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Tirthankar Mahaveer and Dharmatirth

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TIRTHANKAR MAHAVIR AND DHARMATIRTH

Mahaveer-001.jpg
Mahaveer-001.jpg
Original Writer- P.G.Shri Gyanmati Mataji
Translated By - Aryika Swarnmati


धर्मतीर्थस्य, कर्तृणां शासनं सिद्धसाधनं।।
अनादिनिधनं तीर्थं, जीयात् जैनेन्द्रशासनं।।


DHARMATIRTHASYA KARTRINAM, SHASANM SIDDHASADHNAM
ANADINIDHNAM TIRTHAM, JIYAT JAINENDRA SHASNAM .

FIRST TIRTHAKAR LORD RISHABHDEVA –

Indra formed Ayodhya Nagari owing to the Punya of King Nabhiraj and his queen Marudevi. Kalpavrikshas (Trees, which provide any wished article) were almost on the verge of extinction at that time, so Nabhiraj directed the public to eat better fruits and also told to drink the Ikshuras (Sugarcane Juice) by crushing the sugarcane. That’s why they were called as “IKSHVAUKUVANSHI”. Queen Marudevi gave birth to Thirthankar Vrishabhdeva. Then Devtas and Indras combinedly celebrated the Janmabhishek festival (ceremony of anointment of the new born infant) by taking the JIN-CHILD to Sumeru Mountain.

BIRTH OF BHARAT & OTHER SONS –

When Rishabhdeva became young, he was married with Yashasvati and Sundanda. Yashasvati gave birth to Bharat Chakravarti & 99 sons and to Brahmi daughter. Queen Sunanda became the mother of Bahubali Kamdev and Sundari daughter. Avadhigyandhari (who has the knowledge of facts going on in different places without going to those places at all) Bhagwan Rishebhdeva made all his sons and daughters expert in all types of Knowledges & Arts.

TEACHING OF SHAT KARMAS (Six Basic Activities ) –

Sometime Compassionate Bhagwan Adinath consoled the anxious public and thought through his Avadhigyan –

पूर्वापर विदेहेषु, या स्थितिः समवस्थिता
साद्य प्रवर्तनीयात्र, ततो जीवंत्यमूः प्रजाः


Purvaper Videheshu, Ya Stithihi Samavasthita
Sadya Pravartneyatra Tato Jeevantyamuh|Prajah.

i.e. Here also there should be the arrangement as per Purva Aper Videhkshtera (Eastern & Western Videh, where Chaturth Kal-Satyug exists always). So, at that time, as per the direction of Bhagwan, Indra came and established Kshatriya, Vaishya & Shudra Varhas and also structured City, Town, Village etc. Telling the ways to earn livelihood, Bhagwan preached about six basic activities to lead life, as – Asi (Defence), Masi (Writing), Krishi (Agriculture), Vanijya (Commerce or Business), Shilp (Craft) and Vidya (Knowledge) and so Bhagwan was called as Adipurush. Brahma, Yugadipurush, Prajapati etc.

VAIRAGYA (DETACHMENT) OF BHAGWAN AND TAKING AHAR (MEALS) -

Sometime Bhagwan developed the feeling of Renunciation while seeing the dance of Neelanjana Apsara ( a beautiful angel of heaven) and accepted Jaineshwari Deeksha with performing panchmusht Lonch (plucking of own hairs by own hands) below Akshaya Vat Vriksha going to the Siddhartha Forest of Prayag (Present Allahabad). At that time Bharat became Chakravarti being the sole ruler and owner of all the six Khandas (divisions) of the earth and thus the name ‘BHARAT’, attributed to this earth became realistic.

After completing the Yog (Meditation) of six months, Bhagwan started moving for taking Ahar (Meals) but because of not knowing the method of giving Ahar by the people, six more months passed. One day the king of Hastinapur – Sompragh and Shreyans Kumar gave the Ahar of sugarcane Juice to Bhagwan as per the norms described in Jain-Shastras. King Shreyans knew about the method of giving Ahar on the basis of the rememberance of his previous births. This Ahar-Diwas was the day of ‘Vaishakh Shukla Tritiya’ and due to that Ahar-Daah, this day is famous as AKSHAYA TRITIYA even today.

