Chapter 1 Q-A
- 1 TATTVARTH SUTRA - Q-A
- 2 Samyagdarśan-jñāna cāritrāṇi moksamārgah
- 3 Tattvārtha-śraddhānaṃ samyagdarśanam
- 4 Tannisargādadhigamādvā
- 5 Jīvājīvāsrava-bandha-saṃvara-nirjarā-moks āstattvam
- 6 Nāmasthāpanādravyabhāvatastannyāsah
- 7 Pramāṇanayairadhigamah
- 8 Nirdeśasvāmitvasādhanādhikaraṇasthitividhānatah ̣
- 9 Satsaṃkhyāksetrasparśanakālāntarabhāvālpabahuttvaiśca
- 10 Matiśrutāvadhimanah ̣paryayakevalāni jñānam
- 11 Tatpramāṇe
- 12 Pratyaksamanyat
- 13 Matih ̣ smtih ̣ saṃjñā cintā abhinibodha ityanarthāntaram
- 14 Tadindriyānindriyanimittam
- 15 Avagrahehāvāyadhāraṇāh ̣
- 16 Bahubahuvidhaksiprānih ̣srtānuktadhruvāṇāṃ setarāṇām
- 17 Arthasya
- 18 Vyaṃjanasyāvagrahah ̣
- 19 Na cakśuranindriyābhyām
- 20 Śrutam matipūrvaṃ dvyānekadvādaśabhedam
- 21 Bhavapratyayoavadhirdevanārakāṇā
- 22 Ksayopaśamanimittah ̣ sadvikalpah ̣ śesāṇām
- 23 Rju-vipulamatī manah ̣paryayah ̣
- 24 Viśuddhyapratipātābhyāṃ tadviśes ah
- 25 viśuddhi-ks etra-svāmi-vis ayebhyoavadhi-manah ̣paryayayoh ̣
- 26 Mati-śrutayonirbandho dravyes vasarvaparyāyesu
- 27 Rūpis vavadheh ̣
- 28 Tadanantabhāge manah ̣paryayasya
- 29 Sarvadravyaparyāyes u kevalasya
- 30 Ekādīni bhājyāni yugapadekasminnācaturbhyah
- 31 Matiśrutāvadhayo viparyayaśca
- 32 Sadasatoraviśes ādyadr cchopalabdherunmattavat
- 33 Naigama-saṃgraha-vyavahārarjusūtra-śabda-samabhirūdhaivaṃbhūtā nayāh ̣
TATTVARTH SUTRA - Q-A
Samyagdarśan-jñāna cāritrāṇi moksamārgah
Meaning:Right faith, right knowledge and right conduct all together constitute the path to liberation.
Q.I.1.1 What is the meaning of the word ‘right’ (samyak)?
A.1.1.1 The word ‘right’ here is synonymous with correct /true /real or laudatory.
Q.I.1.2 How is the word samyak derived or created?
A.I.1.2 The word samyak in Saṃskr.ta language is derived from the root verb ‘anc’ with the proposition ‘sam’ and the suffix ‘kvip’.
Q.I.1.3 To which quality out of the three mentioned the word ‘right’ is to be added?
A.I.1.3 The word ‘right’ should be added to all the three qualities i.e. right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.
Q I.1.4 What is right faith?
A.I.1.4 Faith or belief, in the doctrine of reality i.e. substances and their modes together i.e. tattvāratha ascertained as they are, is called right faith.
Q.I.1.5 What is the meaning of darśana?
A.I.1.5 Literal meaning of darśana are to look / to be seen/ to visualize/ viewpoint and also philosophy. However when prefixed by the word right, it convey the meaning ‘faith’.
Q.I.1.6 What is meant by knowledge?
A.I.1.6 Knowledge is to know an entity.
Q.I.1.7 What is meant by right knowledge?
A.I.1.7 Right knowledge means to know all entities (like jīva, matter, etc) exactly as they are, free from doubt / hankering or contradiction.
Q.I.1.8 What is meant by right conduct?
A.I.1.8 Right conduct is to give up all activities which result in the transmigration of soul and bondage of karmas with the soul.
Q.I.1.9 What is the meaning of conduct?
A.I.1.9 Behaviour or the way an individual lives is called his conduct.
Q.I.1.10 Is right faith alone, sufficient for the practice of the path of liberation?
Q.I.1.11 Are the three qualities i.e. right faith, right knowledge and right conduct sufficient individually as the path of liberation?
A.I.1.11 No, All three qualities when practised together form the path of liberation.
Meaning:Belief in substances and their modes as they are is right faith.
Q.I.2.1 What is the meaning of tattva in Jainsm?
A.I.2.1 The nature (bhāva) of a substance is tattva. The categories of truth are also defined as tattva.
Q.I.2.2 What is the meaning of artha?
A.I.2.2 The conclusion and ascertainment about an entity (existent) is called artha.
Q.I.2.3 What is the meaning of tattvārtha?
A.I.2.3 Ascertaining entities as they really are is tattvārtha.
Q.I.2.4 What is meant by faith/trust (śraddhā)?
A.I.2.4 Faith or trust is synonymous with firm belief (āsthā).
Q.I.2.5 Darśana means to look, then why it is taken as belief here?
A.I.2.5 Here, in the context of spiritual purification, it is taken as faith /belief.
Q.I.2.6 If we use the meaning of darśana as looking, then what is the problem?
A.I.2.6 By accepting the meaning as looking, then we shall end up with every one as having right vision /faith.
Q.I.2.7 How many types of right faith are there?
A.I.2.7 There are two types of right faith namely: i. sarāga or with attachment i.e. attached and ii. vītarāga or pure and without any attachment i.e. detached.
Q.I.2.8 What is right belief with attachment (sarāga samyag-darśana)?
A.I.2.8 Expression of praśama or śama (calmness / serenity / tranquility); saṃvega (absence of the fear of the miseries of transmigration); anukampā (compassion) and āstikya (belief in life here and after and the existence of soul) is the right belief with attachment.
Q.I.2.9 What is right belief with detachment (vītarāga samyag darśana)?
A.I.2.9 It is concerned with sheer purity of the soul.
Q.I.2.10 What is the meaning of praśama?
A.I.2.10 Absence of the intense attachment is praśama.
Q.I.2.11 What is the meaning of saṃvega?
A.I.2.11 Incessant fear of the miseries of transmigration is saṃvega.
Q.I.2.12 What is anukampā?
A.I.2.12 Compassion or pity with the inclination of helping the sufferer is anukampā
Q.I.2.13 What is the meaning of āstikya?
A.I.2.13 Belief in life here and after and the existence of soul is āstikya.
Q.I.2.14 What is the meaning of substance (dravya)?
A.I.2.14 Substance is an entity which is existent and has modes and attributes. Substance can also be viewed as potentiality.
Meaning:That right faith is attained by intuition (nisarga) or by acquisition of knowledge (adhigama).
Q.I.3.1 Why is the word ‘tat’ or ‘that’ used in this aphorism (sūtra)?
A.I.3.1 That or ‘tat’ is used to co-relate this sūtra with right belief in the previous sūtra.
Q.I.3.2 What is right faith attained by intuition (nisargaj)?
A.I.3.2 The right faith developed by one without the guidance or sermons of others i.e. self originated is called nisargaj.
Q.I.3.3 What is right faith acquired by knowledge (adhigamaj)?
A.I.3.3 The right faith that develops due to the teachings by a holy teacher or of holy texts.
Q.I.3.4 What is the difference between nisarga and adhigamaj?
A.I.3.4 Nisarga is self-originated, while the origin of adhigamaj is dependent on some direct cause (nimitta).
Q.I.3.5 Are the sermons of a teacher necessary in nisargaj?
Q.I.3.5 Yes, sermons are necessary in the previous lives but not necessary in this life.
Q.I.3.6 If sermons are essential causes, then why call self-originated faith nisargaj?
A.I.3.6 Basically to differentiate the manner of origination of faith in the present life only.
Q.I.3.7 What is the difference between sermons in nisargaj and adhigamaj?
A.I.3.7 In nisargaj, sermons of the previous life are effective while in adhigamaj sermons of this life are effective.
Meaning: (The) soul, (the) non-soul, influx, bondage, stoppage, gradual dissociation and liberation constitute reality.
Q.I.4.1 What is meant by jīva (living being)?
