6 Pūrvaprayogādasaṃgatvādbandhacchedāttathāgatipariṇāmācca
- 7 Āviddha-kulāla-cakravad vyapagata-lepālābhuvaderandabījavada gniśikhāvacca
- 8 Dharmāstikāyābhāvāt
- 9 Ksetra-kāla-gati-liṃga-tīrtha-cāritra-pratyekabuddha-bodhita-jñānāvagāhanāntara- saṃkhyālpabahutvatah ̣ sādhyāh
Meaning: Omniscience (perfect knowledge) is attained on the destruction of deluding karmas, and on the destruction of knowledge and perception- obscuring karmas and obstructive karmas.
Q.X.1.1 Which species of karma when destroyed / annihilated completely results in the complete annihilation of knowledge obscuring, intuition obscuring and obstruction creating karmas and results in the attainment of omniscience?
A.X.1.1 The deluding (mohanīya) karma when annihilated completely in the 12th stage of spiritual purification (guṇasthāna) namely ‘completely annihilated passions (ksīṇakasāya)’, results (in an intra-Indian-hour (antaramuhūrta) in the destruction of all obscuring (ghātia) karmas and attainment of omniscience in the 13th guṇasthāna.
Q.X.1.2 At what instant, the omniscience is first realized?
A.X.I.2 Omniscience is first realized at the instance the four obscuring karmas are completely annihilated.
Q.X.1.3 Why the word mohaksayāt written separately in the aphorism?
A.X.1.3 The deluding (moha) karma is the foremost of the four obscuring karmas which is annihilated first. Since the other obscuring karmas cannot be annihilated without first annihilation of deluding karma. In the absence of deluding karma, the other three obscuring karmas are annihilated in intra-Indian-hour. Therefore the word mohaksayāt is written separately.
Q.X.1.4 How many tendencies of karmas have to be annihilated before omniscience is realized?
A.X.1.4 Sixty three tendencies, listed below, have to be annihilated before omniscience is realized.
Deluding karma -28
Knowledge obscuring karma- 5
Intuition obscuring karma - 9
Obstructing karma -5
Destinies determining karmas - 3
Name karma - 13
Q.X.1.5 How does the empirical soul become pure soul?
A.X.1.5 By annihilating 63 tendencies of karmas as given above, the empirical soul becomes pure soul with gross body (arihanta).
Q.X.1.6 In reality only 60 tendencies are annihilated, then why 63 tendencies are mentioned?
A.X.1.6 It is true hat 60 tendencies are annihilated as the three tendencies of life/ destiny determining karmas do not exist at that time.
Q.X.1.7 How many types of omniscient are there?
A.X.1.7 There are ten types of omniscient as follows:
• Ford-makers (tirthañkaras ̣) with 5 auspicious events of life
• Ford-makers with three auspicious events of life
• Ford-makers with two auspicious events of life
• Miraculous omniscient
• General omniscient
• Omniscient who experienced natural calamities
• Silent omniscient
• Omniscient who attained omniscience in intra-Indian-hour (Aṃtah ̣krat) (e.g. Bharat)
• Sequential (Anubaddha) omniscient (e.g. Indrabhuti Sudharma -Jambu)
• Continuously existent (Satata) omniscient (e.g.20 ford-makers in Videha region).
Bandhahetvabhāva-nirjarābhyāṃ krtsna-karmavipramokso moksah
Meaning: Owing to the absence of the causes of bondage and with the functioning of dissociation of karmas, the annihilation of all Karmas is liberation
Q.X.2.1 What is meant by moksa/ emancipation?
A.X.2.1 Absence of the causes of bondage and annihilation of all karmas due to total dissociation (nirjarā) achieved as a result of self-restraint and austerities is called liberation/ emancipation of the soul.
Q.X.2.2 How does the absence of karmas take place?
A.X.2.2 With the annihilation of deluded faith /views and other bondage extending entities, fresh bondage of karmas is not possible. Then by Practising austerities the existing karmas are dissociated from the soul. This is how annihilation of karmas takes place.
Q.X.2.3 How many types of kārma annihilation are there?
A.X.2.3 It is of two types, namely: with efforts and without efforts.