BHAGWAN BECAME ARHANAT AND ATTAINED NIRVAN -

After the penance of one thousand years, Bhagwan became Cmersed in meditation under Akshaya Vat at Purvatalpur-Prayag and obtained KEVALGYAN (Enlightenment), Knowing Lok (where life exists) and Alok (Surrounding Lok) simultaneously. At that time Indra worshipped the ARHANAT MUDRA (form) of Bhagwan. In the 12 assemblies of Samavasaran, Munis, Aryikas, Dev-Devis, Human beings and Triyanachas (Animal beings) were showered with the divine preaching of Bhagwan. He went around everywhere and introduced innumerable Bhavya Jeevas (having the capability to be liberated from the worldly migration) with religious principles. Afterwards, he attained MOKSHA by burning all the Karmas by Yog-Nirodh (inhibiting all yogas) going to Kailash Parvat.

After three years and eight and a half months of Nirvan of Bhagwan, Fourth Kal (age) started. After innumerable crores years of it, The second Tirthakar Bhagwan Ajitnath was born. Later, after a gap of innumerable years Sambhvath, Abhinandnnath, Sumati, Padamprabh, Suparshava, Chandraprabhu, Pushpdanat, Sheetal, Shreyans, Vasupujya,Vimal, Anant, Dharma, Shanti, Kunthu, Araha, Malli, Munisuvrat and Nami Tirthankars occurred serially.

After 5,09,000 years of the birth of Tirthankar Naminath, Bhagwan Neminath was born. Neminath was actually the cousin brother of Shri Krishna. After 84650 years of the birth of Bhagwan Neminath, Thirthankar Bhagwan Parshvanath was born and after 278 years of the birth of Parshvanath, Bhagwan, Mahavir was born.


HOW BHAGWAN MAHAVIR WAS FORMED?

Once upon a time a lion was preying upon a dear at Himvan Parvat, suddenly most compassionate Charan Ridhidhari (having the capability of walking through the sky) two Muniraj named Ajitanjaya and Amitguna came down there through the sky and addressed as –

O Mrigraj (Ruler of the animals of the forest ! you are going to be TIRTHANKAR MAHAVIR after 10 births from the present one. Now leave the acts of violence, which surely act as the cause of worldly sorrows. Follow the path of upliftment of soul i.e. spiritual upliftment. Listening to the preaching of Muniraj, the lion remembered a number of his previous births (Jati Smaran). Continuous current of tears started flowing from his eyes. He sat down with bowed head beside the feet of Muniraj. Being affected by the teachings of Muniraj, the lion fully abandoned his crueliy and accepted Samyakdarshan along with fully rejecting violence and took up five Anuvratas. As he became completely Vegetarisn, there was nothing to eat for him and so he accepted Sallekhna [Fast till death and to die with utmost peace remembering Panch Permesthis, it is also called as Samadhi Maran]. Remembering the preachings of Muniraj, that lion left his body and became Dev in Heaven. This Jeev of Lion obtained the pleasures of Vidyadharm Chakrovarti and Dev to his punya.

GAINING TIRTHANKAR PRAKRITI –

This Jeev became the king named Nand in Chhvtarapur Nagar. He accepted Jaineshwari Deeksha near Proshthil Guru and studied ACHARANG etc. Shastras and started performing hard penance. Thinking of sixteen bhavanas as Darshan Vishuddhi, Vinayasampannta. Sheelvrateshvantichar etc. and with strong spirit Apya Vicharya Dharma Dhyan i.e. How I may introduce (escort) these sorrowful worldly creatures to Eternal Bliss after taking them out from their sorrows, he gained Tirthankar Prakriti. At last, he became Indra at Pushpottar Viman of Achyut Swarga (16th heaven) leaving his body by Sallekhna Vidhi.

KING SIDDHARTHA AND MAHARANI TRISHLA –

The name of the queen of Nathvanshi King Siddhartha of Kundalpur Nagar (Distt. Nalanda) of Videh Desh was Trishla. The above mentioned Jeev of Achyutendra came in the womb. It was the day of Asarh Sudi Shasthi.