A.I.4.1 An entity which has consciousness (cetanā) is called jīva.
Q.I.4.2 What is meant by consciousness?
A.I.4.2. To know, to feel misery and pleasure, to see and to hear are some of the manifestations (upyoga) of consciousness.
Q.I.4.3 What is meant by ajīva (non-living being)?
A.I.4.3 An entity without consciousness is called ajīva.
Q.I.4.4 What is meant by influx (āśrava)?
A.I.4.4 Movement of karma particles with or without merit (pūnya/ pāpa) towards the space-points (ātma-pradeśa) of the soul is called influx.
Q.I.4.5 What is meant by a space-point (pradeśa)?
A.I.4.5 The space occupied by a paramāṇu (smallest indivisible part of matter) under normal circumstances is called space-point (pradeśa). It is the smallest unit of measurement of space.
Q.I.4.6 What is meant by sub-atom (paramāṇu)?
A.I.4.6 The smallest indivisible part of matter (pudagala) is called paramāṇu.
Q.I.4.7 What is meant by space-points of soul?
A.I.4.7 The space occupied by the soul is called its space-points (ātma-pradeśa).
Q.I.4.8 What is meant by auspicious (śubha)?
A.I.4.8 Auspicious is some event/activity/entity which results in merit (pūnya).
Q.I.4.9 What is meant by inauspicious (aśubha)?
A.I.4.9 Inauspicious is some event/activity/entity which results in demerit (pāpa).
Q.I.4.10 What is meant by bondage (bandha)?
A.I.4.10 Getting together of space-points of soul with karma particles is called bondage.
Q.I.4.11 What is meant by inhibition / stoppage (saṃvara)?
A.I.4.11 To stop influx (aśrava) is inhibition / stoppage.
Q.I.4.12 What is meant by dissociation (nirjarā)?
A.I.4.12 Partial annihilation/separation of karma particles from the soul is called nirjarā.
Q.I.4.13 What is meant by partial (eka-deśa)?
A.I.4.13 Eka-deśa means a part of any state/entity/process.
Q.I.4.14 What is meant by liberation (moksa)?
A.I.4.14 Total separation of karmas from the soul is called moks.a. Synonyms of moksa are liberation and emancipation.It is the state of pure soul.
Meaning:These are installed (in four ways) by name, symbols, substance (potentiality) and actual state.
Q.I.5.1 What is meant by niksepa (gateways of investigations by installing/ presenting / positionig)?
A.I.5.1 Niksepa is the entry /starting points for investigation of truth and its categories. It is also called nyāsa /trust.
Q.I.5.2 What is meant by name-position (nāma niksepa)?
A.I.5.2 Giving a name to an entity irrespective of its quality, activities, substance type is called name- positioning.
Q.I.5.3 What is meant by symbols (sthāpnā niksepa)?
A.I.5.3 To cast in wood or stone or metal or clay or even miseryting any object is called representation.
Q.I.5.4 How many subtypes of symbols are there?
A.I.5.4 There are two subtypes of symbols namely; similar (tadākāra) and dissimilar (atadākāra).
Q.I.5.5 What is meant by similar symbol?
A.I.5.5 When the symbol depicted is similar to the object being represented e.g. making an idol of Lord Mahāvīra in stone.
Q.I.5.6 What is meant by dissimilar symbol?
A.I.5.6 When symbol is made which is different from the objects being presented e.g. representing the elephant etc in the game of chess, or symbolizing the lord in the rice placed on a leaf.
Q.I.5.7 What is meant by substance/ potentiality presentation (dravya niksepa)?
A.I.5.7 That which will attain or has attained in the past certain qualities and the same is so shown in the present e.g. someone who will worship in future or worshipped in the past is called a pūjārī.
Q.I.5.8 What is meant by mode / actuality presentation (bhāva niksepa)?
A.I.5.8 To represent an object as it is in the present state is called mode-representation.
Q.I.5.9 Please show the difference in four types of presentations through an example?
A.I.5.9 Naming Jinendra Deva as Jina is name-presentation; making an idol of Jinendra Deva in metal or stone is representation; the soul of Jinendra Deva is substance-presentation and the presence of Jinendra Deva in the religious congregation (samavasaraṇa) is mode-presentation.
Meaning: Knowledge (of the seven categories and nine entities) is attained by approved means of knowledge (pramāṇa) and the philosophical standpoints /viewpoints (naya).
Q I.6.1 What is valid /comprehensive or approved knowledge (pramāṇa)?
A.I.6.1 The knowledge which knows an object completely and exactly e.g. by saying ‘substances’ (dravya) we talk of all six types of substances like living beings etc. is called pramāṇa. The word crisp (viśada) was used by Ac. Māṇikya Nandi to differentiate between approved and non-approved knowledge.
Q.I.6.2 How many types of approved knowledge are there and what are their names?
A.I.6.2 Pramāṇa is of two types’ namely direct or immediate (pratyaks.a) and indirect or acquired (paroks.a).
Q.I.6.3 What is meant by direct or immediate approved knowledge (pratyaks.a pramāṇa)?
A.I.6.3 Cognition by the soul of all objects directly without the assistance of any external media like sense organs is called direct valid knowledge.
Q.I.6.4 What is meant by acquired and approved knowledge (paroks.a pramāṇa)?
A.I.6.4 Indirect valid knowledge is the cognition by the soul of all objects with the assistance of external media like sense organs etc.
Q.I.6.5 What is meant by standpoint /viewpoint (naya)?
A.I.6.5 Cognition of one attribute or partially an entity is called standpoint. It is also defined as the intention of the listener or the speaker with which he /she wants to know / tell.
Q.I.6.6 How many types of standpoints are there?
A.I.6.6 These are of two main types called substance viewpoint (dravyārthika naya) and modal viewpoint (paryāyārthika naya).
Q.I.6.7 What is substance viewpoint?
A.I.6.7 The viewpoint which targets the substances as its object of knowledge is substance viewpoint.
Q.I.6.8 What is the mode (paryāya)?
A.I.6.8 Paryāya is the state of a substance at any time-instant e.g. yesterday I was a child, today I am a young man and tomorrow I may be an old man
Meaning: (Knowledge of the seven categories is attained) by definition, ownership, cause, location /resting place (substratum), duration and varieties/division.
Q.I.7.1 What is meant by ‘definiton’ (nirdeśa)?
A.I.7.1 Definition means to state the true nature of an entity (vastu).
Q.1.7.2 What is meant by ‘ownership’ (svāmitva)?
A.I.7.2 Ownership or lordship of an entity is called svāmitva.
Q.I.7.3 What is meant by ‘cause /means’ (sādhana)?
A.I.7.3 It is the cause of origin of the entity.
Q.I.7.4 What is meant by ‘location /resting place’ (adhikaraṇa)?
A.I.7.4 The location or foundation of an entity (vastu) is called adhikaraṇa.
Q.I.7.5 What is meant by ‘duration’ (sthiti)?
A.I.7.5 Time period during which the entity exists is called duration.
Q.I.7.6 What is meant by ‘variety / division’ (vidhāna)?
A.I.7.6 Divisions of an entity are called vidhāna.
Q.I.7.7 Explain the differences amongst these through an example?
A.I.7.7 To say right faith is definition; an auspicious being with ‘full completions / mature organs’ (paryāptaka) is its owner; sermons of holy teachers, texts and omniscient are its causes/means; souls of the auspicious beings are the bases/substratum; from an instant to infinite time period is its duration and its three types are it’s divisions.
Q.I.7.8 What are the three types of right faith?
A.I.7.8 Aupśamika (subsidential), ks.āyopaśamika (subsidential-cum-destructive) and ks.āyika (destructive) are the three types of right faith.
Q.I.7.9 What is the meaning of subsidential, subsidential-cum-destruction and destructive right faith?
A.I.7.9 By subsidence, subsidence cum destruction and just destruction of the seven tendencies of karmas (namely infinite anger-pride-deceit-greed, delusion, mix of delusion and true and just true) we get subsidential, subsidential-cum-destruction and destructive right faith respectively.
Meaning: The categories and their details are undefrstood in detailin terms of existence, number (enumeration), place or abode, extent of space touched (pervasion), continuity /time, interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparison.
Q.I.8.1 What is meant by truth /reality (sat)?
A.I.8.1 Sat is defined as existence (astitva) of an entity.
Q.I.8.2 What is meant by ‘numerical determination or just number’ (saṃkhyā)?