Q.X.2.4 Which types of karmas are annihilated with or without effects?
A.X.2.4 The realm (gati) determining karmas namely for birth in heaven, hell and subhuman realms with superior bodies is automatic and without effort. The remaining 60 tendencies are annihilated with efforts like austerities, penance etc.
Meaning: (Emancipation is attained) on the destruction of psychic factors also like quietism and potentiality.
Q.X.3.1 What other entities are annihilated besides karmas on attaining emancipation?
A.X.3.1 Emancipation is attained on the destruction of psychic factors (bhāvas) as well as potentiality (bhavyatva) also besides karmas.
Q.X.3.2 How many types of psychic factors are there?
A.X.3.2 These are five, namely: due to subsidence, subsidence cum destruction, destruction, rising of karmas, and the inherent nature of the soul.
Q.X.3.3 Why is inherent nature disposition not associated with subsidence-disposition even though potentiality is a part of inherent-nature disposition?
A.X.3.3 In the disposition due to inherent nature of the soul, only the potentiality disposition is destroyed and not other characteristics like substantiality, existentiality etc as their destruction will lead to inexistence of the soul itself.
Q.X.3.4 Destruction of physical karmas leads to simultaneous destruction of dispositions arising out of those physical karmas. Then why is this aphorism included here?
A.X.3.4 It is not a rule that the absence of an efficient-cause leads to non-completion of an effect /work. On the contrary work is seen to be performed even in the absence of an efficient-cause. Hence annihilation of physical karmas leads to destruction of psychic karmas simultaneously.
Q.X.3.5 Which psychic state stays with the emancipated soul?
A.X.3.5 Only consciousness (which is the inherent nature of the soul) exists with the emancipated soul.
Meaning: Other than infinite faith, infinite knowledge, infinite perception and infinite perfection.
Q.X.4.1 Which psychic states do not get annihilated in an emancipated soul?
A.X.4.1 Indestructible right belief, omniscience, indestructible-intuition (kevala darśana) and indestructible pure state of the soul / infinite perfection (siddhatva) are the psychic states which do not get annihilated in the emancipated soul.
Q.X.4.2 If the above psychic states exist in an emancipated soul; then the four infinites, namely infinite-knowledge-intuition-bliss-energy will get annihilated also from the emancipated soul?
A.X.4.2 Infinite intuition and knowledge are always present with infinite energy. Then infinite bliss is possible only with infinite energy also. Like these there are other infinite attributes existing like consciousness, sentiency etc with the emancipated soul also with these four infinites.
Q.X.4.3 As the emancipated souls do not have form, how can we consider absence of form in them as an entity without a form cannot be termed to have substantiality?
A.X.4.3 The emancipated soul has the same form as the last body it had before getting emancipated. Hence the emancipated soul is not without a form.
Q.X.4.4 If the form of an emancipated soul is like the last body it had, then it should expand to the entire expanse of the universe as the soul is as extensive as the universe with regards to the space-points?
A.X.4.4 But this is not so as the expansion and contraction of the body is deter’mine’d by the rise of the physique-making karma and the physique-making karma is fully annihilated when the soul gets emancipated or becomes pure soul (devoid of any karma).
Meaning: Immediately after liberation the soul darts up to the end of the cosmos (loka).
Q.X.5.1 Where does the soul go after annihilation of all the karmas?
A.X.5.1 The emancipated soul, i.e. free from all the bonded karmas goes to the summit of the cosmos.
Q.X.5.2 Which are the three states which the emancipated souls get immediately on emancipation?
A.X.5.2 Separations from the body, state of the perfect-soul and the attainment of the last place upwards (summit) of the cosmos.
Q.X.5.3 Where is the summit of the cosmos (siddha śilā)?
A.X.5.3 It is in the form of semi-circular arc 4.5 million yojana plain and of the size of the place of inhabitation of the human being above and in the middle of the 8th land (prthavi). The 8th land is 8 yojana thick and 12 yojana above Sarvārtha-siddhi and seven yojana north south and one yojana east west.
Meaning: As the soul is previously impelled, as it is free from kārma particles, as it has separation from kārma bondage and as it is of the nature of soaring upwards.