BIRTH CELEBRATION OF MAHAVIR –

After nine months, on the day of Chaitra Shukla Tryodashi, queen Trishla gave birth to a great son, who was destined to be the Lord of three Lokas. Indras & other Devtas took the JIN Child Sameru Mountain and celebrated the Janmabhishek (Anointment ceremony after birth) Mahotsava of Bhagwan. At that time not only this visible world but the three ‘Lokas’ had a sigh of relief and happiness. Even the inhabitants of various Narkas (Hells) felt peace for a moment. At that time Indra named Bhagwan as ‘VEER’ and on the tenth day of The birth, the King named the child as ‘VARDHMAN’.

Once two Munis named Sanjay and Vijay had a doubt in some Tatva but as soon as they saw the child ‘Veer’ their doubt was vanished and so they named him as ‘SANMATI’.

DEEKSHA OF BHAGWAN MAHAVIR –

After reaching the age of thirty years Bhagwan Mahavir developed the feeling of renunciation of the world. Then Laukantik Devas came and worshipped him. Bhagwan reached at ‘SHAND’ forest and plucked his hairs by own hands, he renounced all his possessions and accepted Jaineshwari Deeksha. Bring emersed in hardcore penance, he passed twelve years. Then Kevalgyan (enlightenment) appeared to Bhagwan. That day was Vaishakh Shukla Dashmi. Indra ordered Kubera to form SAMAVASARAN. There were twelve (k) assemblies in it in the series of (1) Gandhar Rishi Vavikas (2) Kalpavasini Devis, (3) Aryikes & Shrmunis, (4) Jyotishi Devis, (5) Vyandar Devis, (6) Bhavanvasi Devis, (7) Bhavanvasi Devis, (8) Vyantar Devas, (9) Jyotishi Devas, (10) Kaplavasi Devas, (11) Chakravarti Kings, other humanbeings etc. (12) Elephant, Lion etc. Tiryanchas. Thus innumerable Bhavya Jeevas listen to the preachings of Bhagwan by sitting in Samavasaran.

GAUTAM GANDHAR –

Divya Dhavni of Bhagwan could not originate for sixty six days, then Indraraj brought a scholar pandit named Indrabhuti there by trick. The scholar became the disciple of Bhagwan as soon as he saw him and accepted Jaineshwari Deeksha. At that time, on that day of Shravan Krishna Pratipada (Ekam) Divya-Dhavni of Bhagwan Mahavir was originated and that’s why this day is celebrated as “VEER SHASAN DIWAS” even today, The sermon of Bhagwan was chiefly in seven hundred eighteen languages. Each listener could understand the preaching of Bhagwan in his own language.

Indrabhuti Gautam Gandhar assimilated the Divya Dhvani of Bhagwan in twelve Granthas. Bhagwan went to number of places like Kashi, Kurujangal, Madhya Pradesh etc. and by pouring the nectar of his divine preachings, satisfied innumerable Bhavya Jeevas. The specificity of the principles of Bhagwan is their SYADVAD nature. It is most compassionate in the form of AHIMSA (Non-Violence) etc. five Anuvratas and five Mahavratas. KARMA-THEORY is the base of this philosophy and no God is taken to be the cause of joys and sorrows of any life. According to own deeds, a creature gets happiness or sorrow. Every creature can make itself Parmatma Bhagwan Mahavir by destroying all its Karmas.

DIVINE DESHNA (PREACHINGS) OF BHAGWAN MAHAVIR –

SYADVAD – Each article/subject is having infinite Dharmas and it can be understood through Pramans and Nayas. Praman deciphers the matter generally while Naya describes each minute angle of the subject, illustrated by Praman, Jeev (Soul) has a number of Dharmas (aspects) as Nitya-Anitya, Ek-Anek, Astitva –nastitva etc. Dravyarthik Naya proves Jeev to be Nitya (always existent) and Ek (One), while Paryayarthik Naya proves that Jeev is Anitya(Non-continuous) and Anek (More than one). Jeev is Asti (Existent) in relation with own Dravya, Kshetra, Kal & Bhav, while it is Nasti (Non-existent) in reference with other’s Dravya, Kshetra, Kal and Bhav. For instance a seth has a number of relations as Father-Son-Uncle, Nephew etc., but that seth is not the son to whom he is the father, he is the father of his son and the son of his father, in the same way, everything is having a number of Dharmas. To assimilate all those Dharmas by Syadvad is the function of ANEKANT. By understanding that Anekant the perception becomes Samyak (Righteous).