A.I.8.2 Enumeration of the divisions /types of an entity is called number.
Q.I.8.3 What is the meaning of ‘place /abode or field touched’ (ks.etra)?
A.I.8.3 The present abode /area/volume occupied by an entity at present is called its abode.
Q.I.8.4 What is the meaning of ‘extent of space touched’ (sparśana)?
A.I.8.4 It is the extent of space occupied relating to the past, present and future.
Q.I.8.5 What is the meaning of ‘continuity /time’ (kāla)?
A.I.8.5 Duration of the existence of an entity is called time.
Q.I.8.6 What is the meaning of ‘interval of time’ (antara).
A.I.8.6 The interval /duration between acquisition and its destruction of an attribute by an entity is called interval of time.
Q.I.8.7 What is the meaning of duration (viraha kāla)?
A.I.8.7 The duration (viraha) between cessation of right faith and its reoccurrence
is called interval of time. Viraha and antara can be said to synonymous.
Q.I.8.8 What is the meaning of thought-activity (bhāva)?
A.I.8.8 Bhāva is the activity of thought associated with states such as ‘subsidential’, ‘destructive’ etc. It is also called as disposition
Q.I.8.9 What is the meaning of reciprocal comparison (alpabhutva)?
A.I.8.9 Distinction based on comparison between two entities as large/small is called is alpbahutva.
Q.I.8.10 Please explain all these through an example?
A.I.8.10 The customer asks the shopkeeper if he has pens. ‘Yes’ he has refers to existence. How many pens refer to the number? ‘Where are they?’ is the abode /place. ‘How long will they last?’ is the time/duration. ‘I have purchased them a year ago and now I am buying them again’ is the interval of time. These pens write very well is the thought activity. Earlier I had taken a few and now I shall take more is the reciprocal comparison.
Matiśrutāvadhimanah ̣paryayakevalāni jñānam
Meaning: Knowledge is of five kinds namely; sensory knowledge /mind based knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, mental-modes /telepathy and omniscience.
Q.I.9.1 How many types of knowledge are there?
A.I.9.1 Knowledge is of five types namely: mind-based / empirical (mati), verbal / scriptural (śruta), clairvoyance (avadhi), mental modes / telepathy (manah ̣paryaya) and omniscience (kevala).
Q.I.9.2 What is meant by mind-based knowledge?
A.I.9.2 Knowledge acquired through the sensory organs and the mind and caused by the subsidence cum destruction of mind-based-knowledge-obscuring (matijnānāvarṇa) karma is called mind-based knowledge. It is also called sensory knowledge
Q.I.9.3 What is meant by verbal/scriptural knowledge?
A.I.9.3 Knowledge acquired due to subsidence-cum-destruction of scriptural based knowledge obscuring (śrutajnānavarṇa) karmas is called scriptural based knowledge. Alternatively it can also be defined as the special knowledge acquired further based on mind-based knowledge.
Q.I.9.4 What is meant by clairvoyance?
A.I.9.4 The crisp knowledge of concrete objects/entities acquired, without the assistance of the mind and sensory organs but with the limitations of substance, modes, time and place is called clairvoyance.
Q.I.9.5 What is meant by knowledge of mental-modes?
A.I.9.5 The crisp/ clear knowledge acquired of the concrete objects of thoughts of other persons without the assistance of mind and sensory organs is called telepathy.
Q.I.9.6 What is meant by concrete (rūpi) objects /entities?
A.I.9.6 An entity which has any or all the qualities of touch, taste, odour, and colour /form is called concrete entity /object e.g. matter (pudgala)
Q.I.9.7 What is meant by omniscience?
A.I.9.7 The knowledge which knows /cognizes all (concrete and non-concrete) entities of the past present and future simultaneously is called omniscience.
Meaning:These (five kinds of knowledge) are the two kinds of Pramāṇa (valid knowledge).
Q.I.10.1 What is meant by valid means of (pramāṇa) knowledge?
A.I.10.1 The knowledge which knows an object completely, truly/exactly and crisply is called valid knowledge.
Q.I.10.2 Why is the word ‘tat’ or ‘that’ used in the aphorism?
A.I.10.2 The word ‘tat’ is used to co-relate this aphorism with the five kinds of right knowledge in the previous aphorism.
Q.I.10.3 Why has the quantity (two) kinds of the valid knowledge indicated in this aphorism i.e. tatpramāṇe?
A.I.10.3 It indicates that the valid means of knowledge are of two kinds.
Q.I.10.4 What are the two kinds of valid means of knowledge?
A.I.10.4 Direct (pratyaks.a) and acquired (paroks.a)
Meaning: The first two (kinds of knowledge) are indirect (knowledge).
Q.I.11.1 How many kinds of acquired (or indirect) means of valid knowledge are there?
A.I.11.1 The first two (ādye in the sutra) kinds namely mind-based and scripture-based knowledge are the indirect means of valid knowledge are acquired through sense organs and mind.
Q.I.11.2 What is meant by acquired valid knowledge?
A.I.11.2 The right knowledge acquired through the assistance of mind and sensory organs is called acquired valid knowledge. They are called indirect as they are not acquired by the soul directly.
Q.I.11.3 Why mind based and scriptural knowledge are regarded as indirect?
A.I.11.3 As both of them are dependent on the other means i.e. mind, sensory organs, scriptures etc and not acquired directly by the soul, so they are called indirect.
Meaning: The remaining three constitute direct (knowledge).
Q.I.12.1 What is meant by direct valid knowledge?
A.I.12.1 The knowledge, which the soul acquires directly, i.e. without the aid of external sense organs and mind, is called direct valid knowledge.
Q.I.12.2 Which of the knowledge kinds are direct?
A.I.12.2 Clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience fall under the direct category.
Q.I.12.3 How many types of direct valid knowledge are there and what are they called?
A.I.12.3 Direct valid knowledge is of two types namely: partial (deśa pratyaks.a) and complete (sakala pratyaks.a).
Q.I.12.4 What is partial direct valid knowledge?
A.I.12.4 The partial knowledge acquired of concrete entities directly i.e. without the aid of sense organs and mind is called partial direct valid knowledge.
Q.I.12.5 Which valid knowledge kinds fall under the category ‘partial direct valid knowledge’?
A.I.12.5 Clairvoyance and telepathy are both partial direct valid knowledge.
Q.I.12.6 What is complete valid knowledge?
A.I.12.6 The knowledge which knows directly all the substances (concrete and non concrete) and their modes of the past, present and future in the entire space i.e. cosmic (loka) and trans-cosmic (aloka) is called complete valid knowledge.
Q.I.12.7 Which knowledge kind is complete valid knowledge?
A.I.12.7 Omniscience is the complete valid knowledge.
Matih ̣ smtih ̣ saṃjñā cintā abhinibodha ityanarthāntaram
Meaning: Sensory cognition, remembrance, recognition, induction and deduction are its synonyms.
Q.I.13.1 What is the meaning of mati (sensory cognition)?
A.I.13.1 It is the synonym of intellect implying knowledge acquired through sense organs and mind.
Q.I.13.2 What is the function of mati?
A.I.13.2 The function of mati is the cognition with the aid of mind and sense organs through the stages of apprehension /sensation (avagraha), speculation /discrimination (īhā), perceptual judgment (avāya) and retention (dhāraṇā).
Q.I.13.3 What is remembrance (smr.ti)?
A.I.13.3 Remembering/ recollecting or knowing from past experience is remembrance.
Q.I.13.4 What is the function of smr.ti?
A.I.13.4 The function of smr.ti is to recollect now the entities known earlier.
Q.I.13.5 What is the meaning of saṃjñā (recognition)?
A.I.13.5 Cognition by comparison is recognition e.g. ‘this is like that (known earlier)’ is recognition.
Q.I.13.6 What is the function of recognition?
A.I.13.6 To recollect something seen earlier and then to compare it to something being seen now is the function of recognition e.g. this house is like the one I saw earlier.
Q.I.13.7 What is the meaning of reasoning or induction/ discursive thought (cintā)?
A.I.13.7 Cintā is inductive reasoning. It is also known as the cognition /knowledge of the universal relationship (vyāpti) between the object of knowledge (sādhya) and the directly cognized object (sādhana). It is also refered as logic /tarka.
Q.I.13.8 What is the function of induction / discursive thought?