Q.X.6.1 What is the cause of the upward movement only of the emancipated soul?
A.X.6.1 The emancipated soul soars upwards only due to its nature of upward motion only as well as due to its being free from all kārma bondages to drag it down/hold it back.
Q.X.6.2 What is the meaning of the word pūrva-prayoga in the aphorism?
A.X.6.2 It means previously impelled due to existing impetus i.e. its movement to acquire new body several times as an empirical soul.
Āviddha-kulāla-cakravad vyapagata-lepālābhuvaderandabījavada gniśikhāvacca
Meaning: Like the potter’s wheel, the gourd devoid of mud, the shell of the castor-seed and the flame of the candle.
Q.X.7.1 Explain, by means of examples the upwards movement of the soul due to previously impelled due to existing impetus?
A.X.7.1 Like a potter spins the wheel with a stick, the wheel evolves around its axis till its momentum is exhausted. Similarly an empirical soul makes several attempts to move up to the end of the cosmos. Though on beings emancipated, its ability to make such attempts gets lost, yet due to its previous experience it soars upwards in the emancipated state.
Q.X.7.2 Why does the emancipated soul soar upwards due to its being free from bondage?
A.X.7.2 Gourd-vegetable when coated with mud sinks in the water but when the mud layer on it is washed completely, it floats on the water. Similarly an empirical soul keeps on transmigrating as long as it is bonded with karmas. When it gets emancipated i.e. the soul becomes free of kārma dirt, it keeps on soaring upwards only till the summit of cosmos.
Q.X.7.3 How does emancipated soul soar upwards, give an example?
A.X.7.3 Like a castor seed when ripe gets cracked and the kernel inside the castor seed pops upwads. Similarly when the emancipated soul leaves the kārma body, it soars upwards.
Q.X.7.4 Explain the nature of the soul for upward movement through the example of movement of the candle flame in the absence of sideways winds (tathāgati)?
A.X.7.4 Like the candle flame in the absence of the sideways movement of the air always goes upwards as its nature, similarly an emancipated soul, in the absence of the kārma bondage (which takes it in sideways direction) soars straight upwards.
Meaning: As there is no medium of motion.
Q.X.8.1 Why the emancipated soul does not go beyond the summit of the cosmos?
A.X.8.1 Due to the absence of the medium of motion (dharmāstikāya) beyond the summit of the cosmic-space, the emancipated soul does not go beyond it.
Q.X.8.2 Why does the emancipated soul not go in the trans-cosmic space (alokākāśa)?
A.X.8.2 By the very definition of the trans-cosmic space, it is devoid of the existence of the medium of motion. Hence nothing can move or exist in it. This is why the emancipated soul does no go in the trans-cosmic space.
Q.X.8.3 Which are the two types of causes which are important in the successful completion of any activity?
A.X.8.3 These are called material (upādāna) and efficient causes (nimitta).
Q.X.8.4 What is the material cause?
A.X.8.4 The self energy of any substance in its stated activities is called the material cause; e.g. the soil is the material cause of the pitcher.
Q.X.8.5 What is an efficient cause?
A.X.8.5 The external entities which support or cause the activity’s completion of any substance is called the efficient cause; e.g. in making the pitcher, the potter and his wheel and stick et are the efficient cause of making the pitcher from soil..
Q.X.8.6 What are the other types of causes from different viewpoint?
A.X.8.6 There are two other types of causes namely samartha (ability to get the activity completed) and asamartha (inability to get the activity completed).
Q.X.8.7 What is an ‘inability’ cause?
A.X.8.7 Absence of a coordinating entity does let the activity be completed even though both material and efficient causes are available is called ‘inability’ cause.
Q.X.8.8 What is ‘ability’ cause?
A.X.8.8 Absence of obstructing entity in the completion of the activity as caused due to abundant availability of both material and efficient causes are available is called ‘ability’ cause.
Q.X.8.9 The emancipated souls have become totally free from bondage. Then how the impact of other entities on them is possible?
A.X.8.9 Even though they are free from all bondages, yet some of their natural activities like upward movement is dependent on the existence of the principle of motion. Hence they also cannot go beyond the summit of cosmic-space.