EXISTENCE OF ATMA (SOUL) -

There are infinite creatures in the world. Every creature is having its own individuality. ‘I am happy – I am sad’ defines which individuality in form of ‘I’, that is actually the soul. The soul is having the nature of Gyan (to know) & Darshan (to see) it is Samsari i.e. wandering in the world since infinite times due to the bondage of Karmas with self. When it destroys all its Karmas, it is librated and becomes Siddha Parmatma (God) with complete bliss.


ENTITY OF KARMAS

Karmas are related (bonded) with this soul since infinite times. It assimilates Karmas by own Raag (attachment) & Dwesh (malice) mixed feelings and the fruition of these Karmas brings happiness or sorrow. This soul goes to various Paryayas (to have the body) of humanbeing or Triyanch or else. Good or bad deeds or spirit of self become bound as Punya or Paap (sin) and gives happiness or sorrow to the soul/creature when time comes,

WAY TO LIBRATION –

The unified path of SAMYAKDARSHAN, SAMYAKGYAN & SAMYAKCHARITRA is the path of MOKSHA (Eternal Libration).

SAMYAKDARSHAN -

To have firm belief Real Dev (Arhant & Siddha Bhaagwan) – Shastra (Sermons of Arhant Dev-JINVANI) – Guru (Jain Sadhus following the patah told by Arhant Bhagwan) and Jeev – Ajeev etc. Tatvas’ as told by ARHANT DEV is Samyakdarshan.

SAMYAKGYAN –

Whatever Gyan (Knowledge) occurs after Samyakdarshan, that is Samyakgyan. For developing that Gyan, Swadhyaya and the Reading – Teaching of PRATHMANUYOG, KARMANUYOG, CHARNANUYOG and DRAVYANUYOG & to know the Tatvas without any Sanshaya (Suspicion). Viparya (Completely opposite notion) and Anadhyavasaya (Unability to decide) is Samyakgyan.

SAMYAKCHARITRA –

Being away from immoral/non-virtuous deeds and to be engaged in moral/ virtuous activities is Samyakcharitra. It has two divisions – SAKAL CHARITRA and VIKAL CHARITRA.

SAKAL CHARITRA (Absolute Conduct) –

To completely renounce five sins – Himsa (Violence), Jhooth (Telling Lie), Chori (Stealing), Kusheel (Bad Character) and Parigrah (Possession) is called SAKAL CHARITRA in the form of five MAHAVRATAS.

VIKAL CHARITRA (Non-Absolute Conduct)

Ekdesh (Partial) renunciation of these Violence etc. five sins is called Vikal Charitra or five ANUVRATAS.

EIGHT MOOL GUNAS (FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTES) -

The Bhavya Jeevas, who wish to leave Himsa (Violence), should first renounce Madya (Wine), Mans (Meat), Madhu (Honey), Bar, Peepar, Kathoomar and Umar because taking these in meal means violence of innumerable Trasa Jeevas (having more than one indriya-sense). Eating even a drop of Madhu equals the sin of burning 7 villages, it has been referred by scholars. Meat and wine are clearly the places for the violence of Trasa Jeevas and are fully hateful and avoidable. Leaving the use of these eight articles is called Eight Moolgunas.

OTHER PERSPECTIVE OF EIGHT MOOLGUNAS –

To leave 1. Wine, 2. Meat, 3. Honey, 4. Taking Meals at night, 5. Eating five Udambar Fruits (Bar, Peepar etc.) & 6.To practice compassion for all the creatures, 7. Drinking Filtered water (filtering as per the norms in Jain Shastras). 8. Having faith in Panch Permeshthis (Five utmost ranks of ARHANT, SIDDHA, ACHARYA, UPADHYAYA and SADHU) are the eight fundamental attributes of Shravakas (house holders).

SEVEN VICES –

Gambling, Eating Meat, Drinking Wine, Going to Prostitute, Hunting, Stealing and Having immoral relation with other lady (not own wife), these seven vices are the cause of great troubles, so these should also be left.

FIVE ANUVRATAS -

AHIMSANUVRATA – “Religion of NON-VIOLENCE is the real nectar of life” – even after knowing this fact if one cannot fully abandon violence i.e. the violence of Sthavaras (Jeeva having one sense only), he/she should surely leave the violence of Trasa Jeevas – this is the order of Jinendra Bhagwan.