A.I.13.8 To enable cognition like, ‘wherever there is smoke, there is fire’.
Q.I.13.9 What is the meaning of deductive cognition (abhinibodha)?
A.I.13.9 To cognize an unknown object of knowledge (sādhya) by the object known now (sādhana) is called deductive cognition.
Q.I.13.10 What is the function of deductive cognition?
A.I.13.10 To cognize the object of knowledge (sādhya) with the aid of the object seen /known now (sādhana) e.g. there is fire on this hill because there is smoke over there.
Meaning: That is caused by the senses and the mind.
Q.I.14.1 What is meant by the sense organs (indriya)?
A.I.14.1 An instrument to acquire knowledge by the soul is called sense organ. In other words sense organs are indicators of the soul.
Q.I.14.2 What is the meaning of ‘quasi or internal sense organ’ (anindriya)?
A.I.14.2 Mind, mana, antah ̣karaṇa, manasa are synonym of quasi sense organ. Here the prefix ‘an’ before indriya is used to denote a little or slight i.e. mind is also slightly like sense organs.
Q.I.14.3 Why mind is called a quasi sense organ?
A.I.14.3 Sense organs (external) have forms, are visible and gross namely tongue, ears, nose, eyes, body, etc. But the mind, being subtle, is not visible and yet it is able to cognize all objects of knowledge.
Q.I.14.4 What are the attributes cognized by the eye, and which are those?
A.I.14.4 The attribute cognized by the eye is colour, which is of five basic types namely white, blue, yellow, red and black.
Q.I.14.5 What are the attributes cognized by the tongue (taste organ), and which are those?
A.I.14.5 The attribute cognized by the tongue is taste, which is of five basic types namely spicy, bitter, sour, acidic and sweet.
Q.I.14.6 What is called the taste organ?
A.I.14.6 The taste organ cognizes taste i.e. whether the object of taste is spicy or bitter or sour or acidic or sweet by touching it.
Q.I.14.7 What is the sense organ which smells?
A.I.14.7 The sense organ which smells in order to cognize whether the odour is foul or fragrant.
Q.I.14.8 What are attributes cognized by the smell organ?
A.I.14.8 Fragrant and foul odours are the two attributes cognized by the smell sense organ.
Q.I.14.9 What is the touch sense organ?
A.I.14.9 The sense organ which cognizes by touch the attributes like hot, cold, soft, hard, etc.
Q.I.14.10 How many attributes are cognized by the touch sense organ?
A.I.14.10 The eight attributes of touch which are cognizable by the touch sense organ are hard, soft; light, heavy; hot, cold; rough and smooth; dry and wet.
Q.I.14.11 What is meant by hearing sense organ?
A.I.14.11 The sense organs which cognizes the object by hearing different sounds and words.
Q.I.14.12 What are the attributes of the hearing sense organ?
A.I.14.12 All types of sounds and words.
Q.I.14.13 What is the meaning of cause (nimitta)?
A.I.14.13 Any event or object which is conducive to successfully complete an activity is called the nimitta.
Meaning: The four divisions of sensory knowledge are apprehension (sensation), speculation, perceptual judgment and retention.
Q.I.15.1 How many divisions /stages of mind-based knowledge are? Name them.
A.I.15.1 There are four divisions /stages of mind based knowledge namely out-linear-grasp /apprehension /sensation (avagraha), speculation /discrimination (īhā), perceptual judgment (avāya) and retention (dhāraṇā).
Q.I.15.2 What is apprehension /sensation (avagraha)?
A.I.15.2 The cognition immediately following intuition (darśana) is called apprehension /sensation e.g. it is white.
Q.I.15.3 What is speculation /discrimination (īhā)?
A.I.15.3 Inquisitiveness to know the object more crisply after its cognition through apprehension, e.g. is this white thing a crane or a flag?
Q.I.15.4 What is perceptual judgment (avāya)?
A.I.15.4 Knowing an object as it is after ascertaining its peculiarities is perceptual judgment e.g. seeing the movement of wings of the white object, to decide that is a crane.
Q.I.15.5 What is retention (dhāraṇā)?
A.I.15.5 After cognizing in perceptual judgment, retaining that knowledge for use in the future is retention e.g. after cognizing the crane not to forget the crane and its peculiarities in future.
Bahubahuvidhaksiprānih ̣srtānuktadhruvāṇāṃ setarāṇām
Meaning: The subdivisions of each of these (kinds of mind-based knowledge) are: more, many kinds, quick, hidden, unexpressed, lasting, and their opposites.
Q.I.16.1 What is the meaning of more (bahu)?
A.I.16.1 The meaning of bahu is many (number or quantity). This is an indicator of numerous.
Q.I.16.2 What is the meaning of many types (bahuvidha)?
A.I.16.2 Vidha denotes types. Many types of objects /entities are called knowledge of many types (bahuvidha).
Q.I.16.3 What is the meaning of quick (ksipra)?
A.I.16.3 To cognize a fast moving object or to cognize quickly is called quick (ksipra) knowledge.
Q.I.16.4 What is the meaning of hidden (anih ̣srta)?
A.I.16.4 To cognize a hidden object by seeing a part of the same is called hidden (anih ̣srta) knowledge e.g. knowing an elephant submerged in water just by seeing its trunk.
Q.I.16.5 What is the meaning of one type (ekavidha)?
A.I.16.5 One type of object is called ekavidha.
Q.I.16.6 What is the meaning of unexpressed (anukta)?
A.I.16.6 Anukta means implied and not expressed (said) e.g. to order someone to sit by moving one’s hand.
Q.I.16.7 What is the meaning of permanent /lasting (dhruva) knowledge?
A.I.16.7 The lasting knowledge (for a long time) of an object is called dhruva knowledge e.g. knowledge of the top / dome of the temple.
Q.I.16.8 What is the meaning of knowledge of opposites (setara)?
A.I.16.8 Setara includes /implies the opposites of all the types of knowledge mentioned earlier in this aphorism e.g. one, one type, slow, visible, expressed and transitory.
Q.I.16.9 What is meant by eka /one?
A.I.16.9 Knowledge of a small part or one in number of an object is called eka.
Q.I.16.10 What is the meaning of slowly (aks.ipra)?
A.I.16.10 Slow cognition or cognition of a slow moving object is called aks.ipra, e.g. knowing that the slow moving object is a turtle.
Q.I.16.11 What the meaning is of revealed / un-hidden (nihsrta)?
A.I.16.11 Cognition of a revealed /visible object is called nihsr.ta, e.g. knowing an elephant when the same is visible completely.
Q.I.16.12 What is the meaning of expressed (ukta)?
A.I.16.12 Knowing an object according to its attributes and after hearing some words /sound,
Q.I.16.13 What is the meant by transitory (adhruva)?
A.I.16.13 The knowledge which does not stay constant for long after its complete acquisition once e.g. knowing the clouds when they appeared and then not knowing them after they disappear.
Meaning: These are the attributes of an entity/ object.
Q.I.17.1 What is the meaning of object (of knowledge) or entity (artha)?
A.I.17.1 An entity or the object of knowledge is called artha. In the context of mind-based knowledge it implies the object which continues to be the object in all four stages of mind based knowledge. However in the context of sensation /awareness only, arthāvagraha is known as object-perception / awareness.
Q.I.17.2 To whom does the twelve attributes mentioned in aphorism 16 (bahu, bahuvidha etc) belong?
A.I.17.2 These attributes belong to the object of knowledge /entity /object.
Meaning: There is only contact awareness apprehension of indistinct entity.
Q.I.18.1 How many types of out-linear-grasp (avagraha) are there?
A.I.18.1 Two, namely arthāvagraha (object-perception / awareness) and vyaṃjanāvagraha (contact awareness).
Q.1.18.2 What is the meaning of vyaṃjana?
A.1.18.2 It means indistinct.
Q.I.18.3 What is the meaning of contact awareness (vyaṃjanāvagraha)?
A.I.18.3 It implies the collection of indistinct sounds for cognition e.g. hearing the bustling sounds in the market.
Q.I.18.4 What is the meaning of arthāvagraha (object-perception / awareness)?
A.I.18.4 Clear out-linear-grasp of the object in contact is called object awareness (arthāvagraha) e.g. the dialogue between two persons or an instant flash of ‘this’ is ‘that’.
Meaning: Contact awareness does not arise by means of the eyes and the mind.