Ksetra-kāla-gati-liṃga-tīrtha-cāritra-pratyekabuddha-bodhita-jñānāvagāhanāntara- saṃkhyālpabahutvatah ̣ sādhyāh
Meaning: The emancipated souls can be differentiated with reference to the region, time, realm of birth, gender or dress, ford, conduct, self-enlightenment, enlightened by others, knowledge, stature, interval, number and numerical strength of the liberated soul in these eleven gateways.
Q.X.9.1 What are the different causes which can lead to classifying emancipated souls?
A.X.9.1 These are region, time, realm of birth, gender or dress, ford, conduct, self-enlightenment, enlightened by others, knowledge, stature, interval, number and numerical strength of the liberated soul in these eleven gateways.
Q.X.9.2 What is the meaning of present (pratyutpanna) viewpoint?
A.X.9.2 It is the standpoint which targets only the present realm of birth.
Q.X.9.3 What is the meaning of past (bhūta-prajñātpanna) viewpoint?
A.X.9.3 It is the standpoint which targets only the past realm of birth.
Q.X.9.4 Is there any difference in the emancipated souls from different regions?
A.X.9.4 No but by tradition we say that souls got emancipated from Bharata, Airāvata and other regions.
Q.X.9.5 Are there differences in the emancipated souls due to the time and the realm of birth when they got emancipated?
A.X.9.5 No, however traditionally we say that some souls became emancipated in the ascending time cycle while others got emancipated in the descending time cycle. Similarly we can say that some souls got emancipated as human beings while others got emancipated as human beings after the heavenly realm of birth.
Q.X.9.6 In which gender form the souls get emancipated?
A.X.9.6 Actually the emancipated souls are genderless. However the empirical souls in the physical male gender get emancipated. As per their psychic gender state, empirical souls in any gender state can get emancipated.
Q.X.9.7 Which empirical souls get emancipated in a particular creed (tīrtha)?
A.X.9.7 Some get emancipated as ford-maker while others get emancipated during the existence of a ford-maker. Similarly some get emancipated when there is no ford-maker and others get emancipated without being a ford-maker.
Q.X.9.8 Which is the conduct when practised results in an empirical soul get emancipated?
A.X.9.8 The empirical souls can get emancipated Practising one type of conduct (self enlightened) while others (enlightened by the sermons of the others) get emancipated by Practising two types of conduct.
Q.X.9.9 How does the self enlightened and the enlightened by the sermons of others get emancipated?
A.X.9.9 The self enlightened become the true believers by their own inherent nature while the others become enlightened by the sermons / teachings of others.
Q.X.9.10 Which knowledge type is instrumental in the soul getting emancipated?
A.X.9.10 Some get emancipated by one type of knowledge while others can get emancipated by one or two or three or four types of knowledge.
Q.X.9.11 What is the meaning of stature (avagāhanā)?
A.X.9.11 By stature we mean the pervasion of space-points by an entity.
Q.X.9.12 How many types of stature are there?
A.X.9.12 Stature is of three types, namely: maximum, minimum and middle.
Q.X.9.13 What is the limit for each type of stature?
A.X.9.13 For maximum stature it is 525 bows, minimum is a little less than 3.5. cubit (hātha), while the middle can be in between three.
Q.X.9.14 What is the meaning of interval (antara)?
A.X.9.14 The time duration between the two consecutive souls getting emancipated is called interval. It can also be said as the time duration during which no soul gets emancipated.
Q.X.9.15 What is the interval between two souls getting emancipated?
A.X.9.15 The minimum interval is one time-instant (samaya) while the maximum can be eight time-instants when the liberation is continuous. When the souls do not get continuous emancipation then the minimum time interval can be one time-instant and the maximum can be six months.
Q.X.9.16 Explain the number (saṃkhyā) and numerical comparison i.e. one or more (alpabahutva)?
A.X.9.16 In time instant a minimum of one and a maximum of 108 souls can get emancipated. The difference in the numbers of souls getting emancipated and distinguished from the place of abode and so on can be one or many. In this way the emancipated souls have been classified on difference basis, however all emancipated souls are of one type only.