To abandon the intentional violence of Trasa Jeevas by Man (Heart), Vachan (Speech), Kaya (Body), and Krit (to do self ), Karit (to get done by other), Anumodna (to praise such an act) is called as AHIMSANUVRATA. Shravak (Householder) can not leave Arambhi (related with household work as making food, cleaning home etc.), Udyogi (related with Business) and Virodhi (for protection of self and religion) violence, but he fully avoids Sankalpi (Intentional violence).

SATYANUVRATA -

Not to speak harsh, reprehensible, rude-unjust words is Satyanuvrata. The Shravak, who adopts this vrata, should also not speak such a truth by which Dharma or Dharmatma (Religious person) comes in trouble or is humiliated or some creature is killed.

ACHAURYANUVRATA –

Not to accept anything of others’ possession without being given by him, is called Achauryanuvrata. Shravak, who accepts this vrata does not take anything, which is lying down or has been forgotten or has been put by somebody else. He also does not give such a thing to other person.

BRAMHACHARYANUVRATA –

To remain uninvolved with all the ladies except own wife and to treat them like mother, sister and daughter is called Bramhcharyanuvrata. Those who practice this vrata are worshipped even by Devtas.

PARIGRAH PARIMANANUVRATA-

To keep less possession by deciding the limit of money and other valuables according to won need and capacity and to remain detached with rest of the possessions, thus controlling own passions is called Parigrah Parimananuvrata.


The concept of five Anuvratas is such a great treasure that one who practises these vratas without making Atichar (faults), the Jeev surely takes birth in the heaven. If some body has already gained the Ayu (Age) of Narak (Hell), Tiryanch or Humanbeing, then he cannot accept five Anuvratas.

The practicing of these five Anuvratas is very much useful for each house-holder (Shravak).

MOKSHA OF BHAGWAN –

On Kartik Krisshna Amavasya Bhagwan Mahavir became Mukt (Liberated from the worldly migration) at Pavapuri by destroying all his Karmas at the time of dawn. He became Nitya Niranjan Siddha, completely liberated and fully happy for all times to come.

That day Devtas came and illuminated innumerable DEEPAKAS. They worshipped the Nirvanotsava of Bhagwan and thus from that day the tradition of celebrating DEEPAWALI came in practice. Today 2527 years have passed since Bhagwan got salvation.

Satkal Parivartan (Serial change of 6 Kals – Ages) remains continued at the Arya Khand of Bharat Kshetra. There are two divisions of Kal (Age). Avsarpini and Utsarpini. Both of these contain 6 divisions each. Avsarpini has Sushma – Sushma, Sushma, Sushma – Dushma, Dushma-Sushma Dushma and Dushma-Dushma. Similarly, Utsarpani has Dushma – Dushma, Dushma etc. six divisions.

The first Sushma-Sushma Kal has the arrangement Uttam (Best) Bhogbhumi, the second Kal contains Madhyam (Medium) Bhogbhumi and the third Kal has Jaghanya (lowest) Bhogbhumi. At Bhogbhumi any wished article can be obtained from ten types of Kalpavrikshas. The human couples there, remain very happy.

ORIGIN OF KULKRAS -

When 8th part of Palya was remaining in this Third Kal, the power of Kalpavrikshas appeared diminished and the light of Jyotirang Kalpvrikshas became very lower. Then, on the evening of Asharh Sudi Purnima, Moon appeared to be set in the East and the Son in the West. Seeing this, people became anxious and reached near PRATISHRUTI KULKAR to whom they narrated the whole story. The Kulkar told that Karmabhumi arrangement was going to end then and due to the diminished power of Kalparikshas, Sun and Moon had became visible. “As a matter of fact, Sun and Moon always remain in the sky but till now they were invisible due to the light of Kalpvrikshas, so don’t be afraid of these”, he said.