Q.I.19.1 Which sense organs are not able to have contact awareness (vyaṃjanāvagraha)?
A.I.19.1 Eyes and mind are the two sense organs which are not capable of contact awareness.
Q.I.19.2 Briefly, how many types of mind-based knowledge are there?
A.I.19.2 Four types of mind based knowledge are there, namely; out-linear-grasp, discrimination, perceptual judgment and retention.
Q.I.19.3 How many sub types of mind-based knowledge have been identified?
A.I.19.3 Three hundred thirty six maximum
Q.I.19.4 Why is it said that mind-based knowledge has 48 sub types?
A.I.19.4 12 types of GThe four kinds of avagraha 4 (out-linear grasp, discrimination, perceptual judgment and retention) multiplied by 12 sub types of each (aphorism number I.16) results in 48.
Q.I.19.5 In how many ways each type of cognition can take place?
A.I.19.5 Each type of these cognitions can take place by the five sense organs and the mind.
Q.I.19.6 How many sub types of arthāvagraha (object-perception / awareness) are there?
A.I.19.6 48 types (A.I.19.4) multiplied by 6 (sense organs) make a total of 288.
Q.I.19.7 How and how many types of contact awareness (vyaṃjanāvagraha) are there?
A.I.19.7 Contact awareness is not possible from eyes and mind as they cannot get in contact with the object of knowledge. Hence only out-linear grasp is possible while discrimination, judgment and retention are not possible. Hence contact awareness is possible only in 48 different types (Q.I.19.4).
Q.I.19.8 How contact awareness has 48 sub types.
A.I.19.8 12 types of awareness /apprehension etc (many, many types etc discussed in aphorism 17) multiplied by 4 (out-linear- grasp, discrimination, perceptual judgment and retention) results in 48.
Q.I.19.9 Why is it said that mind-based knowledge has 336 types?
A.I.19.9 288 types of object awareness and 48 types of contact awareness result in a total of 336 subtypes.
Śrutam matipūrvaṃ dvyānekadvādaśabhedam
Meaning: Scriptural knowledge preceded by sensory knowledge is of two, or of twelve or of many kinds.
Q.I.20.1 How is verbal / scriptural knowledge (śrutajnāna) acquired?
A.I.20.1 The verbal /scriptural knowledge is acquired after mind-based knowledge. It is therefore called as knowledge by testimony and not by acquaintance.
Q.I.20.2 How many kinds of scriptural knowledge are there?
A.I.20.2 There are two or many as well as 12 types of scriptural knowledge indicated in the scriptures.
Q.I.20.3 What are the two types of scriptural knowledge?
A.I.20.3 Inner-corpus (Aṃga pravis.t.a) and external-corpus (aṃga bāhia) are the two type of scriptural knowledge.
Q.I.20.4 How many different types of external-corpus scriptural knowledge are there?
A.I.20.4 Daśa Vaikālika, Uttarādhyayana are some of the many types of scriptures belonging to aṃga bāhia.
Q.I.20.5 How is it said that scriptural knowledge is of 12 types?
A.I.20.5 There are twelve limbs of internal-corpus / Aṃga pravista.
Q.I.20.6 Which are the twelve limbs of internal-corpus?
A.I.20.6 Ācāra, Śutra-krta, Sthāna, Samvāya, Vyāykhyā-Prajñapti, Jñatadharma -kathā, Upāsakāddhyana, Aṃta-krâstadaśā, Anutttoppādika, Praśnavyā karaṇa,Vipāka-sutra, Drstivāda are the twelve limbs of Aṃga pravist.a.
Q.I.20.7 How many parts are there of Dr.s.t.ivāda?
A.I.20.7 Five namely:Parikarma,Sūtra, Prathāmānuyoga, Pūrvagata and Cūlikā.
Q.I.20.8 How many sub divisions of Parikarma are there?
A.I.20.8 There are five sub divisions of Parikarma, namely: Vyāykhyā-Prajñapti, Dvipasāgara Prajñapti, Jambūdvipa Prajñapti, Sūrya Prajñapti and Candra Prajñapti.
Q.I.20.9 How may sub divisions are there of Sūtra and Prathāmanuyoga?
A.I.20.9 There is only one type /part of both Sūtra and Prathāmanuyoga.
Q.I.20.10 How many divisions and their names are there of the Cūlikā?
A.I.20.10 It has five divisions namely: Jalagatā; Sthalagatā; Māyāgatā; Ākāśagatā and Rūpagatā.
Q.I.20.11 How many parts are there of Pūrvagata?
A.I.20.11 It has fourteen parts namely: Utpādapūrva, Agrāyaṇiya, Vīryānupra-vāda, Āstināstipravāda, Jñānapravāda, Satyapravāda, Atmapravāda, Karmapravāda, Pratyākhyānanāpūrva, Vidyānupravāda, Kalyāṇanā- vāda, Prāṇāvāda, Kriyāviśālapūrva and Lokabindusāra.
Q.I.20.12 How many different parts of external-corpus are there?
A.I.20.12 Fourteen namely: Sāmāyika, Stava, Vandanā, Pratikramaṇa, Vainayika, Krtikarma, Daśavaikālika, Uttrādhyayana, Kalpavyava- hāra, Kalpākalpa, Mahākalpa, Pundarika, Mahāpundarika, Aśītikā (Nisidhikā).
Meaning: Clairvoyance (avadhijñāna) based on birth is possessed by celestial and infernal beings.
Q.I.21.1 What is meant by in-born / state (bhava)?
A.I.21.1 State is the mode of the soul caused by the body-making karma (nāma) and lifespan karma (āyu).
Q.I.21.2 What is the meaning of destiny/ state caused (pratyaya)?
A.I.21.2 Pratyaya means the cause (nimitta) or reason (kāraṇa).
Q.I.21.3 What is the meaning of cause as state (bhava pratyaya)?
A.I.21.3 By bhava prtayaya we mean that the state or mode of existence is the cause of an attribute, e.g. bhava pratyaya clairvoyance has the mode of existence of the soul as its cause of existence.
Q.I.21.4 Who are the owners of bhava pratyaya clairvoyance?
A.I.21.4 Celestial / heavenly beings (deva) and infernal /hellish beings (nāraki) are the owners of bhava pratyaya clairvoyance. Clairvoyant known is in-born in them.
Q.I.21.5 If the infernal and heavenly beings are all blessed with clairvoyance, then where is the need for subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas?
A1.21.5 All infernal and heavenly beings are blessed with clairvoyance due to subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas only but their present state or destiny becomes the cause for the subsidence-cum-destruction.
Q.1.21.6 How the state becomes the cause for clairvoyance?
A.1.21.6 The birds fly in the sky due to their state as a bird only and not by training etc. similarly for the infernal and heavenly beings, even though they cannot practice vows etc, they acquire clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.7 Are all infernal and heavenly beings blessed with clairvoyance?
A.1.21.7 No, it is not so. Only the infernal and heavenly beings with right faith are blessed with clairvoyance. Those who have deluded views have a wrong type of clairvoyance called vibhaṃga or bad clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.8 Do any other type of living beings are also blessed with bhava pratyaya clairvoyance?
A.1.21.8 Yes, the tirthañkaras ̣ are blessed with this type of knowledge with birth.
Q.1.21.9 How many types of clairvoyance are there and what are their names?
A.1.21.9 There are two main types of clairvoyance, namely: with state as the cause (bhava pratyaya) and the spiritual purification by partial subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas (guṇa pratyaya) as the cause of clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.10 When is one blessed with guṇa pratyaya clairvoyance?
A.1.21.10 When a subsidence-cum-destruction of karmas becomes an attribute of a living being, then he is blessed with guṇa pratyaya clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.11 Who can be blessed with guṇa pratyaya clairvoyance?
A.1.21.11 Human and subhuman beings (tiryaṃca) can be blessed with guṇa pratyaya clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.12 Can all human and subhuman beings acquire clairvoyance?
A.1.21.12 No as only those who have attained subsidence-cum-destruction of avadhijñānāvarṇiya karmas are blessed with clairvoyance.
Q.1.21.13 What type of clairvoyance knowledge is achieved by those with deluded views (wrong belief)?
A.1.21.13 Vibhaṃga or ku-avadhi knowledge is attained by such beings.