After the Pratishruti Kulkar, there occurred Sanmati etc. 12 Kulkars serially. Later the last 14th Kulkar – SHRI NABHIRAJ was born. His son – Lord Rishabhdeva became the first TIRTHANKAR. When three years and eight and a half months were remaining in the Third Kal, Rishibhdeva got Nirvan. Again, 23 more Tirthankars have occurred in the Fourth Kal. Last of them – Tirthankar Mahavir got NIRVAN, when three years and eight & a half months were remaining in the Fourth Kal. After three years and eight & a half months of Nirvan of Bhagwan, Pancham (Fifth) Kal entered. In this present Kal, Dharma and Happiness are decreasing day by day. Age, Intelligence, Prosperity are also decreasing. Upto the end of this Fifth Kal, there will continue the reign of Bhagwan Mahavir and Dharma traditions will go on.

LACK OF DHARMA –

At the end of this Dushma Kal, there will be Veerangaj Muni, Sarvasri Aryika, Agnidutt shravak and Pangushri Shravika. At that time, the wicked King will take up the first morsel of the Ahar of Muniraj as the tarrif, then Muniraj will consider it Antaraya and will have the fast. Knowing this as the end of Pancham Kal through His Avadhigyan, he will accept Sallekhna along with Aryika, Shravak and Shravak and will go to heaven by Samadhi Maran. On the same day, some Dev of Asur Kumar Jati (a type of Bhavanvasi Devas ) will kill the King in anger at mid-day and at the time of Sun-set, the fire will be vanished.

Thus, Dharma will be lacking in this Aryakhand, but at Videsh Kshetras. This Jain Dharma always continues and never lacks.

After three years and eight & a half months of this, Sixth Kal will enter. At that time the nature and life of humanbeings will be cruel like Tiryanchas, they will feed upon raw meat, will wander nacked, will be shameless, blind, deaf, handicapped, grieved and diseased. At the end of this Sixth Kal, there will be terrible Pralaya (Catastrophe) for 49 days.

By the fierce rain of Air, Water, Fire etc. of that Pralaya Kal innumerable creatures will die. Some Jeevas will be protected by Devas – Vidyadhar etc. and will be kept at safe places like The caves of Vijyardha Mountain etc,


UTSARPINI KAL :

After the completion of Six Kals of Avsarpini, Utsarpini Kal will be initiated. The First Kal of this will be the Sixth Kal, again the Fifth Kal will enter. When sometime – interval will remain in this Fifth Kal, Kulkars will be originated.

INITIATION OF DHARMA AGAIN -

Later in the beginning of the Fourth Kal, ‘MAHAPADMA’ will be the First Tirthankar. There will be 24 Tirthankars in that Fourth Kal from the beginning upto the end.

INFINITE TIRTHAKARS –

Thus infinite circles of Avsarpini & Utsarpini have passed in this Bharat Kshetra and Cahubeesi (24) of infinite Tirthankars have occurred. Similarly 24 Tirthankars will occur infinite times upto infinite future.

In the same way, Shatkal Parivartan occurs at the Aryakhand of the Aeravat Kshetra. The tradition of 24 Tirthankars has continued infinitely there and will continue in the future also. There are 32 Videh Kshetras at Jambooodweep. Due to the absence of Shatkal Parivartan, there, Tirthankar tradition goes on continuously. Similarly, Dhatki Khand has 2 Bhrat Kshetras, 2 Aeravat Kshetras and 64 Videhas.

Thus at Five Aeravats and one hundred & sixty Videehas of Dhei (2½) Dweep (Jamboodweep, Dhatki Khand & half of Pushkar Dweep). Tirthankars always occur and their DHARMATIRTH continues; they will occur in the future also and their Dharmatirth tradition will go on in the same way. As the Tirthankar tradition is eternal, similarly this Jain Dharma is also eternal. Those who have won their Karma-enemies are called JIN and their JAIN DHARMA is in practice for eternal times and will continue eternally.

According to the Jain Philosophy, any Jeev can become Tirthankar by gaining Tirthankar Prakriti through Solahkaran Bhavnas.



भूतानागत वर्तमानसमये तेभ्यो जिनेभ्यो नमः'
BHOOTANAGAT VARTMANSAMYE TEBHYO JINABHYO NAMAH '

(SALUTATIONS TO JINENDRA BHAGWAN OF PAST, FUTURE & PRESENT)


Basic Mantra of Jain Dharma'



NAMO ARHANTANAM
NAMO SIDDHANAM
NAMO AAIRIYANAM
NAMO UVAJJHAYANAN
NAMO LOE SAVVASAHUNAM