Ksayopaśamanimittah ̣ sadvikalpah ̣ śesāṇām
Meaning: Clairvoyance from destruction-cum-subsidence of the karmas is of six kinds. It is acquired by the rest (namely human beings and animals).
Q.I.22.1 Why is the word ks ayopaśama (subsidence cum destruction) used in the aphorism?
A.I.22.1 As human and subhuman beings can have only clairvoyance caused by subsidence cum destruction of karmas, so the word ks ayopaśama has been included in the aphorism.
Q.I.22.2 How many types of clairvoyance due to subsidence cum destruction of karmas are there?
A.I.22.2 There are six types of this type of clairvoyance, namely i. anugāmi (one which goes with the owner wherever he/ she goes i.e. follows the owner); ii. ananugāmi (which does not go with the owner from one state to another); iii. vardhamāna (which increases over time); hīyamāna (which decreases over time); v. avasthita (steady)and vi. anavasthita (unsteady).
Q.I.22.3 What is meant by clairvoyance that follows its owner?
A.I.22.3 Like the light accompanies the sun similarly the clairvoyance that follows its owner or accompanies the owner wherever he goes.
Q.I.22.4 How many subtypes of clairvoyance that follows its owner are there?
A.I.22.4 There are three subtypes namely: ks etra (place), bhava (state) and ubhaya (evolving).
Q.I.22.5 What is meant by ks etra-anugāmi clairvoyance?
A.I.22.5 This clairvoyant knowledge goes from one place to another with the owner.
Q.I.22.6 What is meant by bhava-anugāmi clairvoyance?
A.I.22.6 This clairvoyant knowledge goes with the owner from one state (realm) to another with the owner.
Q.I.22.7 What is meant by ubhaya clairvoyance?
A.I.22.7 This clairvoyant knowledge goes with the owner from one place and state (realm) to another with the owner
Q.I.22.8 What is meant by anānugāmi or non-following clairvoyance?
A.I.22.8 Anānugāmi clairvoyance is the knowledge which does not go with the owner from one place or state to another (not following the owner).
Q.I.22.9 How many types of non-following clairvoyant knowledge are there?
A.I.22.9 There are three types of this clairvoyant knowledge namely place, realm and evolving.
Q.I.22.10 What is meant by anānugāmi clairvoyant knowledge that does not follow its owner to another place?
A.I.22.10 It is the clairvoyance knowledge that does not go with the owner from one place to another.
Q.I.22.11 What is meant by anānugāmi clairvoyant knowledge that does not follow its owner to another realm?
A.I.22.11 It is the clairvoyance knowledge that does not go with the owner from one realm to another.
Q.I.22.12 What is meant by evolving clairvoyant knowledge that does not follow its owner to another realm?
A.I.22.12 This clairvoyant knowledge does not go with the owner from one place and realm to another with the owner.
Q.I.22.13 What is meant by increasing (vardhamāna) clairvoyance?
A.I.22.13 It is the clairvoyant knowledge which keeps on increasing like the moon in the bright fortnight.
Q.I.22.14 What is meant by decreasing (hīyamāna) clairvoyance?
A.I.22.14 It is the clairvoyant knowledge which keeps on decreasing like the moon in the dark fortnight.
Q.I.22.15 What is meant by steady (avasthita) clairvoyance?
A.I.22.15 It is the clairvoyant knowledge that neither increases nor decreases, i.e. remains steady.
Q.I.22.16 What is meant by unsteady (anavasthita) clairvoyance?
A.I.22.16 It is the clairvoyant knowledge increases and decreases like the waves in the ocean.
Q.I.22.17 How is clairvoyance classified in another manner?
A.I.22.17 There are three other types of clairvoyance namely i Deśa; ii Parama; iii Sarva.
Q.I.22.18 What is meant by deśāvadhi?
A.I.22.18 This is the clairvoyant knowledge attained by a person having right faith but not following the vows (avirati) i.e. in the fourth stage of spiritual purification (guṇasthāna).
Q.I.22.19 What is meant by parmāvadhi clairvoyance?
A.I.22.19 This is clairvoyant knowledge to a person practicing self-restraint and is limited to innumerable space-points (asaṃkhyāt lokapramāṇa).
Q.I.22.20 What is meant by sarvāvadhi clairvoyance?
A.I.22.20 It is the clairvoyant knowledge which is greater and more potent than paramāvadhi.
Q.I.22.21 Who are the owners of these classes of clairvoyant knowledge?
A.I.22.21 Generally clairvoyance is possible to be attained by the living beings in all the four destinies /states (gati). However the deśāvadhi can be attained by living beings in human and sub-human states with right faith. The other two types, namely parmāvadhi and sarvāvadhi, are possible only for the monks who are shortly going to attain liberation.
Rju-vipulamatī manah ̣paryayah ̣
Meaning: Simple (Rajumati) and Complex (vipulamati) are the two kinds of telepathy or mental-modes knowledge (manah ̣paryaya).
Q.I.23.1 How many kinds of telepathy are there and what are their names?
A.I.23.1 There are two types of telepathy namely: i. simple or straight telepathy and ii. Complex / curved
Q.I.23.2 What is ‘simple telepathy’?
A.I.23.2 Simple telepathy is the knowledge which knows simple concrete objects of thought in other’s mind.
Q.I.23.3 What is ‘complex telepathy’?
A.I.23.3 The knowledge which knows simple as well as complicated objects of thought in others mind is called ‘complex telepathy’.
Q.I.23.4 What are the spatial and temporal limits of telepathy?
A.I.23.4 Concerning time, it can know from two to three destinies to innumerable destinies /states. From space viewpoint, it can know up to the limits of the space where the human beings exist.
Viśuddhyapratipātābhyāṃ tadviśes ah
Meaning: The differences between the two are due to purity and infallibility.
Q.I.24.1 What is the meaning of viśuddhi /purity?
A.I.24.1 The state of the soul on the destruction cum subsidence of the kārmika veil covering its telepathy knowledge attribute is called purity.
Q.I.24.2 What is the meaning of apratipāta or infallibility?
A.I.24.2 To fall is pratipāta and not to fall is apratipāta.
Q.I.24.3 What is the difference between ‘simple and complex telepathy’?
A.I.24.3 Purity of the soul is lesser in simplex kind and greater in complex kind. Complex attribute is infallible (does not disappear) and stays with its owner till the owner attains liberation while simple attribute may fall and leave its owner.
viśuddhi-ks etra-svāmi-vis ayebhyoavadhi-manah ̣paryayayoh ̣
Meaning: Telepathy (manah ̣paryaya) and clairvoyance (avadhi) differ with regard to purity, spatial-range, and species of the knower and the nature of the objects identified by them.
Q.I.25.1 What is the meaning of spatial-range (ks etra)?
A.I.25.1 The province in which the mind of others can be cognized by telepathy is called its spatial-range (ks etra).
Q.I.25.2 What is the meaning of ‘owner’ (svāmi)?
A.I.25.2 The soul which owns telepathy is its ‘owner’.
Q.I.25.3 What is the meaning of ‘nature of the objects identified’ (vis aya)?
A.I.25.3 The objects of thoughts in the mind of others which the owner of mental-modes knowledge wishes to cognize are its subjects.
Q.I.25.4 What is the difference between clairvoyance and telepathy with respect to purity?
A.I.25.4 The purity or clarity of telepathy knowledge is much more than of clairvoyant knowledge.
Q.I.25.5 What is the difference between clairvoyance and telepathy with respect to spatial-range?
A.I.25.5 Spatial limits of telepathy is the Boundary Mountains of the region where the human beings can exist while for clairvoyance the spatial limits are much bigger and encompasses the entire loka or cosmos.
Q.I.25.6 What is difference between clairvoyance and telepathy with respect to species of the owners?
A.I.25.6 Owners of telepathy are ascetics with high purity in the 6th to the 12th guṇasthānas while for clairvoyance, its owners can be living beings in all the four destinies and they can be practicing or not practicing self restraints.
Q.I.25.7 What is the difference between clairvoyance and telepathy with reference to their objects?
A.I.25.7 Clairvoyance cognizes all concrete objects while telepathy cognizes the infinitesimal part of the concrete objects which are cognized by clairvoyance.
Mati-śrutayonirbandho dravyes vasarvaparyāyesu
Meaning:The range of sensory knowledge and scriptural knowledge extends to all the six substances but not in all their modes.
Q.I.26.1 What is the meaning of nirbandha or connecting?
A.I.26.1 It means ‘connecting’ an object with knowledge.
Q.I.26.2 What is the meaning of dravya (substance)?
A.I.26.2 Substance is the entity which acquires of is acquired by the modes.
Q.I.26.3 What is meant by mode (paryāya)?
A.I.26.3 A specific or momentary state of a substance is called its mode. For example a man becomes a child in childhood, an adult in adulthood and then old etc.
Q.I.26.4 What is the meaning of asarva paryāya?
A.I.26.4 Asarva paryāya means ‘not all modes’. There are six types of substances and each have an infinite number of modes. Here asarva means not all modes of all substances, but only few.
Q.I.26.5 What is the extent of mind based and scriptural lnowledges?
A.I.26.5 All substances with few modes are the limits to which these knowledge kinds extend to.
Q.I.26.6 How can mind-based and scriptural knowledge cognize principle of motion (dharma), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla)?
A.I.26.6 Mind-based knowledge cognizes dharma and adaharma by the speed and state of rest of its objects similarly; ir cogniozes ākāśa by space occied and kāla by changes in its objects similarly; an owner of scriptural knowledge also knows all the six substance types thorough their attributes.
Q.I.26.7 How mind-based and scriptural knowledge can know substances like dharma etc? Give examples.
A.I.26.7 They know the non concrete substances by their characteristics like dharma supports movement /motion of jīva and matter; adharma help these in their coming to a halt and rest; space occupied by these i.e. jīva and matter is provided by space and the changes like old and new are provided by time. Thus mind-based and scriptural knowledge knows the modes of these substances like the modes of water are its waves in the ocean.
Rūpis vavadheh ̣
Meaning: The scope of clairvoyance is the object that has form.
Q.I.27.1 What is the scope of clairvoyance for concrete objects?
A.I.27.1 Clairvoyance cognizes concrete matter and some of the modes of the empirical soul (i.e. pure soul bonded with karmas).
Q.I.27.2 What is special difference between mind-based, scriptural knowledge and clairvoyance?
A.I.27.2 Mind-based and scriptural knowledge cognize concrete objects indirectly, while clairvoyance knows such concrete objects partially, but directly.
Q.I.27.3 Are the sense organs and mind needed by clairvoyance for cognition?
A.I.27.3 No; these are not needed.
Tadanantabhāge manah ̣paryayasya
Meaning: The scope of telepathy is the infinitesimal part of the matter ascertained by clairvoyance.
Q.I.28.1 What is specific difference between clairvoyance and telepathy?
A.I.28.1 Telepathy knows the infinitesimal part of the object cognized by clairvoyance. Telepathy knows only the objects of thoughts of others while clairvoyance knows all concrete objects.
Q.I.28.2 What level of subtleness of an object is cognized by telepathy?
A.I.28.2 The each and every infinitesimal part of an object cognized by sarvāvadhi is the limit of telepathy.
Q.I.28.3 Does telepathy also cognize the non-concrete objects of the thoughts of the mind?
A.I.28.3 No, it cannot cognize the non-concrete objects directly.
Sarvadravyaparyāyes u kevalasya
Meaning: Omniscience (kevala jñāna) extends to all entities (substances) and all their modes simultaneously.
Q.I.29.1 What is the meaning of sarvadravya? How many are they?
A.I.29.1 There are six types of substances namely living beings, matter, media of motion and rest, space and time.
Q.I.29.2 How many numbers exist in each kind of substance?
A.I.29.2 Living beings are infinite and so is matter. Media of motion and rest and space are each one in number while time is innumerable and spread through the cosmos.
Q.I.29.3 What is meant by substance (dravya)?
A.I.29.3 That which exists is substance. That which is an amalgam of attributes and modes is substance.
Q.I.29.4 What is meant by reality or sat?
A.I.29.4 That which is with origination-destruction and permanence simultaneously is sat / real.
Q.I.29.5 How many modes are there of the six substance kinds?
A.I.29.5 Each substance type has infinite modes in the past present and future.
Q.I.29.6 What is meant by mode?
A.I.29.6 That which acquires each attributes of the substance from all angles is called mode.
Q.I.29.7 What is meant by omniscience?
A.I.29.7 It is the knowledge which is completely free from all veils of knowledge-obscuring karmas i.e. it is just pure knowledge.
Q.I.29.8 Who can acquire omniscience?
A.I.29.8 It can be acquired by human beings only.
Q.I.29.9 Who cannot acquire omniscience?
A.I.29.9 It cannot be acquired by the heavenly, infernal and subhuman beings.
Q.I.29.10 Who in the human beings can acquire omniscience?
A.I.29.10 Only those human beings who are likely to achieve liberation in that life span can acquire omniscience.
Ekādīni bhājyāni yugapadekasminnācaturbhyah
Meaning:From one up to four kinds of knowledge can be possessed simultaneously by a single soul.
Q.I.30.1 What is the meaning of ekādīni?
A.I.30.1 It means from one onwards.
Q.I.30.2 What is the meaning of bhājyāni?
A.I.30.2 It means an entity which is divisible in parts.
Q.I.30.3 What is the meaning of yugapada?
A.I.30.3 It means simultaneous or occurring together (at the same time).
Q.I.30.4 What is the meaning of ekasmina in the aphorism?
A.I.30.4 It means to occur in one living being only and specifically.
Q.I.30.5 How many types of knowledge can one living being acquire at any one time-instant?
A.I.30.5 Up to four types of knowledge can be acquired by a living being at a specific time-instant.
Q.I.30.6 What is the type of knowledge which can occur alone in a living being at any one time-instant?
A.I.30.6 Only omniscience can occur alone.
Q.I.30.7 Which are the two kinds of knowledge which can occur together in a living being?
A.I.30.7 Mind-based and scriptural knowledge occur together in a living being.
Q.I.30.8 Which are the three kinds of knowledge which can occur in a living being together?
A.I.30.8 Mind-based, scriptural and clairvoyance or mind-based, scriptural and telepathy can occur together in a living being at any time instant.
Q.I.30.9 Which are the four knowledge kinds which can our together in a living being at the same time-instant?
A.I.30.9 Mind-based, scriptural, clairvoyance and telepathy can all occur together in a living being at any one time-instant.
Q.I.30.10 Can a living being acquire all the five knowledge types at the same time-instant?
A.I.30.10 No; it is not possible.
Q.I.30.11 Why is it not possible to acquire all five knowledge times at the same time-instant?
A.I.30.11 With the acquisition of omniscience, all other knowledge types become redundant and hence are not present along with omniscience.
Q.I.30.12 What is the reason for redundancy of all other four types of knowledge after omniscience?
A.I.30.12 Omniscience occurs after destruction of all types of knowledge obscuring karmas while the others occur due to subsidence-cum-destruction of a specific type of knowledge-obscuring karma only.
Meaning: Sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge and clairvoyance may also be erroneous knowledge.
Q.I.31.1 What is false mind-based knowledge called?
A.I.31.1 It is called kumati or erroneous mind based knowledge.
Q.I.31.2 What is false scriptural knowledge called?
A.I.31.2 It is called kuśruta or erroneous scriptural knowledge.
Q.I.31.3 What is false clairvoyance called?
A.I.31.3 It is called kuavadhi or erroneous clairvoyance.
Q.I.31.4 What is the meaning of viparyaya?
A.I.31.4 Viparyaya means opposite of the real knowledge or erroneous knowledge.
Q.I.31.5 How many types of erroneous knowledge are there?
A.I.31.5 These are three in number namely kumati, kuśruta and kuavadhi.
Q.I.31.6 In the above mentioned types of knowledge, how many are the right type of knowledge and how many are the erroneous types of knowledge?
A.I.31.6 There are five right knowledge types and the three wrong knowledge types of a total of eight knowledge types.
Q.I.31.7 How many knowledge types can be both right as well as false/wrong?
A.I.31.7 Mind-based, scriptural knowledge as well as clairvoyance can both be right as well as of wrong type.
Q.I.31.8 How many types of knowledge are there and what are their names?
A.I.31.8 Knowledge is of eight types. These are mind-based, scriptural, clairvoyant, telepathic, omniscient, and the three of erroneous type namely kumati, kuśruta and kuavadhi.
Q.I.31.9 Why mind based, scriptural and clairvoyant knowledge can be of wrong types also?
A.I.31.9 Due to existence of perverted views with the owner, these three knowledge types can be of a wrong kind also e.g. milk put in a bitter pot also becomes sour.
Q.I.31.10 When a jewel fallen in the muddy water does not become dirty, then why can jewel in the form of right knowledge become false?
A.I.31.10 The right knowledge becomes false due to the flaws of the deluded views of the owner.
Q.I.31.11 Can this wrong knowledge become right also?
A.I.31.11 Like the jewel in the muddy water becomes cleaner by washing with clean water; similarly the false knowledge can become right by following the right sermonsand developing belief in them.
Q.I.31.12 How the wrong knowledge can become right?
A.I.31.12 The wrong knowledge can become right by washing it with the water of right faith.
Sadasatoraviśes ādyadr cchopalabdherunmattavat
Meaning: Owing to lack of discrimination between the real and the unreal, wrong knowledge is whimsical as that of a lunatic.
Q.I.32.1 What the meaning is of sat (sad in the aphorism)?
A.I.32.1 Right knowledge is referred here as sat.
Q.I.32.2 What the meaning is of asat (asad in the aphorism)?
A.I.32.2 Here the wrong knowledge is referred as asat.
Q.I.32.3 What is the meaning of aviśes a here?
A.I.32.3 The knowledge which occurs without the specific thinking/ knowledge are called aviśes a.
Q.I.32.4 What is the meaning of yadr cchopalabhdi?
A.I.32.4 It means to accept the knowledge of an object at one’s sweet will without any logic or truth.
Q.I.32.5 What is the meaning of unmatta?
A.I.32.5 An intoxicated or mad person is called unmatta.
Q.I.32.6 What is the meaning of vat?
A.I.32.6 It means ‘like’ e.g. unmattavat means ‘like a mad person’.
Q.I.32.7 Why are mind based, scriptural and clairvoyance knowledge of wrong kind also?
A.I.32.7 By not making a judicious decision with reference to right and wrong due to deluded views, one tends to make a wrong decision based on his intentions which result in wrong types of mind based, scriptural and clairvoyance knowledge i.e. presence of deluded views (moha) is the cause of these three knowledge types being wrong/perverted also.
Q.I.32.8 Explain the meaning of wrong mind based, scriptural and clairvoyance through an example?
A.I.32.8 Due to wrong belief, the person says an object is existent even though it is not; sometimes he says an object is non existent even though it exists; sometimes he says an existent object as existent and so on; e.g. a drunkard man calls his brother as brother sometimes and at other times he calls his brother as enemy, sometime he calls his enemy his brother and so on.
Q.I.32.9 What is the meaning of viparyāsa?
A.I.32.9 Wrong imagination or thinking is called viparyāsa.
Q.I.32.10 How many type of viparyāsa are there?
A.I.32.10 There are three types namely: i. cause; ii. nature and iii. identical-cum-different.
Q.I.32.11 What is the meaning of causal wrong imagination (kāraṇa viparyāsa)?
A.I.32.11 A concrete entity has touch, taste, odour etc. Then someone talks of such an entity as non concrete. Similarly someone think that air, water and fire are made of matter particles. These are wrong causal imaginations.
Q.I.32.12 What is identical cum different wrong imagination?
A.I.32.12 Some consider the cause and effect as different while others think cause and effect are similar e.g. bread is made of wheat but some consider bread and wheat as totally different and separate.
Q.I.32.13 What is meant by imagining wrong nature of an entity?
A.I.32.13 Some consider form etc as determinate and others consider form etc as totally different. Similarly some think of jīva as body and consisting of five gross elements and others consider jīva as jīva.
Q.I.32.14 What is the cause of wrong imaginations of mind based, scriptural and clairvoyant knowledge kinds?
A.I.32.14 Activation of specific knowledge-obscuring karmas is cause of wrong imaginations by mind based, scriptural and clairvoyance knowledge.
Q.I.32.15 What is wrong imagination of mind based knowledge or kumati?
A.I.32.15 Wrong imaginations about mantras, poison, bondage etc without learning from the sermons or teachings of learned people is wrong imagination of mind based knowledge.
Q.I.32.16 What is kuśruta knowledge?
A.I.32.16 Texts which encourage violence or describe the basic elements wrongly are called kuśruta.
Naigama-saṃgraha-vyavahārarjusūtra-śabda-samabhirūdhaivaṃbhūtā nayāh ̣
Meaning: The figurative, the synthetic, the analytic, the straight, the literal, the conventional, and the specific/actuality are the standpoints / viewpoints.
Q.I.33.1 What is the meaning of standpoint (naya)?
A.I.33.1 To cognize an entity by looking at its attributes as primary and secondary depending on the intentions of the speaker or listener is called naya.
Q.I.33.2 Basically how many types of standpoints are there?
A.I.33.2 There are two types of standpoints, namely: substance stand/viewpoint (dravyārthikanaya) and modal stand/viewpoint (paryāyārthikanaya).
Q.I.33.3 What is meant by substance viewpoint?
A.I.33.3 The viewpoint which looks/deals primarily at the existence attribute of the entity is called substance viewpoint.
Q.I.33.4 What is the modal viewpoint?
A.I.33.4 The viewpoint which looks primarily at a specific state of the entity is called modal viewpoint.
Q.I.33.5 How many types of commonly accepted viewpoints are there?
A.I.33.5 There are seven specific types of viewpoints accepted in Jain texts. These are the figurative (naigama), the synthetic (saṃgraha), the analytic (vyavahāra), the straight (r jusūtra), the literal (śabda), the conventional (samabhirūdha) and the specific activity (evaṃbhūta).
Q.I.33.6 What is meant by figurative viewpoint?
A.I.33.6 This viewpoint focuses on the intention of the doer, e.g. a woman who is cleaning the rice says that she is cooking food.
Q.I.33.7 What is meant by intention?
A.I.33.7 It means the work intended to be completed but not yet completed.
Q.I.33.8 What is meant by synthetic viewpoint?
A.I.33.8 To cognize all the modes of an entity keeping its class (type of substance) in mind, e.g. by saying substance we understand all types of substances.
Q.I.33.9 What is analytic viewpoint?
A.I.33.9 To differentiate the entities cognized in the synthetic viewpoint in a proper manner distinguishing them in different classes /types, e.g. there are two types of substances, namely: living beings and non-living beings. Similarly, living beings are of two types, namely: empirical and pure living beings.
Q.I.33.10 What is the meaning of straight-thread viewpoint?
A.I.33.10 To cognize the modes of the present time only and to discard the modes of past and future of an entity.
Q.I.33.11 What is meant by literal viewpoint?
A.I.33.11 The viewpoint which discriminates between numbers, gender etc of the entity e.g. saying ‘he is a maidservant’ is wrong.
Q.I.33.12 What is meant by flaws of gender?
A.I.33.12 Not to discriminate between masculine and feminine gender is flaw of gender e.g. boy and girl.
Q.I.33.13 What is the flaw of numbers?
A.I.33.13 Not to discriminate between singular and plural e.g. ‘the boys goes’.
Q.I.33.14 What are the conventional viewpoint/ samabhirūdha?
A.I.33.14 To cognize an entity from a word by accepting it’s commonly understood meaning and forsaking its other meanings e.g. the word cow (Hindi gau) has several meanings but it accepts only cow as its representation.
Q.I.33.15 What is meant by the specific / actuality viewpoint?
A.I.33.15 To cognize an entity as it is in its present instant mode e.g. to call someone a teacher only when he is teaching, and not at other times.
Q.I.33.16 Why these viewpoints are given in this particular sequence only?
A.I.33.16 They are sequenced in a manner so that each succeeding viewpoint takes a finer or more subtle view of the entity than by the previous viewpoint.
Q.I.33.17 Can these seven viewpoints independently provide the right cognition of the entity?
A.I.33.17 No as by becoming independent of each other, they become flawed as each provides partial knowledge of the entity only. However when they are viewed in relative terms, they provide the right knowledge.
Q.I.33.18 How many viewpoints are needed to have complete and right knowledge of an entity?
A.I.33.18 All the seven viewpoints are needed.
Q.I.33.19 How are these seven viewpoints grouped as substance or modal viewpoints?
A.I.33.19 The figurative and the synthetic and analytic viewpoints are grouped as substance viewpoints and the remaining as modal viewpoints. Modal viewpoint is also called arthanaya.